`With the increasing emphasis on conducting research that makes a difference to governmental and other policy organisations, it seems likely that the kinds of methodologies introduced by Timulak will be of growing interest to researchers. In this respect, the book will be at the cutting edge of developments in counselling and psychotherapy research' - Professor Mick Cooper, University of Strathclyde Doing Research in Counselling & Psychotherapy is a guide to methods used in studying the outcomes and processes of therapy. Introducing a range of methodologies which are used internationally, the author describes different research designs and illustrates them through examples of actual studies. Presenting the findings from key studies, he clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the research in therapeutic practice.Doing Research in Counselling & Psychotherapy is ideal for researchers and for students on courses in counselling, psychotherapy, clinical and counselling psychology and psychiatry. Ladislav Timulak is course director of the MSc in Counselling Psychology at Trinity College, Dublin. He previously worked at the University of Trnava, Slovakia, and has extensive practical experience in the field of counselling and psychotherapy, as well as experience in conducting psychotherapy research and training.
Chapter 4: Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews
Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews
One empirical study, regardless of how well conducted, cannot answer the question of psychotherapy's effectiveness (or the effectiveness of a specific therapy for a specific problem). Every study has some problems and limits to its external or internal validity. Therefore, to reach more definite conclusions about the effectiveness of psychotherapy and counselling, it is necessary to look at a series of studies.
The efforts to accumulate findings from different outcome studies dates back to Eysenck's 1952 overview (see Introduction). Until 1977, outcome overviews used quite arbitrary and rough criteria for the evaluation of therapy outcome. In 1977 a new tool for evaluating a series of studies was presented (Smith & Glass, 1977): meta-analysis. In 1980, Smith, Glass & Miller ...