Remaking the Global Economy: Economic-Geographical Perspectives


Edited by: Jamie Peck & Henry Wai-chung Yeung

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Main contributions of Peter Dicken to interdisciplinary studies of global economic change
    • 2.1 The top 15 TNCs ranked by foreign assets and transnationality index, 1999
    • 3.1 Canadian urban development projects associated with trans-Pacific families
    • 4.1 Capitalization of world stock markets
    • 5.1 Vivendi Environnement's revenues by sector
    • 5.2 Vivendi Environnement's revenues by region
    • 10.1 Modes of neoliberalization
    • 10.2 Spaces of neoliberalization
    • 12.1 State projects and state strategies
    • 12.2 A strategic-relational approach to state spatiality
    • 12.3 Two strategies of state spatial regulation: spatial Keynesianism and glocalization

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Dicken on the geographical organization of TNC production units
    • 1.2 Dicken on the spatial evolution of TNC activities
    • 2.1 The relationship between firms ranked by transnationality index and foreign assets, 1999
    • 2.2 Transnationality index by country of origin, 1993 and 1999
    • 3.1 Hong Kong immigration flows to Canada, 1962–2000
    • 4.1 Net capital flows to developing countries by type of flow, 1970–1988 (in $ billion)
    • 4.2 Global capital, trade and foreign currency transactions (in $ billion)
    • 4.3 Net flows of investment into developing countries, 1991–2001, as a percentage of GDP
    • 4.4 Circuits of capital and capital switching
    • 4.5 The left-over financial world: capitalization of world stock markets as a percentage of global total
    • 9.1 The cluster chart: actors in an industrial cluster
    • 9.2 Forces that make a cluster innovative and dynamic: Porter's diamond

    Notes on Contributors

    Ash Amin is Professor of Geography at the University of Durham, UK. His most recent publications include: Cities for the Many not the Few, Policy Press, 2000 (with Doreen Massey and Nigel Thrift), Cities, Polity Press, 2002 (with Nigel Thrift), Placing the Social Economy, Routledge, 2002 (with Angus Cameron and Ray Hudson), Cultural Economy: A Reader, Blackwell, 2003 (edited with Nigel Thrift), Organisational Learning: From Competences to Communities, Oxford University Press, 2003 (with Patrick Cohendet).

    Neil Brenner is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Metropolitan Studies at New York University, USA. He is co-editor, with Nik Theodore, of Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in Western Europe and North America (Blackwell, 2002). His research and teaching focus on critical urban studies, state theory and socio-spatial theory.

    Neil M. Coe is Lecturer in the School of Geography, University of Manchester, UK. His main research interests within economic geography include the dynamics of cultural industries and the service sector, processes of internationalization and globalization, and transnational corporate activity. He has published several papers on the software and computer service industries of the UK, Ireland and Singapore. His current research focuses on transnational IT-sector linkages between Southeast Asia and the US, and the internationalization of retailing.

    Michael Conroy is Program Officer at the Ford Foundation, USA.

    Peter Dicken is Professor of Geography at the University of Manchester, UK. His major research interests are in global economic change and transnational corporations. The Fourth Edition of his book on the global economy, Global Shift, is published in 2003 by Sage.

    Meric S. Gertler is Professor of Geography and Planning, and holder of the Goldring Chair in Canadian Studies at the University of Toronto, Canada. He also co-directs the Program on Globalization and Regional Innovation Systems at the University of Toronto's Centre for International Studies, where he carries out research on the role of institutions and social context in the shaping of corporate practices in North America and Germany. His publications include The New Industrial Geography (with Trevor Barnes, Routledge, 1999), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography (with Gordon Clark and Maryann Feldman, Oxford University Press, 2000), Innovation and Social Learning (with David Wolfe, Palgrave/Macmillan, 2002) and Manufacturing Culture: The Governance of Industrial Practice (Oxford University Press, 2003).

    Amy Glasmeier is Professor of Geography at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.

    Ray Hudso n is Professor of Geography and Chair of the International Centre for Regional Regeneration and Development Studies at the University of Durham, UK. His recent publications include Producing Places (Guilford, 2001) and Digging Up Trouble: The Environment, Protest and Opencast Coal Mining (Rivers Oram, 2000, with Huw Beynon and Andrew Cox). His research interests are in geographies of economies, political economies of uneven development, and issues of territorial development, especially in the context of Europe. Current research includes work on the socio-spatial transformation of the former UK coalfields and on the links between corporate restructuring and regional development strategies in Europe.

    Philip F. Kelly is Assistant Professor of Geography at York University, Toronto, Canada. With research interests in the political economy of Southeast Asian development, he is currently examining the linkages between Filipino transnational migration and local labour market processes. He is the author of Landscapes of Globalization: Human Geographies of Economic Change in the Philippines (Routledge, 2000) and coeditor of Globalisation and the Asia Pacific: Contested Territories (Routledge, 1999).

    Roger Lee is Professor of Geography and Head of Department of Geography at Queen Mary, University of London, UK. He is the co-editor (with Jane Wills) of Geographies of Economies (Arnold, 1997) and (with Andrew Leyshon and Colin Williams) of Alternative Economic Geographies (Sage, 2003). His research interests are in the social construction of economic geographies and the role of money and the social relations of capitalism in linking the personal and the global and so constraining and enabling such social construction and the possibilities of proliferative geographies.

    Anders Malmberg is Professor in the Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Sweden. His research interests cover the relation between industrial change and regional economic development, with particular focus on spatial clustering and localized processes of innovation and learning. He has published a number of papers on these issues in recent years, and is the co-author of Competitiveness, Localised Learning and Regional Development (Routledge, 1998).

    Kris Olds is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. His recent publications include (as co-editor) Globalisation and the Asia-Pacific: Contested Territories (Routledge, 1999), Globalisation of Chinese Business Firms (Macmillan, 2000), and (as author) Globalization and Urban Change: Capital, Culture and Pacific Rim Mega-Projects (Oxford University Press, 2001). He was based at the National University of Singapore from 1997 to 2001, and has a PhD in Geography from the University of Bristol (1996). His research currently focuses on global city formation processes in Pacific Asia, urban redevelopment processes, global economic networks, and transnational communities.

    Jamie Peck is Professor of Geography and Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. He is author of Work-Place: The Social Regulation of Labor Markets (Guilford, 1996) and Workfare States (Guilford, 2001) and coeditor (with Kevin Ward) of City of Revolution: Restructuring Manchester (Manchester University Press, 2002). With research interests in economic regulation and governance, labour markets and urban political economy, he is currently working on a study of contingent labour in the US.

    Erica Schoenberger is Professor of Geography at the Johns Hopkins University, USA.

    Nigel Thrift is Professor of Human Geography at the University of Bristol, UK.

    Adam Tickell is Professor of Human Geography at the University of Bristol and has previously lectured at the universities of Leeds, Manchester and Southampton. He is editor of Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers and review editor of the Journal of Economic Geography. His work explores the geographies and politics of international financial reform, governance structures in the UK, and the reconfiguration of the political commonsense.

    Henry Wai-chung Yeung is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography, National University of Singapore. His research interests cover broadly theories and the geography of transnational corporations, Asian firms and their overseas operations and Chinese business networks in the Asia-Pacific region. He is the author of Transnational Corporations and Business Networks (Routledge, 1998), Entrepreneurship and the Internationalisation of Asian Firms (Edward Elgar, 2002), and Chinese Capitalism in a Global Era (Routledge, 2003). He is also the editor of The Globalisation of Business Firms from Emerging Markets, two volumes (Edward Elgar, 1999) and co-editor of Globalisation and the Asia Pacific (Routledge, 1999) and The Globalisation of Chinese Business Firms (Macmillan/Palgrave, 2000).


    This collection has been assembled to mark the many contributions that economic geographer Peter Dicken has made in a professional career spanning three-and-a-half decades. It is testimony to the widespread respect and affection for Peter that no one we approached about contributing to this book, despite their busy schedules, hesitated before saying yes. Well, this is not exactly true. There was one contributor who was at first somewhat reticent—Peter himself. He has never been the one to blow his own trumpet and was understandably unsettled at the prospect of the two of us blowing it for him. But it soon became clear that none of us had any interest in producing a book that was retrospective or introspective, even if Peter deserves a little hagiography. Reflecting Peter's own approach, we wanted the book to look forward and outward, to take stock of what economic geographers have contributed to the ‘globalization debate’ and to explore new frontiers in this vibrant field of interdisciplinary engagement. And the book would also, we hoped, demonstrate some of the range and depth of what economic geographers can bring to the table in globalization studies. With contributions from Asia, North America and western Europe, the key issues explored in Remaking the Global Economy include the globalization of firms, people and capital (Part One), organizational learning and business knowledge, industrial districts and innovation systems (Part Two), and ideologies of neoliberal globalization and interactions between firms, regions and nation states (Part Three). The book therefore seeks to engage with some of the fundamental strands of the globalization debate, building upon Peter Dicken's compelling insight that globalization must be understood as an ongoing geographical project.

    Today, the global economy is more complex and interdependent than ever before, for all the important historical continuities. The study of globalization is now firmly on the agenda across the social sciences. Economic geographers have developed distinctive perspectives on the globalization process, eschewing ‘flat-earth’ visions of homogenization and convergence in favour of more nuanced treatments of globalization as an uneven, differentiated and dynamic process. Globalization, in other words, has a geography and it is a geography that is on the move. This is where the chapters collected in this volume make their contribution. Notwithstanding the book's roots in economic geography, each chapter connects to and further develops interdisciplinary insights into the complex process of economic globalization and its impact on the spatial organization of firms, markets, industries, institutions and regions.

    The book is organized into three parts. Part One explores some of the fundamental ways in which global flows can be considered to be ‘grounded’; Part Two unpacks the spatiality of global knowledge and learning; and Part Three analyses the reconfiguration of global rule regimes and their implications for territorial development. As a prelude to this, Chapter 1 assesses the contributions of Peter Dicken's work in relation to the interdisciplinary field of ‘globalization studies’. Here, our aim is to outline how this particular economic-geographical perspective has enriched understandings of patterns and processes of globalization, together with the attendant ways in which global economic relations have been remade. Through the lens of Dicken's work, we also seek to identify some insights into how economic-geographical perspectives might be better integrated with the evolving field of ‘globalization studies’ in cognizant disciplines like global political economy, international economics, strategic management and international business studies. The chapter therefore opens up some analytical ‘problematics’ to be followed up by subsequent chapters.

    One of the most intractable problems for contemporary studies of global economic change is the question of what exactly flows across territories and places in the form of globalization processes. The four chapters in Part One of this volume examine how these flows are geographically constituted, exploring the ‘groundedness’ of global flows of firms, people and capital. The spatiality and territorialization of globalization processes typically evades the analytical attention of most social scientists, though for many geographers these have been amongst the most important issues in play. In unpacking the spatiality of globalization, geographers have contributed to the understanding of how global flows are grounded in specific places, regions and territories. This grounding of global flows is important in economic-geographical studies for two reasons. First, without an appropriate appreciation of where globalization takes place (literally as well as metaphorically), a key explanatory dimension of globalization—as a set of tendencies or processes that (unevenly) bring together distant and disparate locales within an increasingly interdependent world—is missed. Second, the resultant networks of global connections should not be conceived as just ‘hanging in the air’, constituting an exterior and superordinate force to which localities and regions must respond. In some accounts, for example, globalization is caricatured as a highly abstract system of ‘flows’ operating across boundaries, places being reduced to mere nodes in these floating network-systems. Absent from this kind of sociological topography of globalization is an appreciation of the complex ways in which such flows, networks and connections operate unevenly across space, and how they ‘touch base’ to bring about growth, prosperity and development for some places, while marginalizing others.

    In this sense, the four chapters in Part One provide a much-needed discussion of how global flows are grounded in historically and geographically specific formations. For Peter Dicken in Chapter 2, the ‘global’ corporation is somewhat less global than the name suggests because, despite their rapidly expanding foreign activities and investments, many of today's largest transnational corporations (TNCs) are indeed grounded in specific places. In fact, ‘global’ corporations turn out to be quite deeply embedded in their home economies, culturally and economically. Dicken's analysis problematizes the globality of ‘global’ corporations, separating a complex reality from the business- and media-driven hyperbole. His concern to reveal the hidden geographies of globalization dovetails with those of Neil Coe, Philip Kelly and Kris Olds who, in Chapter 3, seek to make sense of the deepening ‘cross-border’ flows of people in relation to the production of transnational economic spaces. For them, the movement of people and the attendant reorganization of social networks across geographic space not only challenges the conventional, capital-centric view of globalization, but also opens up new horizons for analysing the groundedness of global flows of labour, expertise and social networks. Through two case studies of transnational flows of people grounded in the property and the information technology sectors, their chapter shows that globalization and transnationalism are different facets of the same profoundly geographical restructuring of economic activity.

    An equally valid analytical strategy, of course, would focus on what might be thought of as the newly constituted ‘remote’ spaces in a globalizing world—the marginalized spaces. Marginalization is the other side of the geographical coin to the hypertrophied ‘over-inclusion’ of places like world cities and global financial centres. In globalization studies, the sine qua non for economic globalization is the hyper-mobility of financial capital. Paradoxically though, this very hyper-mobility is supported by a global financial architecture that is constructed around ‘strong nodes’ like global financial centres. The process of financial globalization, however, cannot be reduced to stories of Tokyo, London and New York, because exclusion and marginalization are just as much parts of this process. The two chapters by Roger Lee and Erica Schoenberger speak to these concerns by virtue of their analytical and empirical focus on marginalized and ‘emergent’ spaces within global flows of capital. They use different readings of actually existing globalization processes to raise searching questions about the sustainability of these processes. In Chapter 4, Lee analyses how the globalization of financial capital hinges on the construction of uneven development, producing what he terms the ‘marginalization of everywhere’. Using emerging markets as the central theme, he demonstrates how certain economies and places are purposefully marginalized in the global (re)switching of different circuits of capital. The following contribution from Erica Schoenberger in Chapter 5 also explores some of the neglected spaces of globalization, tracing the emergence of a new field of international direct investment in environmental management. Through the case of a French TNC in the water and waste treatment businesses, she analyses how the globalization of environment management represents a key moment in capital's restless search for spatial and institutional ‘fixes’ in the face of inherent crisis tendencies. Again, this ‘new frontier’ for global corporations exhibits a very particular geography of unevenness, exclusion and concentration.

    These close tracings of the globalization process at work stand in sharp contrast to the polarized accounts found in much of the globalization literature. Too often, this takes the caricatured form of a contest between two (apparently irreconcilable) positions—‘everything has changed, thanks to globalization’ versus ‘nothing has changed, we've been there before’. Geographers have tended to cut a different path through the globalization debate. They have been rather less concerned with measuring quantitative change in the global economy, narrowly conceived, than with the causative foundations underlying these changes and the altered qualitative relations—especially between places—that they entail. The influential body of work that has been produced on technology, learning and knowledge is a prime illustration of such concerns. The transposition of technologies across space remains highly problematical, not least because the spatial transfer of knowledge and practices is inherently connected to the social organization of these technologies and their variable embeddedness in networks, organizational practices and places. Modes of social learning and technology transfer are constituted both geographically and through network relations.

    The four chapters in Part Two critically assess the spatiality of global learning and knowledge from economic-geographical perspectives. In Chapter 6, Meric Gertler contributes to the recent debate around the convergence-divergence of different ‘varieties of capitalism’ in the global economy. He reveals how the processes of cross-border learning and practice are shaped by the cultural and institutional specificities of different places. Supporting Dicken's arguments in Chapter 2, Gertler concludes that the spatial life of learning and knowledge significantly constrains the ‘globality’ of firms. In a parallel fashion, Ash Amin in Chapter 7 explores the spatiality of tacit learning in distributed organizations, identifying qualitatively differentiated spaces of corporate learning within the globalizing economy. Focusing on the everyday interactions in globalizing organizations, he questions the deterministic view of spatial proximity in organizational learning and proposes, instead, a more relational view of the interaction between space and learning. Here, he shows analytically how organizational learning occurs through the emergence of different ‘communities of practice’, drawing on spatially ‘stretched’ connectivities. On the one hand, relational proximity makes it more difficult to ground global connections because it exists in organizational rather than physical spaces. On the other hand, however, different spaces of tacit knowledge and practices can be brought together through relational proximity among actors.

    In Chapter 8, Nigel Thrift takes on some of these claims on the nature of everyday learning and knowledge, drawing attention to what he sees as a proliferation of new practices of capitalist power—what he calls the might of ‘might’. He contends that new forms of creativity and standardization enable new possibilities for firms and organizations to (re)engineer space and time in the service of greater returns and profitability. Focusing on different circuits of spatial and temporal knowledge, he theorizes how we might think of global knowledge in radically different spatial and temporal terms. In Chapter 9, Anders Malmberg examines one peculiar form of spatial arrangement, clusters, in order to demonstrate the importance of both local milieus and global connections in the processes of social learning and knowledge transfer. In recent years, geographers have (re)discovered several spaces in which globalization processes appear to touch base. Since Alfred Weber and Alfred Marshall, agglomeration has occupied a special place in the nomenclature of economic geography (and, more recently, in the ‘geographical economics’ of Paul Krugman and Michael Porter). The growth and development of industrial clusters and similar forms of concentrated territorial development seems to reaffirm the role of agglomeration economies. The variegated capacities of recently emergent agglomerations in ‘holding down’ global flows, however, have only been explored in rather stylized terms. Malmberg insists on the need for greater clarity in the analysis of cluster dynamics, especially relating to the global connections of actors in these clusters.

    Economic globalization is clearly not just about a set of material processes operating across national boundaries. As Part Three of the volume demonstrates, these processes are also located in the ideological realm, since ‘globalization’ is in part a political project focused on the reconfiguration of global rules and regimes. Countering the pervasive conception of globalization as a triumphal ‘end state’ of market capitalism, a wide range of social theorists have contended that processes of globalization must instead be understood to be politically mediated, socially structured and discursively framed. Political-economic discourses relating to issues like the evisceration of the state, the imperatives of labour-market flexibility and trade union ‘realism’, or the necessity of ongoing liberalization in trade and financial markets, even if they are presented as naturalized ‘facts of life’, do not spring automatically from some underlying economic logic. Instead they must be understood to be socially produced discourses that reflect, serve and help realize political-economic interests. By insistently questioning the politics of globalization, geographers have helped to specify the causal agency of globalization processes, their inescapably political construction and their variable concrete manifestations.

    In Chapter 10, Adam Tickell and Jamie Peck explore the theoretical and political status of neoliberalism in remaking the global economy. The ascendancy of neoliberal ideologies in the course of the last three decades has shadowed the intensification of ‘real’ globalization processes in the economic realm, such that ultimate causality and logic priority are difficult to determine in any kind of unambiguous way. Orthodox globalization narratives and neoliberal political discourses both tend to privilege ‘market rule’, presenting this as a self-evident and practically irresistible future. In a sense, then, neoliberalism and globalism are mutually naturalizing discourses. There is a need to deconstruct both of these discourses in the context of contemporary political-economic conditions. In reality, neither globalism nor neoliberalism are as totalizing and monolithic as they may seem at first, despite the fact the effects of both are undeniably pervasive. Tickell and Peck make the case for a close interrogation of the neoliberal political project in a way that is sensitive to its very uneven geographies and its complex evolution over time. They also contend that the ideological dynamics of the process of neoliberalization cannot be reduced to the aggregate effects of merely ‘local’ political agency (as if, say, Thatcherism + Reaganomics … = neoliberalism), but must be traced out in ways that are attentive both to the ‘generic’ character of neoliberalism and its local manifestations.

    These issues relating to the remaking of the global economy through neoliberal globalism are further explored and interrogated in the following three chapters. In Chapter 11, Amy Glasmeier and Michael Conroy trace the evolution and governance of the emerging global trade regime. They make a powerful argument for an economic-geographical perspective on the tradeoffs and effects of the trade regime, which tends to exclude most developing countries from the potential upsides of globalization. More specifically, they examine the contested legitimacy of the World Trade Organization, the high-handedness of the US Trade Representative's Office and the over-reaching claims of wealthy countries concerning the use of natural resources and the management of intellectual property rights. These are the kinds of policy questions on which economic geographers can, and should, be making a mark. In making such a mark, a premium will be placed on the kinds of grounded knowledges of the global that are a key feature of economic-geographical contributions.

    The last two chapters by Neil Brenner and Ray Hudson focus on ongoing development in urban governance and production systems in an integrating Europe. In Chapter 12, Brenner examines urban entrepreneurialism in western Europe in relation to the ongoing processes of economic globalization, European integration and the crisis of the Keynesian welfare national state. He draws upon Bob Jessop's strategic-relational approach to develop a spatialized state theory, arguing that recent transformations reflect a deepening neoliberalization of urban politics. Brenner also underscores an important exception to the claims of ultra-globalists: nation-states in western Europe are not ‘captives’ of globalization processes; they are key institutional players in these processes. The way in which governmental institutions enact globalization processes—at scales ranging from the urban to the supranational—is represented here as a new form of ‘state spatial strategy’. Many of these observations on urban transformations in western Europe are echoed in Ray Hudson's analysis of global production systems and European integration. In Chapter 13, Hudson argues that rapid transformations in production systems within Europe are as much outcomes of corporate strategies, orchestrated from the headquarters of ‘global’ corporations, as they are consequences of changing political-economic circumstances of Europe. His analysis shows once again that firms and states are very much active agents in remaking the global economy; they are certainly not merely passive actors in, nor are they simply victims of, abstracted globalization processes. By the same token, the process of European integration is not producing a flattened economic landscape in which equilibrating forces hold sway, but on the contrary, is generating new forms of uneven spatial developments and new landscapes of political-economic power.

    The contributions collected here, then, underline the distinctiveness of economic-geographical perspectives on the globalization process, a field that has been profoundly shaped by Peter Dicken's work. We hope that Remaking the Global Economy will stand as one of the many markers of Peter's conspicuous contributions, while also opening up new terrains for spatialized globalization studies. On a more personal note, our editor at Sage, Robert Rojek, deserves special thanks for his faith in this project, which at times must have sorely been tested by us. And we are grateful also to our contributors for enduring the torrent of emails and for always responding so positively. Nick Scarle has diligently drawn some of the figures at very short notice. Finally, and on behalf of the contributors as well as ourselves, we would like to think that this volume represents a modest down-payment on the debts—both personal and professional—that we owe Peter. There will always be a little bit of Manchester in the two of us, and more than anyone it was Peter who put it there. As well as teaching us how to do economic geography, he showed us how to enjoy it at the same time. And it is thanks to Peter that we still both wince every time we see a split infinitive. (If there are any here, it is because we left them in on purpose.) He has been his usual, quietly supportive self during the production of this book, even though there was a sense in which the very thought of it seemed to unnerve him. In a sense, though, this made the project even more enjoyable. We always said that Peter couldn't retire until this book came out, which just added to the list of excuses we were accumulating for delaying publication. Now it's out, it is a nice thought that maybe he'll take it with him on that first, symbolic walk to the Post Office.

    Jamie Peck and Henry Yeung, Madison and Singapore/Manchester

  • References

    Aaronson, S.A.2001. Taking Trade to the Streets. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Abo, T. (ed.) 1994. Hybrid Factory. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Abo, T.1996. The Japanese production system. in R.Boyer and D.Drache (eds), States Against Markets. London: Routledge, 136–54.
    Agamben, G.1998. Means Without End. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Agnew, J. 1994. ‘The territorial trap’. Review of International Political Economy, 1: 53–80.
    Albert, M. 1993. Capitalism Against Capitalism. London: Whurr.
    Albrow, M. 1996. The Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Allen, J. and Thompson, G.1997. Think global, then think again – economic globalization in context. Area, 29: 213–27.
    Almeida, P. and Kogut, B.1999. ‘Localization of knowledge and the mobility of engineers in regional networks’. Management Science, 45: 905–17.
    Amato, J.A.2000. Dust. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Amin, A. 1997. ‘Placing globalization’. Theory Culture and Society, 14: 123–37.
    Amin, A. 2000. ‘Organisational Learning Through Communities of Practice’. Paper presented at the Workshop on The Firm in Economic Geography, University of Portsmouth, UK, 9–11 March.
    Amin, A. 2001. ‘Globalization: geographical aspects’. in N.Smelser and P.B.Baltes (eds), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 6271–7.
    Amin, A. and Cohendet, P.1999. ‘Learning and adaptation in decentralised business networks’. Environment and Planning D, 17: 87–104.
    Amin, A. and Cohendet, P.2000. ‘Organisational learning and governance through embedded practices’. Journal of Management and Governance, 4: 93–116.
    Amin, A. and Cohendet, P. (forthcoming) Organizing Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Amin, A. and Thrift, N.J.1992. ‘Neo-marshallian nodes in global networks’. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16: 571–87.
    Amin, A. and Thrift, N.J.2002. Cities. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Amsden, A. 2001. The Rise of the Rest. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Anderson, J. 1995. The exaggerated death of the nation state. in J.Anderson, C.Brook and A.Cochrane (eds), A Global World?Oxford: Oxford University Press, 65–112.
    Anderson, S. and Cavanagh, J.2000. Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power. Washington, DC: Institute for Policy Studies.
    Andersson, U. and Forsgren, M.2000. ‘In search of excellence: network embedddness and subsidiary roles in multinational corporations’. Management International Review, 40: 329–50.
    Andersson, U., Forsgren, M. and Holm, U.2001. ‘Subsidiary embeddedness and competence development in MNCs’. Organization Studies, 22: 1013–34.
    Angel, D.P. and Engstrom, J.1995. ‘Manufacturing systems and technological change’. Economic Geography, 71: 79–102.
    Annan, K. 2001. Laying the foundation for a fair and free world trade system. in G.Sampson (ed.), The Role of the World Trade Organization in Global Governance. Tokyo: United Nations University, 19–28.
    Appadurai, A. 1986. Introduction: commodities and the politics of value. in A.Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3–63.
    Appadurai, A. 1996. Modernity at Large. London: University of Minnesota Press.
    Argyris, C. and Schon, D.1978. Organizational Learning. London: Addison Wesley.
    Arrighetti, A., Bachmann, R. and Deakin, S.1997. ‘Contract law, social norms and interfirm cooperation’. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 21: 171–95.
    Arthurs, H.W.2000. The hollowing out of corporate Canada? in J.Jenson and B.Santos (eds), Globalizing Institutions. Aldershot: Ashgate, 29–51.
    Asheim, B.T.1996. ‘Industrial districts as “learning regions”’. European Planning Studies, 4: 379–400.
    Audretsch, D.B. and Feldman, M.P.1996. ‘Knowledge spillovers and the geography of innovation and production’. American Economic Review, 86: 630–40.
    Baldwin, R. 1970. Non Tariff Distortions of International Trade. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Baldwin, R.2001. Regulatory protectionism, developing nations, and a two-tier world trade system. in S.M.Collins and D.Rodrik (eds), Brookings Trade Forum 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Ball, G. 1967. ‘Cosmocracy’. Columbia Journal of World Business, 2/6: 25–30.
    Baptista, R. and Swann, P.1996. The Dynamics of Industrial Clusters. Centre for Business Strategy Working Paper 165, LondonBusiness School.
    Baptista, R. and Swann, P.1998. ‘Do firms in clusters innovate more?’Research Policy, 27: 527–42.
    Barkema, H.G. and Vermeulen, F.1998. ‘International expansion through start-up or acquisition’. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 7–26.
    Barnes, T.J.2001. ‘Retheorizing economic geography’. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91: 546–65.
    Barnet, R.J. and Muller, R.E.1974. Global Reach. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S.1989. Managing Across Borders. London: Century Business.
    Bartlett, C.A. and Ghoshal, S.1995. Transnational Management.
    Second Edition
    , Hicago: Irwin.
    Basch, L., Glick Schiller, N. and Blanc-Szanton, C.1994. Nations Unbound. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.
    Beaverstock, J. 1996. ‘Migration, knowledge, and social interaction: expatriate labour within investment banks’. Area, 28: 459–70.
    Bennell, P. 1997. Privatisation in sub-Saharan Africa. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK.
    Benson, I. and Lloyd, J.1983. New Technology and Industrial Change. London: Kogan Page.
    Berger, S. and Dore, R. (eds) 1996. National Diversity and Global Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Bergsten, F. 1996. Managing the world economy of the future. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Biggart, N. W. and Hamilton, G. G.1992. ‘On the limits of a firm-based theory to explain business networks’. in N.Nohria and R.G.Eccles (eds), Networks and Organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 471–90.
    Birkinshaw, J.M. and Hood, N.1998. ‘Multinational subsidiary evolution’. Academy of Management Review, 23: 773–95.
    Bluestone, B. and Harrison, B.1982. The Deindustrialization of America. New York: Basic Books.
    Bluestone, B. and Harrison, B.2000. Growing Prosperity. Boston: Century Foundation.
    Boltanski, L. and Chiapello, E.1999. Le Nouvel esprit du capitalisme. Paris: Gallimard.
    Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L.2001. ‘NewLiberalSpeak: notes on the new planetary vulgate’. Radical Philosophy, 105: 2–5.
    Bowker, G. and Star, S.L.1999. Sorting Things Out. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Boyer, R. and Hollingsworth, J.R. (eds) 1999. Contemporary Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Boyne, R. 2001. Subject, Society and Culture. London: Sage.
    Braczyk, H.-J., Cooke, P. and Heidenreich, M. (eds) 1998. Regional Innovation Systems. London: UCL Press.
    Brahm, R. 1994. ‘Commentary: global-local tensions’, by P.Dicken. Advances in Strategic Management 10B. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 249–54.
    Branigan, T. 2001. ‘Lifestyle shattered by doubts’. the Guardian 20 October.
    Brenner, N. 1998a. ‘Global cities, glocal states’. Review of International Political Economy, 5: 1–37.
    Brenner, N. 1998b. ‘Globalization as reterritorialisation’. Urban Studies, 36: 431–52.
    Brenner, N. 2001. Entrepreneurial Cities, Glocalizing States and the New Politics of Scale. Working Paper 76a/76b, Center for European Studies, Harvard University.
    Brenner, N. 2003. New State Spaces. Unpublished book manuscript.
    Brenner, N. and Theodore, N. (eds) 2002. Spaces of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brenner, N., Jessop, B., Jones, M. and MacLeod, G. (eds) 2003. State/Space. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Bridges Weekly Trade News Digest. 2001. ‘Implementation: developing countries hit road block’. 20 March.
    British Audit Commission. 1998. A Stitch in Time. London: Audit Commission.
    Britton, J.N.H.1999. ‘Does nationality still matter?’ in T.J.Barnes and M.S.Gertler (eds), The New Industrial Geography. London: Routledge, 238–64.
    Bromell, N. 2000. Tomorrow Never Knows. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Brown, J.M.2001. ‘Why Irish eyes are still smiling over IT sector’. Financial Times, 7 May.
    Brown, B., Green, N. and Harper, R. (eds) 2002. Wireless World. London: Springer Verlag.
    BrownJ.S. and Duguid, P.1996. ‘Organizational learning and communities-of-practice’. in M.Cohen and L.Sproull (eds), Organizational Learning. London, Sage: 58–82.
    Brown, J.S. and Duguid, P.1998. ‘Organizing knowledge’California Management Review, 40: 90–111.
    Brown, J.S. and Duguid, P.2000. The Social Life of Information. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Brown, R. and Raines, P.2000. ‘The changing nature of foreign investment policy in Europe’. in J.H.Dunning (ed.), Regions, Globalization and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 435–58.
    Buchanan, K. 1970. The Transformation of the Chinese Earth. London: Bell.
    Buchanan, R.O.1935. The Pastoral Industries of New Zealand. London: George Philip.
    Buckley, P.J. and Casson, M.1976. The Future of the Multinational Enterprise. London: Macmillan.
    Bunnell, T.G. and Coe, N.M.2001. ‘Spaces and scales of innovation’. Progress in Human Geography, 25: 569–89.
    Burgess, K.2002. ‘Unloved and unwanted—so buy it’. Financial Times, 23 March.
    Cairncross, A.1994. ‘Economic policy and performance, 1964–1990’. in R.Floud and D.McCloskey (eds), The Economic History of Britain Since 1700. Volume 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 67–94.
    Callon, M. 1999. ‘Le réseau comme forme émergente et comme modalité de coordination’. In M.Callon, P.Cohendet, N.Curien, J.-M.Dalle, F.Eymard-Duvernay, D.Foray and E.Schenk, Réseau et coordination. Paris: Economica.
    Cammack, P. 2002. ‘Attacking the poor’. New Left Review, 13: 125–34.
    Cane, A. and Nicholson, M.2001. ‘Thousands of job losses feared at Motorola’. Financial Times, 19 April.
    Cantwell, J. 1999. ‘Innovation as the principal source of growth in the global economy’. in D.Archibugi, J.Howells and J.Michie (eds), Innovation Policy in a Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 225–41.
    Cantwell, J. and Janne, O.1999. ‘Technological globalisation and innovative centres’. Research Policy, 28: 119–44.
    Catán, T.2002. ‘Argentines snowed under by paper IOUs’. Financial Times, 11 April.
    Cerny, P. 1995. ‘Globalization and the changing logic of collective action’. International Organization, 49: 595–625.
    CGEA, 2001. Website:
    Chapman, K. 1992. Review of Global Shift. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 108: 134.
    Christopherson, S.1999. ‘Rules as resources’. in T.J.Barnes and M.S.Gertler (eds), The New Industrial Geography. London: Routledge, 155–75.
    Christopherson, S.2002. ‘Why do national labor market practices continue to diverge in the global economy?’Economic Geography, 78: 1–20.
    Clancy, M. 1998. ‘Commodity chains, services and development’. Review of International Political Economy, 5: 122–48.
    Clark, A. 2001. Mindware. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Clark, G.L., Feldman, M.A. and Gertler, M.S. (eds) 2000. The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Clark, T. and Fincham, R. (eds) 2001. Critical Consulting. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Clippinger, J.H.1999. The Biology of Business. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
    Clough, P.T.2000. Autoaffection. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Coe, N. and Kelly, P. F.2000. ‘Connections and constructions in the local labour market’. Area, 32: 413–22.
    Coggan, P. 1993. ‘Emerging markets investment fashion of the 90s supplement on Global custody’. Financial Times, 7 December.
    Conroy, M. 1996. Public Address: The Dark Decade. Department of Geography, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
    Conroy, M. and Glasmeier, A.1994. ‘Industrial strategies, the newly industrializing economies, and new international trade theory in Latin America’. Environment and Planning, A, 27: 1–10.
    Conway, D. and Cohen, J.1998. ‘Consequences of migration and remittances for Mexican transnational communities’. Economic Geography, 74: 26–44.
    Cooke, P. and Morgan, K.1998. The Associational Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Corbridge, S. 1993. ‘Marxisms, modernities and moralities’. Environment and Planning D, 11: 449–72.
    Cox, K.R. (ed.) 1997. Spaces of Globalization. New York: Guilford.
    Cox, K.R.1999. ‘Review of Global Shift’. Progress in Human Geography, 23: 474–5.
    Crary, J. 1999. Suspensions of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Crewe, L. and Lowe, M.1996. ‘United colours? Globalization and localization tendencies in fashion retailing’. in N.Wrigley and M.Lowe (eds), Retailing, Consumption and Capital. London: Longman, 271–83.
    Dagognet, F. 1992. Etienne-Jules Marey. New York: Zone Books.
    Dahl, M.S.2002. ‘Embedded Knowledge Flows Through Labour Market Mobility in Regional Clusters in Denmark’. Paper for the DRUID Summer Conference on ‘Industrial Dynamics of the New and Old Economy—who is embracing whom?’ Copenhagen/Elsinore, 6–8 June.
    Damasio, A. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens. New York: Vintage.
    Davenport, T.H. and Beck, J.C.2001. The Attention Economy. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    de Nora, T.2000. Music in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Deleuze, G. 1993. The Fold: Leibniz and the Baroque. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Deleuze, G. and Parnet, C.1987. Dialogues. London: Athlone.
    Deloitte Research. 2001. Global Manufacturing Trends of US Manufacturers. New York: Deloitte Consulting and Deloitte & Touche.
    Desai, R. 1994. ‘Second-hand dealers in ideas’. New Left Review, 203: 27–64.
    Dezalay, Y. and Garth, B.G.2002. The Internationalization of Palace Wars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dicken, P. 1971. ‘Some aspects of the decision-making behavior of business organizations’. Economic Geography, 47: 426–37.
    Dicken, P. 1976. ‘The multiplant business enterprise and geographical space’. Regional Studies, 10: 401–12.
    Dicken, P. 1977. ‘A note on location theory and the large business enterprise’. Area, 9: 138–43.
    Dicken, P. 1980. ‘Foreign direct investment in European manufacturing industry’. Geoforum, 11: 289–313.
    Dicken, P. 1982. ‘Recent trends in international direct investment’. in B.T.Robson and J.Rees (eds), Geographical Agenda for a Changing World. London: SSRC.
    Dicken, P. 1983. ‘Japanese manufacturing investment in the United Kingdom’. Area, 15: 273–84.
    Dicken, P. 1986a. Global Shift: Industrial Change in a Turbulent World. London: Harper & Row.
    Dicken, P. 1986b. ‘Multinational enterprises and the local economy’. Area, 18: 215–21.
    Dicken, P. 1987. ‘Japanese penetration of the European automobile industry’. Tijdschrift voor Econmische en Sociale Geografie, 78: 59–72.
    Dicken, P. 1988. ‘The changing geography of Japanese foreign direct investment in manufacturing industry’. Environment and Planning A, 20: 633–53.
    Dicken, P. 1990a. ‘Transnational corporations and the spatial organization of production’. in A.Shachar and S.Oberg (eds), The World Economy and the Spatial Organization of Power. Aldershot: Avebury, 31–55.
    Dicken, P. 1990b. ‘The geography of enterprise’. in M.De Smidt and E.Wever (eds), The Corporate Firm in a Changing World Economy. London: Routledge, 234–44.
    Dicken, P. 1990c. ‘Seducing foreign investors’. in M.Hebbert and J.C.Hansen (eds), Unfamiliar Territory, Aldershot: Gower, 162–86.
    Dicken, P. 1992a. Global Shift: The Internationalization of Economic Activity.
    Second Edition
    , London: Paul Chapman.
    Dicken, P. 1992b. ‘International production in a volatile regulatory environment’. Geoforum, 23: 303–16.
    Dicken, P.1992c. ‘Europe 1992 and strategic change in the international automobile industry’. Environment and Planning A, 24: 11–32.
    Dicken, P. 1994. ‘Global-local tensions’. Economic Geography, 70: 101–28. Reprinted in Advances in Strategic Management, 10B. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 217–47.
    Dicken, P. 1995. ‘How the world works’. Review of International Political Economy, 2: 197–204.
    Dicken, P. 1997. ‘Transnational corporations and nation-states’. International Social Science Journal, 49: 77–90.
    Dicken, P. 1998a. Global Shift: Transforming the World Economy.
    Third Edition
    , London: Paul Chapman.
    Dicken, P. 1998b. ‘Globalization: an economic-geographical perspective’. in W.E.Halal and K.R.Taylor (eds), Twenty-First Century Economics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 31–51.
    Dicken, P. 2000. ‘Places and flows’. in G.L.Clark, M.A.Feldman and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 275–91.
    Dicken, P. 2002. ‘Global Manchester’. in J.Peck and K.Ward (eds), City of Revolution: Restructuring Manchester. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 18–33.
    Dicken, P. 2003. Global Shift: Reshaping the Global Economic Map in the 21st Century.
    Fourth Edition
    , London: Sage.
    Dicken, P. and Hassler, M.2000. ‘Organizing the Indonesian clothing industry in the global economy’. Environment and Planning A, 32: 263–80.
    Dicken, P. and Kirkpatrick, C.1991. ‘Services-led development in ASEAN’. The Pacific Review, 4: 174–84.
    Dicken, P. and Lloyd, P.E.1976. ‘Geographical perspectives on United States investment in the United Kingdom’. Environment and Planning A, 8: 685–705.
    Dicken, P. and Lloyd, P.E.1980. ‘Patterns and processes of change in the spatial distribution of foreign-controlled manufacturing employment in the United Kingdom, 1963–1975’. Environment and Planning A, 12: 1405–26.
    Dicken, P. and Lloyd, P.E.1990. Location in Space.
    Third Edition
    , New York: Harper & Row.
    Dicken, P. and Malmberg, A.2001. ‘Firms in territories’. Economic Geography, 77: 345–63.
    Dicken, P. and Miyamachi, Y.1998. ‘From noodles to satellites': the changing geography of the Japanese sogo shosha’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 23: 55–78.
    Dicken, P. and Quevit, M. (eds) 1994. Transnational Corporations and European Regional Restructuring. Utrecht: Royal Dutch Geographical Society.
    Dicken, P. and Thrift, N.1992. ‘The organization of production and the production of organization’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 17, 279–91.
    Dicken, P. and Tickell, A.T.1992. ‘Competitors or collaborators?’Regional Studies, 26: 99–106.
    Dicken, P. and Yeung, H.W.C.1999. ‘Investing in the future’. in K.Olds, P.Dicken, P.F.Kelly, L.Kong and H.W.C.Yeung (eds), Globalization and the Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge, 107–28.
    Dicken, P., Forsgren, M. and Malmberg, A.1994. ‘The local embeddedness of transnational corporations’. in A.Amin and N.Thrift (eds), Globalization, Institutions, and Regional Development in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 23–45.
    Dicken, P., Peck, J., and Tickell, A.1997a. ‘Unpacking the global’. in R.Lee and J.Wills (eds), Geographies of Economies. London: Arnold, 158–66.
    Dicken, P., Tickell, A. and Yeung, H.W.C.1997b. ‘Putting Japanese investment in Europe in its place’. Area, 29: 200–12.
    Dicken, P., Kelly, P.F., Olds, K. and Yeung, H.W.C.2001. ‘Chains and networks, territories and scales’. Global Networks, 1: 89–112.
    Dolphin, R. 1995. ‘Zen and the art of mall raising’. Vancouver, March, 36–47.
    Doremus, P. N., Keller, W. W., Pauly, L. W. and Reich, S.1998. The Myth of the Global Corporation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Doyle, R. 1997. Beyond Living. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Duffy, F. 1997. The New Office. London: Octopus.
    Dunford, M., HudsonR. and Smith, A.2001. ‘Restructuring the European Clothing Sector’. Sussex European Institute, University of Sussex, UK, mimeo.
    Dunning, J.H.1977. ‘Trade, location of economic activity and the MNE’. in B.Ohlin, P.O.Hesselborn and P.M.Wijkman (eds), The International Allocation of Economic Activity. London: Macmillan, 395–418.
    Dunning, J.H.1979. ‘Explaining changing patterns of international production’. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 41: 269–96.
    Dunning, J.H.1993. Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
    Dunning, J.H.1998. ‘Location and the multinational enterprise’. Journal of International Business Studies, 29: 45–66.
    Dunning, J.H. (ed.) 2000. Regions, Globalization and the Knowledge-based Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Edquist, C. (ed.) 1997. Systems of Innovation. London: Pinter.
    Egelhoff, W.G.1982. ‘Strategy and structure in multinational corporations’. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27: 435–58.
    Eichengreen, B. 1998. Globalizing Capital. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Eichengreen, B. and Kenen, P.1996. ‘Managing the world economy under the Bretton Woods system’. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Eisenschitz, A. and Gough, J.1993. The Politics of Local Economic Development. New York: Macmillan.
    Eliasson, G. 2000. ‘Industrial policy, competence blocks and the role of science in economic development’. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 10: 217–41.
    Enright, M.J.1998. ‘Regional clusters and firm strategy’. in A.D.Chandler, P.Hagström and Ö.Sölvell (eds), The Dynamic Firm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 315–42.
    Esty, D.C.2000. WTO Legitimacy Beyond the Club Model: A Comment on Keohane and Nye. Conference on ‘Efficiency, Equity, and Legitimacy’: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium, Harvard University, 1–2 June.
    European Commission. 1999. ‘The EU Eco-Industry's Export Potential. Final Report to DGXI of the European Commission’. September.
    Evans, P. 2000. ‘Fighting marginalization with transnational networks’. Contemporary Sociology, 29: 230–41.
    Feigenbaum, H., Henig, J. and Hamnett, C.1998. Shrinking the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ferner, A., Quintanilla, J. and Varul, M. Z.2001. ‘Country-of-origin effects, host-country effects, and the management of HR in multinationals’. Journal of World Business, 36: 107–27.
    Financial Times. 1995. ‘Markets catch a chill’. Financial Times, 11 January.
    Financial Times. 2001. ‘Vivendi sells stake in its environment division’. Financial Times, 5 December:
    Financial Times. 2002a. ‘German utility makes approach to UK power group’. Financial Times, 18 February:
    Financial Times. 2002b. ‘Vivendi expected to sell Environment stake’. Financial Times, 20 April.
    Finger, J.M. and Schuler, P.1999. Implementation of the Uruguay Round Commitments. Paper presented at the Conference on WTO Negotiations, Geneva.
    Fischer, R. 2001. A History of Writing. London: Reaktion.
    Florida, R. 1997. ‘The globalization of R&D’. Research Policy, 26: 85–103.
    Fransman, M. 1994. ‘Information, knowledge, vision and theories of the firm’. Industrial and Corporate Change, 3: 713–27.
    Freeman, C. 1997. ‘The national system of innovation in historical perspective’. in D.Archibugi and J.Michie (eds), Technology, Globalisation and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 24–49.
    Fröbel, F., Heinrichs, J. and Kreye, O.1980. The New International Division of Labour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Fuellhart, K. 1999. ‘Localization and the use of information sources’. European Urban and Regional Studies, 6: 39–58.
    Fujita, M., Krugman, P. and Venables, A.1999. The Spatial Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Furusten, S. 1999. Popular Management Books. London: Routledge.
    Galbraith, J.K.1994. A Short History of Financial Euphoria. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Galison, P. and Thompson, E. (eds) 2000. The Architecture of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Garofoli, G. 2002. ‘Local development in Europe’. European Urban and Regional Studies, 9: 225–40.
    Gerlach, M. L. and Lincoln, J. R.1992. ‘The organization of business networks in the United States and Japan’. in N.Nohria and R.G.Eccles (eds), Networks and Organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 491–520.
    Geroski, P. and Gugler, K.P.2001. Corporate Growth Convergence in Europe. Discussion Paper 2838, London: Centre for Economic Performance.
    Gertler, M.S.1988. ‘The limits to flexibility’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 13, 419–32.
    Gertler, M.S.1995. ‘Being there: proximity, organization and culture in the development and adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies’. Economic Geography, 70: 1–26.
    Gertler, M.S.1996. ‘Worlds apart: the changing market geography of the German machinery industry’. Small Business Economics, 8: 87–106.
    Gertler, M.S.1999. ‘The production of industrial processes’. in T.J.Barnes and M.S.Gertler (eds), The New Industrial Geography: Regions, Regulation and Institutions. London: Routledge, 225–37.
    Gertler, M.S.2001. ‘Best practice? Geography, learning and the institutional limits to strong convergence’. Journal of Economic Geography, 1: 5–26.
    Gertler, M.S.2002a. ‘Technology, culture and social learning’. in M.S.Gertler and D.A.Wolfe (eds), Innovation and Social Learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 111–34.
    Gertler, M.S.2002b. ‘Tacit knowledge and the economic geography of context’. Journal of Economic Geography, 2 (forthcoming).
    Gertler, M.S.2002c. Tacit Knowledge, Path-Dependency and Local Growth Trajectories. Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Rethinking regional innovation and change: Path-dependency or regional breakthrough’, Stuttgart, Germany, 29 February—1 March.
    Gertler, M.S. and DiGiovanna, S.1997. ‘In search of the new social economy’. Environment and Planning A, 29: 1585–602.
    Gertler, M.S., Wolfe, D.A. and Garkut, D.2000. ‘No place like home?’. Review of International Political Economy, 7: 1–31.
    Gettleman, J. 1996. ‘Global fund managers make tracks for Africa’. Financial Times, 1 February.
    Giddens, A. 1998. The Third Way. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gilmore, R. W.1998. ‘Globalization and US prison growth’. Race and Class, 40: 171–88.
    Girard, L. and Stark, D.2002. ‘Heterarchy in the media industry’. Environment and Planning A, 33 (forthcoming).
    Glaeser, E.L., Kallal, H.D., Scheinkman, J. and Shleifer, A.1992. ‘Growth in cities’. Journal of Political Economy, 100: 1126–52.
    Glasmeier, A.K.2001. Manufacturing Time. New York: Guilford Press.
    Glasmeier, A.K., Thompson, J. and Kays, A.1993. The geography of trade policy. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 18: 19–35.
    Gnyawali, D.R. and Madhavan, R.2001. ‘Cooperative networks and competitive dynamics’. Academy of Management Review, 26: 431–45.
    Gonzales, J. 1998. Philippine Labour Migration. Singapore: Institute of South East Asian Studies.
    Gourevitch, P. 1990. Politics in Hard Times. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Grabher, G. (ed.) 1993. The Embedded Firm. London: Routledge.
    Grabher, G. 2001. ‘Ecologies of creativity’. Environment and Planning A, 33: 351–74.
    Granovetter, M. 1985. ‘Economic action and social structure’. American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481–510.
    Granstrand, O. 1999. ‘Internationalization of corporate R&D’. Research Policy, 28: 275–302.
    Grant, R.M.1996. Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments. Organization Science, 7: 375–87.
    Griffith, C. 2000. A Citizen's Handbook to the Office of the United States Trade Representative. Washington, DC: Consumer Choice Council.
    Guerrera, F. 2001. ‘Brussels’ face set against “national champions”'. Financial Times, 3 October.
    Guerrera, F. and Mallet, V.2001. ‘Brussels blocks Schneider deal with Legrand’. Financial Times, 11 October.
    Gulati, R. and Gargiulo, M.1999. ‘Where do interorganizational networks come from?’American Journal of Sociology, 104: 1439–93.
    Gupta, A.K. and Govindarajan, V.1991. ‘Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations’. Academy of Management Review, 16: 768–92.
    Gupta, A.K. and Govindarajan, V.2000. ‘Knowledge flows within multinational corporations’. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 473–96.;2-I
    Hadjimichalis, C. 1998. Small and Medium Enterprises in Greece. University of Thessaloniki, Greece, mimeo.
    Hadjimichalis, C. and Papamichos, N.1990. ‘Local development in southern Europe’. Antipode, 22: 181–210.
    Hägerstrand, T.1970. ‘What about people in regional science?’Regional Science Association Papers, XXIV: 7–21.
    Haggard, S. 1990. Pathways from the Periphery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Haggett, P. 1965. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. London: Edward Arnold.
    Håkansson, H.1987. Corporate Technological Behaviour. London: Routledge.
    Hall, P. and Soskice, D. (eds) 2001. Varieties of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hall, T. and Hubbard, P. (eds) 1998. The Entrepreneurial City. London: John Wiley.
    Hamilton, F.E.I. (ed.) 1974. Spatial Perspectives on Industrial Organization and Decision-Making. London: John Wiley.
    Hamilton, G.G.1996. ‘Overseas Chinese capitalism’. in W.-M.Tu (ed.), Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 328–42.
    Hamilton, G.G. (ed.) 1999. Cosmopolitan Capitalists. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
    Hamilton, G.G.2000. ‘Reciprocity and control: the organization of Chinese family-owned conglomerates’. in H.W.C.Yeung and K.Olds (eds), The Globalisation of Chinese Business Firms. London: Macmillan, 55–74.
    Hamilton, G.G. and Feenstra, R.C.1998. ‘Varieties ofhierarchies and markets’, in G.Dosi, D.J.Teece and J.Chytry (eds), Technology, Organization and Competitiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 105–46.
    Hannerz, U. 1996. Transnational Connections. London: Routledge.
    Hansen, N. 2000. Embodying Technesis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Harding, A. 1997. ‘Urban regimes in a Europe of the cities?’European Urban and Regional Studies, 4: 291–314.
    Hardt, M. and Negri, A.2001. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hargadon, A. 1998. ‘Firms as knowledge brokers’. California Management Review, 40: 209–28.
    Harloe, M. 2001. ‘Social justice and the city: the new liberal formulation’. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25: 889–97.
    Harris, S. J.1998. ‘Long-distance corporations, big sciences, and the geography of knowledge’. Configurations, 6: 269–304.
    Hartwick, E. 1998. ‘Geographies of consumption’. Environment and Planning D, 16: 423–37.
    Harvey, D. 1982. The Limits to Capital. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. 1989a. ‘From managerialism to entrepreneurialism’. Geografiska Annaler B, 71: 3–18.
    Harvey, D. 1989b. The Urban Experience. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Harvey, D.2001 [1975]. ‘The geography of capitalist accumulation’. In D.Harvey, Spaces of Capital. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 237–66.
    Hatch, M.-J.1999. ‘Exploring the empty spaces of organizing’. Organization Studies, 20: 75–100.
    Hayek, F.A.1944. The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge.
    Hayes, J. and Allison, C. W.1998. ‘Cognitive style and the theory and practice of individual and collective learning in organizations’. Human Relations, 51: 847–72.
    Held, D., McGrew, A., Goldblatt, D. and Perraton, J.1999. Global Transformations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Henderson, J., Dicken, P., Hess, M., Coe, N. and Yeung, H.W.C.2002. ‘Global production networks and the analysis of economic development’. Review of International Political Economy, 9 (forthcoming).
    Herrigel, G. 2000. ‘Large firms and industrial districts in Europe’. in J.H.Dunning (ed.), Regions, Globalization and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 286–302.
    Hill, C. 1975. The World Turned Upside Down. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Hirst, P. and Thompson, G.1996. Globalization in Question. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Hobart, M.E. and Schiffman, Z.1998. Information Ages. Baltimore: TheJohns Hopkins University Press.
    Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture's Consequences. London: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. 1983. ‘The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories’. Journal of International Business Studies, 14: 75–89.
    Hollingsworth, J.R.1997. ‘Continuities and changes in social systems of production’. in J.R.Hollingsworth and R.Boyer (eds), Contemporary Capitalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 265–318.
    Hollingsworth, J.R. and Boyer, R. (eds) 1997. Contemporary Capitalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Holm, U. and Pedersen, T. (eds) 2000. The Emergence and Impact of MNC Centres of Excellence. London: Macmillan.
    Hsing, Y.-T.1998. Making Capitalism in China. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hsu, J.-Y., and Saxenian, A.2000. ‘The limits of guanxi capitalism: transnational collaboration between Taiwan and the USA’. Environment and Planning A, 32: 1991–2005.
    Hu, Y.-S.1992. ‘Global firms are national firms with international operations’. California Management Review, 34: 107–26.
    Hudson, R. 1999. ‘The new economy of the New Europe’. in R.Hudson and A.Williams (eds), Divided Europe. London: Sage, 29–62.
    Hudson, R. 2000. ‘One Europe or many?’Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 25: 409–26.
    Hudson, R. 2001a. Producing Places. New York: Guilford.
    Hudson, R. 2001b. ‘Regional Development, Flows of Value and Governance Processes in an Enlarged Europe’. Working Paper 6–01, Regional Economic Performance, Governance and Cohesion in an Enlarged Europe, University of Sussex, UK. Available at:
    Hudson, R. 2002. ‘Changing industrial production systems and regional development in the New Europe’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 27 (forthcoming).
    Hudson, R. and Williams, A.1999. ‘Re-shaping Europe’. in R.Hudson and A.Williams (eds), Divided Europe. London: Sage, 1–28.
    Hui, W.T.1997. ‘Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore’. International Migration, 35: 109–28.
    Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hutchins, E. 1996. ‘Organizing work by adaptation’. in M.Cohen and L.Sproull (eds), Organizational Learning. London: Sage, 20–57.
    Hymer, S.H.[1960] 1976. The International Operations of National Firms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Ichijo, K., von Krogh, G. and Nonaka, I.1998. ‘Knowledge enablers’. in G.von Krogh, J.Roos and D.Kleine (eds), Knowing in Firms. London: Sage, 173–203.
    IMF [International Monetary Fund]. 2001. Transparency at the International Monetary Fund. Washington, DC: IMF.
    Itzigsohn, J., Dore, C., Hernandez, E. and Vazquez, O.1999. ‘Mapping Dominican transnationalism’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22: 316–39.
    Jackson, J. 1996. ‘Managing the trading system’. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Jackson, J.2001. ‘The role and effectiveness of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism’. in S.M.Collins and D.Rodrik (eds), Brookings Trade Forum 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Jessop, B. 1990. State Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Jessop, B. 1994. ‘Post-Fordism and the state’. in A.Amin (ed.), Post-Fordism. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 251–79.
    Jessop, B. 1997. ‘Capitalism and its future’. Review of International Political Economy, 4: 561–81
    Jessop, B. 1999. ‘Narrating the future of the national economy and the national state’. in G.Steinmetz (ed.), State/Culture. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 378–405.
    Jessop, B., Bonnett, K., Bromley, S. and Ling, T.1988. Thatcherism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Johnson, C. 1999. ‘Ambient technologies, uncanny signs’. Oxford Literary Review, 21: 117–34.
    Johnson, S. 2001. Emergence. London: Faber and Faber.
    Jones, M. 1997. ‘Spatial selectivity of the state?’Environment and Planning A, 29: 831–64.
    Katz, J. 1999. How Emotions Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Katz, J. and Aakhus, M. (eds) 2002. Perpetual Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kay, L. 2000. Who Wrote the Book of Life?Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Keating, M. 1997. ‘The invention of regions’. Environment and Planning C, 15: 383–98.
    Kelly, P.F.1999. ‘The geographies and politics of globalization’. Progress in Human Geography, 23: 379–400.
    Keohane, R. O. and Nye, J. Jr. 2000. ‘The Club Model of Multilateral Cooperation in the World Trade Organization’, Conference on ‘Efficiency, Equity, and Legitimacy: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium, Harvard University, 1–2 June.
    Kindleberger, C.1969, American Business Abroad. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Kittler, F. 1997. Literature, Media, Information Systems. Amsterdam: G and B Arts.
    Kobrin, S.J.2001. ‘Sovereignty@bay’. in A.M.Rugman and T.L.Brewer (eds), Oxford Handbook of International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 181–205.
    Kogut, B. and Singh, H.1988. ‘The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode’. Journal of International Business Studies, 19: 411–32.
    Krumme, G. 1987. ‘Review of Global Shift’. Environment and Planning A, 19: 132–3.
    Kuemmerle, W. 1999. ‘Foreign direct investment in industrial research in the pharmaceutical and electronics industries’. Research Policy, 28: 179–93.
    Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M.1999. Philosophy in the Flesh. New York: Basic Books.
    Lam, A. 1998. ‘Tacit Knowledge, Organisational Learning and Innovation’. DRUID Working Paper No. 98–22, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Lam, A. 2000. ‘Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions’. Organization Studies, 21: 487–513.
    Lam, A. and Lundvall, B-Å.2000. ‘Innovation Policy and Knowledge Management in the Learning Economy’. Paper presented at the OECD High Level Forum on Knowledge Management, Ottawa, 21 September.
    Landolt, P., Autlet, L., and Baires, S.1999. ‘From Hermano Lejano to Hermano Mayor’. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22: 290–315.
    Lane, C. 1997. ‘The social regulation of inter-firm relations in Britain and Germany’. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 21: 197–215.
    Larner, W. 2000. ‘Theorising neo-liberalism’. Studies in Political Economy, 63: 5–26.
    Larsson, S. 1998. ‘Lokal förankring och global räckvidd’. En studie av teknikutveckling i svensk maskinindustri, Geografiska regionstudier nr. 35, Uppsala: Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Larsson, S. and Lundmark, M.1991. ‘Kista—företag i nätverk eller statusadress?’ En studie av Kistaföretagens länkningar. Forskningsrapport nr. 100, Uppsala: Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Lash, S. 2002. Critique of Information. London, Sage.
    Latour, B. 1986. Visualisation and cognition. Knowledge and Society, 6: 1–40.
    Latour, B. and Woolgar, S.1979. Laboratory Life. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lawson, C. 1999. Towards a competence theory of the region. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23:151–66.
    Lazonick, W. 2000. From Innovative Enterprise to National Institutions. Working Paper, Corporate Governance, Innovation and Economic Performance in the EU, Fontainebleau: INSEAD.
    Le Doux, J.1998. The Emotional Brain. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Leamer, E. and Storper, M.2001. The Economic Geography of the Internet Age. NBER Working Paper W8450, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
    Lee, R. 1989. Social relations and the geography of material life. in D.Gregory and R.Walford (eds), Horizons in Human Geography. London: Macmillan, 152–69.
    Lee, R. 1990. Making Europe. in M.Chisholm and D.M.Smith (eds), Shared Space Divided Space. London: Unwin Hyman, 235–59.
    Lee, R. 1996. Moral money?Environment and Planning A, 28: 1377–94.
    Lee, R. 1999. Local money. in R.Martin (ed.), Money and the Space Economy. Chichester: John Wiley, 207–24.
    Lee, R. 2002. ‘Nice maps, shame about the theory’: Thinking geographically about the economic. Progress in Human Geography, 25: 333–55.
    Lee, R. and Wills, J. (eds) 1997. Geographies of Economies. London: Edward Arnold.
    Lefebvre, H. 1978. De l'êtat. Volume 4. Paris: Union Générale d'Éditions.
    Leitner, H. and Sheppard, E.1997. Economic uncertainty, inter-urban competition and the efficacy of entrepreneurialism. in T.Hall and P.Hubbard (eds), The Entrepreneurial City. Chichester: John Wiley, 285–308.
    Lessig, L. 2002. The Fate of Ideas. New York: Random House.
    Levitt, P. 2001. The Transnational Villagers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Levitt, T. 1983. The globalization of markets. Harvard Business Review, May-June: 92–102.
    Ley, D.forthcoming. Seeking homo economicus: the strange story of Canada's Business Immigration Program. Annals of the American Association of Geographers.
    Leys, C. 1994. Confronting the African tragedy. New Left Review, 204: 33–47.
    Leyshon, A. 1994. Review of Global Shift. Progress in Human Geography, 18: 110–11.
    Leyshon, A. 1997. Introduction: true stories? in R.Lee and J.Wills (eds), Geographies of Economies. London: Edward Arnold, 133–46.
    Lloyd, P.E. and Dicken, P.1972/1977. Location in Space. First and Second Edition, New York: Harper & Row.
    Luce, E. 2001. Hot money flooding into Pakistan. Financial Times, 3 October.
    Lundvall, B.-Å. (ed.) 1992. National Systems of Innovation. London: Pinter.
    Lundvall, B.-Å. and Johnson, B.1994. The learning economy. Journal of Industry Studies, 1: 23–42.
    Lundvall, B.-Å. and Maskell, P.2000. Nation states and economic development. in G.L.Clark, M.P.Feldman, and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 353–72.
    Mackinnon, D., Cumbers, A. and Chapman, K.2003. Networks, learning and embeddedness amongst SMEs in the Aberdeen oil complex. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 15 (forthcoming).
    MacLeod, G. 2000. The learning region in an age of austerity. Geoforum, 31: 219–36.
    MacLeod, G. and Goodwin, M.1999. Space, scale and state strategy. Progress in Human Geography, 23: 503–27.
    Maddison, A. 2001. The World Economy. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    Malmberg, A. and Maskell, P.2002. The elusive concept of localization economies. Environment and Planning A, 34: 429–49.
    Malmberg, A. and Power, D.2002. On the Role of Global Demand in Local Innovation Processes. Paper presented at the workshop on ‘Rethinking regional innovation and change: Path-dependency or regional breakthrough’, Stuttgart, Germany, 29 February—1 March.
    Malmberg, A. and Sölvell, Ö.2002. Does foreign ownership matter? in V.Havila, M.Forsgren and H.Håkansson (eds), Critical Perspectives on Internationalisation. Amsterdam: Elsevier, (forthcoming).
    Malmberg, A., Sölvell, S. and Zander, I.1996. Spatial Clustering, local accumulation of knowledge and firm competitiveness. Geografiska Annaler B, 78: 85–97.
    Malmberg, A., Malmberg, B. and Lundequist, P.2000. Agglomeration and firm performance. Environment and Planning A, 32: 305–21.
    Mandel-Campbell, A.2000. Boost as Mexico makes the grade. Financial Times, 27 March.
    Mann, M. 1993. Nation-states in Europe and other continents. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 122: 155–40.
    Mann, M. 2001. Brussels tries again for agreement on cross-border takeover rules. Financial Times, 5 September.
    Marino, M. and Boland, J.1999. An Integrated Approach to Wastewater Treatment. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Markgren, B. 2001. Är närhet en geografisk fråga? Företags affärsverksamhet och geografi—en studie av beroenden mellan företag och lokaliseringens betydelse. Doctoral Thesis No. 85, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Markusen, A. 1996. Sticky places in slippery space. Economic Geography, 72: 293–313.
    Markusen, A. 1999. Fuzzy concepts, scanty evidence, policy distance. Regional Studies, 33: 869–84.
    Marshall, A. 1890. Industrial organization, continued. The concentration of specialized industries in particular localities. in A.Marshall (ed.), Principles of Economics, Book IV, Chapter X. London: Macmillan.
    Martin, R. and Sunley, P.1997. The post-Keynesian state and the space economy. in R.Lee and J.Wills (eds), Geographies of Economies. London: Edward Arnold, 278–289.
    Martin, R. and Sunley, P.2001. Deconstructing Clusters. Paper presented at the RSA Conference on Regionalising the Knowledge Economy, London, 21 November.
    Marx, K. 1996 [1867]. Capital. Volume 1, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Maskell, P. and Malmberg, A.1999. Localised learning and industrial competitiveness. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23: 167–86.
    Maskell, P., Eskelinen, H., Hannibalsson, I., Malmberg, A. and Vatne, E.1998. Competitiveness, Localised Learning and Regional Development. London: Routledge.
    Massey, D. and Meegan, R.1979. The Anatomy of Job Loss. London: Methuen.
    Maturana, H. and Varela, F.1980. Autopoesis and Cognition. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel.
    Maurice, M., Sellier, F. and Silvestre, J.-J.1986. The Social Foundations of Industrial Power. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    May, J. and Thrift, N.J. (eds) 2001. Timespace. Geographies of Temporality. London: Routledge.
    McConnell, J. and McPherson, A.1994. The North American Free Trade Area. in R.Gibb and W.Michalak (eds), Continental Trading Blocks. New York: John Wiley, 163–88.
    McIlwaine, C. and Willis, K. (eds) 2002. Challenges and Change in Middle America. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    McNeil, J. 1992. Keeping Together in Time. New York: Harper & Row.
    Micklethwait, J. and Wooldridge, A.1996. The Witch Doctors. New York: Times Books.
    Mitchell, K. 1995. Flexible circulation in the Pacific Rim. Economic Geography, 71: 364–82.
    Mitchell, K. 1997. Different diasporas and the hype of hybridity. Environment and Planning D, 15: 533–53.
    Mitchell, K. and Olds, K.2000. Chinese business networks and the globalization of property markets in the Pacific Rim. in H.W.C.Yeung and K.Olds (eds), The Globalisation of Chinese Business Firms. London: Macmillan, 195–219.
    Mittelman, J.H.2000. The Globalization Syndrome. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Mohan, G., Brown, E., Milward, B. and Zach-Williams, A.B.2000. Structural Adjustment. London. Routledge.
    Moody, G. 2001. Rebel Code. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
    Moore, M. 2001. The WTO: Challenges Ahead. Comments of, Director General-the World Trade Organization. Conference on the Role of the WTO in Global Governance. Geneva, Switzerland. May.
    Morgan, K. 1997. The learning region. Regional Studies, 31: 491–503.
    Morgan, K. 2001. The Exaggerated Death of Geography. Paper presented to The Future of Innovation Studies Conference, The Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies, Eindhoven University of Technology, 20–23 September.
    Morris, H.2001. A dynamic approach to the world's grey areas. Financial Times, 19 March. Mullings, B. 1999. Sides of the same coin: coping and resistance strategies among Jamaican data-entry operators. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 89: 290–311.
    Nachum, L. 2000. Economic geography and the location of TNCs. Journal of International Business Studies, 31: 367–85.
    Nardi, B.A. and O'Day, V.L.2001. Information Ecologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Nelson, R.R. (ed.) 1993. National Innovation Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nelson, R.R.1995. Recent evolutionary theorizing about economic change. Journal of Economic Literature, 33: 48–90.
    Nilsson, J.-E., Dicken, P. and Peck, J. (eds) 1996. The Internationalization Process. London: Paul Chapman.
    Nitzan, J. 2001. Regimes of differential accumulation. Review of International Political Economy, 8: 226–74.
    Nohria, N. and Ghoshal, S.1997. The Differentiated Network. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Nolan, J.L.1998. State. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Nonaka, I. 1994. A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5: 14–37.
    Nonaka, I. and Konno, N.1998. The concept of ‘ba’. California Management Review, 40: 40–54.
    Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H.1995. The Knowledge-Creating Company. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Nooteboom, B. 2000. Learning by Interaction. Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam. mimeo.
    Norman, D.A.1999. The Invisible Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Nye, J. 1996. Comments in response to Fred Bergsten's presentation. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    OECD. 1996. The Global Environmental Goods and Services Industry. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    OECD. 1998. Internationalisation of Industrial R&D. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    OECD. 2000. Knowledge Management in the Learning Society. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    Ohmae, K. 1985. Triad Power. New York: The Free Press.
    Ohmae, K. 1990. The Borderless World. London: Collins.
    Ohmae, K. 1995. The End of the Nation-State. London: HarperCollins.
    Oinas, P. 2000. Distance and learning: does proximity matter? in F.Boekma, K.Morgan, S.Bakkers and R.Rutten (eds), Knowledge, Innovation and Economic Growth. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 57–72.
    Olds, K. 2001. Globalization and Urban Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Olds, K. and Yeung, H.W.C.1999. (Re)shaping ‘Chinese’ business networks in a globalising era. Environment and Planning D, 17: 535–55.
    Olds, K., Dicken, P., Kelly, P.F., Kong, L. and Yeung, H.W.C. (eds) 1999. Globalization and the Asia-Pacific. London: Routledge.
    O'Neill, P. M.1997. Bringing the qualitative state into economic geography. in R.Lee and J.Wills (eds), Geographies of Economies. London: Edward Arnold, 290–301.
    Ong, A. 1999. Flexible Citizenship. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Orbinski, J. 2001. Health, equity, and trade. in G.Sampson (ed.), The Role of the World Trade Organization in Global Governance. Geneva: United Nations University, 223–42.
    Orr, J. 1996. Talking about Machines. Ithaca, NY: IRL Press.
    Ostry, S. and Nelson, R.R.1995. Techno-Nationalism and Techno-Globalism. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    O'Sullivan, M.2000. Contests for Corporate Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ó Tuathail, G.1997. Emerging markets and other simulations. Ecumene, 4: 300–17.
    Owen-Smith, J. and Powell, W.W.2002. Knowledge Networks in the Boston Biotechnology Community. Unpublished working paper, Stanford University.
    Painter, J. and Goodwin, M.1996. Local governance and concrete research. Economy and Society, 24: 334–56.
    Palloix, C. 1975. The internationalization of capital and the circuit of social capital. in H.Radice (ed.), International Firms and Modern Imperialism, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 63–88.
    Pashler, H.E.1998. The Psychology of Attention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Patel, P. and Pavitt, K.1994. Uneven (and divergent) technological accumulation among advanced countries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 3: 759–87.
    Patel, P. and Pavitt, K.1997. The technological competencies of the world's largest firms. Research Policy, 26: 141–56.
    Patel, P. and Vega, M.1999. Patterns of internationalisation of corporate technology. Research Policy, 28: 145–55.
    Pauly, L.W. and Reich, S.1997. National structures and multinational corporate behaviour, International Organization, 51: 1–30.
    Pavitt, K. and Patel, P1991. Large firms in the production of the world's technology. Journal of International Business Studies, 22: 1–21.
    Pavitt, K. and Patel, P.1999. Global corporations and national systems of innovation. in D.Archibugi, J.Howells and J.Michie (eds), Innovation Policy in a Global Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 94–119.
    Pearce, R.D.1999. Decentralized R&D and strategic competitiveness. Research Policy, 28: 157–78.
    Pearson, R. 2001. The Red Global de Treuque—Argentina. Notes presented to the Latest Developments in LES and Time Money Conference, Local Economic Policy Unit, South Bank University, London, 4–5 July.
    Peck, J. 1996. Work-Place. New York: Guilford.
    Peck, J. 1998. Geographies of governance: TEC, and the neoliberalisation of ‘local interests’. Space & Polity, 2: 5–31.
    Peck, J. 2000. Doing regulation. in G.L.Clark, M.P.Feldman and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 60–80.
    Peck, J. and Tickell, A.1994. Searching for a new institutional fix. in A.Amin (ed.), Post-Fordism. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 280–315.
    Peck, J. and Tickell, A.1995. The social regulation of uneven development. Environment and Planning A, 27: 15–40.
    Peck, J. and Tickell, A.2002. Neoliberalizing space. Antipode, 34: 380–404.
    Perez, E.1998. One Year into the Asian Crisis: The Impact on Mexico. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs,, accessed on 25 March 2002.
    Pfirrmann, O. 1999. Review of Global Shift. Growth and Change, 30: 155–6.
    Phelps, N.A. and Fuller, C.2000. Multinationals, intracorporate competition, and regional development. Economic Geography, 76: 224–43.
    Phelps, N. and MacKinnon, D.2000. Industrial enclaves or embedded firms?Contemporary Wales, 13: 46–67.
    Phelps, N., Lovering, J. and Morgan, K.1998. Tying the firm to the region or tying the region to the firm?European Urban and Regional Studies, 5: 119–37.
    Piore, M.J. and Sabel, C.F.1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.
    Polanyi, K. 1944. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Popper, M. and Lipshitz, R.1998. Organizational learning mechanisms. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 34: 161–79.
    Porter, M. E.1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Porter, M. E.1994. The role of location in competition. Journal of the Economics of Business, 1: 35–9.
    Porter, M. E.1998. Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, November/December: 77–90.
    Porter, M. E.2000. Locations, clusters and company strategy. in G.L.Clark, M.A.Feldman and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 253–74.
    Portes, A. 2001. Introduction: the debates and significance of immigrant transnationalism. Global Networks, 1: 181–93.
    Portes, A., Guarnizo, L. and Landolt, P.1999. The study of transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 22: 217–37.
    Portes, A., Haller, W. and Guarnizo, L.2001. Transnational Entrepreneurs. Oxford Transnational Communities Project, Working Paper WPTC-01–05. Oxford University.
    Prahalad, C.K. and Doz, Y.1987. The Multinational Mission. New York: The Free Press.
    Pratt, T. 2001. Patent on small yellow bean provokes cries of biopiracy. The New York Times, 20 March.
    Probst, G., Büchel, B. and Raub, S.1998. Knowledge as a strategic resource. in S.von Krogh, J.Roos and D.Kleine (eds), Knowing in Firms. London: Sage, 240–52.
    Prusak, L. (ed.) 1997. Knowledge in Organizations. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Philadelphia Suburban Corporation (PSC). 2001. Annual Report. Bryn Mawr, PA.
    Punnett, B.J. and Ricks, D.A.1997. International Business.
    Second Edition
    , Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Rabinow, P. 1996. Essays on the Anthropology of Reason. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Raines, A. 2001. The Cluster Approach and the Dynamics of Regional Policy-Making. Regional and Industrial Policy Papers No. 47. European Policies Research Centre, University of Strathclyde.
    Ricupero, R. 2001. Rebuilding confidence in the multilateral trading system. in G.Sampson (ed.), The Role of the World Trade Organization in Global Governance. Tokyo: United Nations University, 37–58.
    Rifkin, J. 2000. The Age of Access. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Roesenfeld, S.A.1997. Bringing business clusters into the mainstream of economic development. European Planning Studies, 5: 3–23.
    Ruggie, J. 1993. Territoriality and beyond. International Organization, 47: 139–74.
    Rupert, M. 2000. Ideologies of Globalization. London: Routledge.
    Russell, P.L.1995. The Chiapas Rebellion. Austin, TX: Mexico Resource Center.
    Saborio, S. 1992. The Premise and the Promise. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
    Sader, F. 2000. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment into Infrastructure. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Sally, R. 1994. Multinational enterprises, political economy and institutional theory. Review of International Political Economy, 1: 161–92.
    Sampson, G. (ed.) 2001. The Role of the World Trade Organization in Global Governance. Tokyo: United Nations University.
    Sassen, S. 1988. The Mobility of Labor and Capital. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sassen, S. 1996. Losing Control. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Sassen, S. 1998. Hong Kong: strategic site/new frontier. in C.Davidson (ed.), Anyhow. New York: MIT Press/Anyone Corp., 130–7.
    Saxenian, A. 1999. Silicon Valley's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, CA: Public Policy Institute of California.
    Schoenberger, E. 1997. The Cultural Crisis of the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Schoenberger, E. 1999. The firm in the region and the region in the firm. in T.J.Barnes, and M.S.Gertler (eds), The New Industrial Geography. London: Routledge, 205–24.
    Schoenberger, E. 2001. Interdisciplinarity and social power. Progress in Human Geography, 25: 365–82.
    Schumpeter, J. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Schurman, R. A.1996. Chile's new entrepreneurs and the ‘economic miracle’. Studies in Comparative International Development, 31: 83–109.
    Scott, A.J.1988a. New Industrial Spaces. London: Pion.
    Scott, A.J.1988b. Metropolis. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Scott, A.J.1992. The spatial organisation of a labour market. Growth and Change, 23: 94–115.
    Scott, A.J.2000. Economic geography: the great half-century. in G.L.Clark, M.A.Feldman and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 18–44.
    Scott, A.J. (ed.) 2001. Global City-Regions. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Scott, A.J. and Storper, M.1992. Industrialization and regional development. in M.Storper and A.J.Scott (eds), Pathways to Industrialization and Regional Development. London: Routledge, 3–17.
    Sedgwick, E. K. and Frank, A. (eds) 1995. Shame and Its Sisters. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Shand, H. 2001. Control and Ownership of GM Technology. Paper presented at the International Conference on Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development, Mexico City, February.
    Shatz, H.J. and Venables, A.J.2000. The geography of international investment. in G.L.Clark, M.A.Feldman and M.S.Gertler (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 125–45.
    Shaver, J.M.1998. Do foreign-owned and U.S.-owned establishments exhibit the same location pattern in U.S. Manufacturing industries? Journal of International Business Studies, 29: 469–92.
    Shaw, R. 1999. Reclaiming America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Sheppard, E. and Barnes, T.J. (eds) 2000. A Companion to Economic Geography. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Shin, D.-H.2001. Structures, Strengths, and Beneficiaries of Entrepreneurial Networks. Center for Global International & Regional Studies Working Paper #2001–1, University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Shoch, J. 2001. Trading Blows. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.
    Sidaway, J.D. and Pryke, M.2000. The strange geographies of ‘emerging markets’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 25, 187–201.
    Skeldon, R. 1994. Hong Kong in an international migration system. in R.Skeldon (ed.), Reluctant Exiles?. New York: M.E. Sharpe, 21–51.
    Sklair, L. 2001. The Transnational Capitalist Class. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Skypala, P. 2002. Pulled from the lair, they are not so scary. Financial Times Money FT, 9 March.
    Smart, A. and Smart, J.1998. Transnational social networks and negotiated identities in interactions between Hong Kong and China. in M.P.Smith and L.Guarnizo (eds), Transnationalism from Below. London: Transaction Publishers, 103–29.
    Smith, A.1893/1776.An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: Routledge.
    Smith, A.M.2002. Imagining geographies of the new Europe. Political Geography, 21: 647–70.
    Smith, M.P.2001. Transnational Urbanism. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Smith, M.P. and Guarnizo, L. (eds) 1998. Transnationalism from Below. London: Transaction Publishers.
    Smith, N. 1984. Uneven Development. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Sölvell, Ö and Bresman, H.1997. Local and global forces in the innovation process of the multinational enterprise. in H.Eskelinen (ed.), Regional Specialization and Local Environment. Stockholm: NordREFO.
    Stafford, B.M.1991. Body Criticism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Stafford, B.M.1996. Artful Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Stafford, B.M.1999. Visual Analogy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Standard and Poor's Emerging Markets Indices. 2001., accessed on 17 November 2001.
    Standing, G. 2002. Beyond the New Paternalism. London: Verso.
    Stonehouse, G., Hamill, J., Campbell, D. and Purdie, T.2000. Global and Transnational Business. Chichester: John Wiley.
    Stopford, J. and Strange, S.1991. Rival States, Rival Firms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Stopford, J. and Wells, L.T., Jr. 1972. Managing the Multinational Enterprise. New York: Basic Books.
    Storper, M. 1995. The resurgence of regional economies, ten years later. European Urban and Regional Studies, 3: 191–221.
    Storper, M. 1997. The Regional World. New York: Guilford.
    Story, J. 1999. The Frontiers of Fortune. London: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.
    Streeck, W. 1996. Lean production in the German automobile industry. in S.Berger and R.Dore (eds), National Diversity and Global Capitalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 138–70.
    Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux. 2001. Website
    Swyngedouw, E. 1997. Neither global nor local. in K.Cox (ed.), Spaces of Globalization. New York: Guilford Press, 137–66.
    Swyngedouw, E. 2000. Authoritarian governance, power, and the politics of rescaling. Environment and Planning D, 18: 63–76.
    Taylor, L. 1997. The revival of the liberal creed. World Development, 25: 145–52.
    Taylor, M. and Asheim, B.T.2001. The concept of the firm in economic geography. Economic Geography, 77: 315–28.
    Taylor, M. and Thrift, N. (eds) 1982. The Geography of Multinationals. London: Croom Helm.
    Taylor, M. and Thrift, N. (eds) 1986. Multinationals and the Restructuring of the World Economy. London: Croom Helm.
    Taylor, P.J., Watts, M.J. and Johnston, R.J.2001. Geography/globalization. GaWC Research Bulletin, No.41, Department of Geography, Loughborough University.
    The Economist. 1996. Showing Europe's firms the way. The Economist, 13 July.
    The Economist. 2001. ‘How to see through walls’. 20 September, Technology Supplement, 6.
    Thévenot, L.2001. Organised complexity: conventions of and co-ordination and the composition of economic arrangements. European Journal of Social Theory, 4: 405–25.
    Thiel, J., Pires, I. and Dudleston, A.2000. Globalization and the Portuguese textiles and clothing filière in the post-GATT climate. in A.Giunta, A.Lagendijk and A.Pike (eds), Restructuring Industry and Territory. London: Stationery Office, 109–26.
    Thomas, D. 1995. Chinese media mogul diversifies his empire. Financial Post, C10.
    Thornhill, J. 1994. Foreign speculators raise the stakes. Financial Times, 10 October.
    Thornhill, J. 1996. Russia: hot spot or black hole? Financial Times, 23 December.
    Thrift, N.J.1997. The rise of soft capitalism. Cultural Values, 1: 29–57.
    Thrift, N.J.1998. Virtual capitalism. in J.Carrier and D.Miller (eds), Virtualism. Oxford: Berg, 161–86.
    Thrift, N.J.1999. The place of complexity. Theory Culture and Society, 16: 31–70.
    Thrift, N.J.2000. Performing cultures in the new economy. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90: 674–92.
    Thrift, N.J.2001. It's the romance not the finance that makes the business worth pursuing. Economy and Society, 30: 412–32.
    Thrift, N.J.2002. Summoning life. in P.Cloke, P.Crang and M.Goodwin (eds), Envisioning Geography. London, Edward Arnold, (forthcoming).
    Thrift, N.J. and French, S.2002. The automatic production of space. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 27 (forthcoming).
    Thrift, N.J. and Olds, K.1996. Refiguring the economic in economic geography. Progress in Human Geography, 20: 311–37.
    Tickell, A. and Peck, J.A.1992. Accumulation, regulation and the geographies of post-Fordism. Progress in Human Geography, 16: 190–218.
    Tickell, A.T. and Dicken, P.1993. The role of inward investment promotion in economic development strategies. Local Economy, 8: 197–208.
    Tricks, H. 2000. Mexico makes the grade. Financial Times, 9 March.
    Tudor, G. 2000. Roller Coaster. London: Reuters/Pearson Education.
    Twomey, M.J.2001. A Century of Foreign Investment in Mexico. Paper presented at the First Congress of Mexican Economic History, Mexico, October,, accessed on 25 March 2002.
    UBS Warburg (UBS). 2001. Earnings Review: Philadelphia Suburban. New York, 14 June.
    Ul Haq, M.1996. The Bretton Woods institutions and global governance. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Ulmer, G. 1989. Teletheory. London: Routledge.
    UNCTAD. 1993. World Investment Report, 1993. New York: United Nations.
    UNCTAD. 1994. World Investment Report 1994. New York: United Nations
    UNCTAD. 2001. World Investment Report 2001. New York: United Nations
    UNCTAD. 2002. Trade and Development Report 2002. New York: United Nations
    US Department of Commerce. 2000. Environmental Technologies and Services. In US Industry and Trade Outlook, 2000. Washington, DC: Department of Commerce, 20–1 to 20–20.
    US Filter. 2001. Website at
    US Water News Online. 1997. Demand surging in Asia's water/wastewater markets. November.
    US Water News Online. 2000a. Thames buy makes RWE global water no. 3. November.
    US Water News Online. 2000b. Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux completes acquisition of United Water Resources. August.
    Valdes, J. G.1995. Pinochet's Economists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Van Leenep, Emile.1996. Comments on ‘Managing the World Economy Under the Bretton Woods System’. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    Vann, K. and Bowker, G.2001. Installing the truth of practice. Social Epistemology, 15: 247–62.
    Velthuis, O. 1999. The changing relationship between economic sociology and institutional economics. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 8: 629–49.
    Vernon, R. 1966. International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 80: 190–207.
    Vicari, S. and Toniolo, G.1998. Errors and learning in organizations. in G.von Krogh, J.Roos, and D.Kleine (eds), Knowing in Firms. London: Sage, 204–22.
    Vivendi Environnement. 2001a. Documents comptables annuels. (Annual Report), Bulletin des Annonces Legales Obligatoires (BOLA), Paris, 13 April: 4809–4828. Available from Vivendi Environnement website:
    Vivendi Environnement. 2001b. Website:
    Vivendi Enviornnement. 2001c. Presentation of Financial Statements, FY 2000.’ Available from Vivendi Environnement website:
    von Hippel, E.1988. The Sources of Innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    von Krogh, G., Ichijo, K. and Nonaka, I.2000. Enabling Knowledge Creation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Wacquant, L. 1999. How penal common sense comes to Europeans. European Societies, 1: 319–52.
    Wade, R. 1990. Governing the Market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Walker, R. 1989. A requiem for corporate geography. Geografiska Annaler B, 71: 43–68.
    Wall, L., Christiansen, T. and Orwant, J.2000. Programming Perl. London: O'Reilly.
    Wallach, L. and Sforza, M.1999. Whose Trade Organization?Washinton, DC: Public Citizen.
    Waste Management, Inc., 2001a. Annual Report, 2000. Houston, TX.
    Waste Management, Inc. 2001b. 10-K Report. Washington, DC: Securities and Exchange Commission.
    Weick, K.E.2001. Making Sense of the Organization. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Wenger, E. and Snyder, W.H.2000. Communities of practice. Harvard Business Review, 78: 139–45.
    Wever, K. 1995. Negotiating Competitiveness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Whatmore, S. and Thorne, L.1997. Nourishing networks. in D.J.Goodman and M.J.Watts (eds), Globalizing Food. London: Routledge, 287–304.
    Whatmore, S.J.2002. Hybrid Geographies. London, Sage.
    Whitford, J. 2001. The decline of a model?Economy and Society, 30: 38–65.
    Whitley, R. D.1992. Business Systems in East Asia. London: Sage.
    Whitley, R. D.1999. Divergent Capitalisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Williamson, O.E.1970. Corporate Control and Business Behaviour. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
    Williamson, O.E.1975. Markets and Hierarchies. New York: The Free Press.
    Wolf, M. 2001. After Argentina. Financial Times, 21 December.
    Wolf, M. 2002. Countries still rule the world. Financial Times, 6 February.
    Wolff, Alan.1996. Comments on ‘Managing the Trading System’. in P.B.Kenen (ed.), Managing the World Economy. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
    World Bank. 2000. Global Development Finance. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Bank. 2002. Globalization, Growth and Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Yeoh, B. and Chang, T.C.2001. Globalizing Singapore. Urban Studies, 38: 1025–44.
    Yeung, H.W.C.1994. Critical reviews of geographical perspectives on business organizations and the organization of production. Progress in Human Geography, 18: 460–90.
    Yeung, H.W.C.1998a. Capital, state and space. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 23: 291–309.
    Yeung, H.W.C.1998b. Transnational Corporations and Business Networks. London: Routledge.
    Yeung, H.W.C.1998c. The political economy of transnational corporations. Political Geography, 17: 389–416.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2000a. Organising ‘the firm’ in industrial geography I. Progress in Human Geography, 24: 301–15.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2000b. The dynamics of Asian business systems in a globalizing era. Review of International Political Economy, 7: 399–433.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2001. Regulating ‘the firm’ and socio-cultural practices in industrial geography II. Progress in Human Geography, 25: 293–302.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2002a. The limits to globalization theory. Economic Geography, 78: 285–305.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2002b. Entrepreneurship and the Internationalization of Asian Firms. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Yeung, H.W.C.2003. Practicing new economic geographies. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93 (forthcoming).
    Yeung, H.W.C., Poon, J. and Perry, M.2001. Towards a regional strategy. Urban Studies, 38: 157–83.
    Yoffie, D. 1993. Beyond Free Trade. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Zukin, S. and DiMaggio, P. (eds) 1990. Structures of Capital. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website