Intended as supplemental reading in courses on theories of development, this book augments traditional core texts by providing students with more depth on about two dozen recent and emerging theories that have appeared over the past 20 years. This period has seen a decline of the traditional "grand" theories that attempt to apply to all people all the time in favor of "micro theories" that focus more on individual differences, so a book like this actually points the way toward the future rather than dryly reviewing the past. In addition, the author inspects the changing ways in which the concept of "theory" itself has been interpreted during this period, and he concludes with a chapter suggesting future directions.
Chapter 9: Growing up in Poverty
Growing up in Poverty
Portrayals of how and why people in different social-class strata grow up as they do are not unique to the closing decades of the 20th century. Such portrayals obviously have a long history. Even though Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) cast his book Emile in the guise of a novel, his account was actually a thinly masked prescriptive theory of how boys (Emile) and girls (Gertrude) in economically privileged families should develop. In the 19th century, Charles Dickens' (1812–1870) novels ranged across the English social strata, contrasting the lives of people in poverty with the lives of those in the middle and upper classes. In the United States, Horatio Alger, Jr., (1832–1899) penned dozens of idealized tales picturing youths of ...