Realizing the Promise of 21st-Century Education: An Owner's Manual
Publication Year: 2012
Keys to building a new generation of courses and schools
While many futurists tout the value of teaching students 21st-century skills, bridging the concept with the practice is best accomplished by professional educators. Authors Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun know how to actualize the critical reforms that enable schools to prepare students for today's workforce. They outline a clear vision for advancing school reform that emphasizes infusing technology across the curriculum. Specific steps include: Providing technology access to all students to promote equity and engagement; Developing hybrid courses that prepare students to meet 21st-century needs; Designing professional development that connects technology to teaching; Improving literacy instruction; Changing the high school paradigm; Involving teachers, parents, and community members in school leadership
We have a tremendous opportunity to bridge ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter One: A New Chance to Live Our Dreams
- Chapter Two: Terms of Convenience—Building a New Language for Teaching and Learning
- Chapter Three: Educating at the Level of the Highest Ideas of Our Time—Enlarging Moral Purpose in the Pursuit of Equity and Excellence
- Chapter Four: Promises—Educational Renewal Is Getting a Lift
- Chapter Five: Platforms for Education—The Enhanced School/Home Educational System
- Chapter Six: The 21st-Century Skills
- Chapter Seven: The Responsible Parties—The Essential Local Democratic Process
- Chapter Eight: Near-Term Development—Hybrid Instruction and Learning Platforms Near and Far
- Chapter Nine: Crossroads—Actually Cloverleafs—for the High School
- Chapter Ten: The School as a Platform for Professional Development—The Reciprocal Concept
Copyright © 2012 by Corwin
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Joyce, Bruce R.
Realizing the promise of 21st-century education : an owner's manual / Bruce Joyce, Emily Calhoun.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-8824-7 (pbk.)
1. Education—United States—History—21st century. I. Calhoun, Emily. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
11 12 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Dan Alpert
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Bartlett
Production Editor: Libby Larson
Copy Editor: Paula L. Fleming
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Theresa Kay
Cover Designer: Scott van Atta
As Emily and I reached the last stages of working with the copyedited manuscript—essentially our last chance to improve it—we found ourselves sitting on our patio and asking each other whether we had made our messages clear. Back and forth the conversation went as we reflected on the last 18 months of study and writing and tried to put the primary theses and recommendations into a few words.
Where did our inquiry begin?
Saint Simons Island, Georgiaand ,
- As educators, we were intrigued by the question of how schooling could capitalize on the remarkable development of digital information and communication technology (ICT) and ICT's massive influence in modern life across the world. ICT is defining the 21st century, not just in technological terms but through its pervasive influence on social relations and on how individuals, especially our youth, use their time. Rapid access to expansive knowledge bases provides information that affects the solving of problems large and small. In addition to making differences now, ICT promises future positive changes in many areas, including education.
- However, we were struck by the uncertainty about how education would change itself: How would it respond to the opportunity to improve, not just by adopting elements of technology but by creating new ways of stimulating student learning? We were acutely aware that many school systems and school faculties struggle to identify priority areas for development and struggle to implement desirable changes they have identified.
Some teachers and schools have just reached out and helped themselves and their children to expanded learning opportunities. They have changed their courses of study at the elementary and secondary levels, transformed homework into self-education, and [Page vi]connected the school and parents in new and productive ways. As a whole, however, educators have had difficulty deciding where to put energy; what devices to supply to classrooms, students, and homes; and how to go about incorporating ICT optimally in K–12 curriculum areas. Finding ways to proceed is very important; it is in fact of critical importance at this time.
- We worry that, if schools and school districts do not move forcefully, teachers are likely to find themselves being monitors of distance courses that supplant campus instruction. Various agencies are currently building online and distance offerings as rapidly as they can. Secondary school students are increasingly completing off-campus courses and presenting them for graduation credit. Commercial developers are pressing the entire K–12 spectrum to adopt their offerings.
Suddenly, teachers, schools, and districts are faced with an extraordinary choice.
- They can just let matters take their course and continue to conduct education as in the past.
- They can adopt distance offerings in the core areas and accept that developers will make decisions about content and process.
- Or they can use the opportunity to rebuild their K–12 programs, incorporating ICT to transform traditional campus offerings into hybrids that blend ICT into the core areas in service of stronger student learning.
- This last option is our recommendation—the core of our position on policy and action. We believe that the best avenue for public education in Grades K through 12 is for faculties to organize themselves into development units that rework the campus offerings (current courses of study at the elementary and secondary levels) and build a new and better generation of education—essentially “hybrid” courses. In these courses, ICT resources are integrated into the implementation of quality curricula on current school campuses. Vast assets stand ready to be incorporated as educators at all levels, scholars, students, and professionals from around the world have access to each other at the click of a mouse or tap of a key. A new type of development-oriented professional development can easily be organized by building on the curriculum study and professional learning communities already in place in many school systems.
[Page vii]The promises of the 21st century can be realized through some hard but exhilarating work: exhilarating because redeveloping the educational program will propel teachers and administrators into high states of growth. Their learning will be broadened and accelerated to an extent that we have never seen.
- We also realized that successful student learning will depend on making a major effort to improve literacy curriculum across Grades K–12 and across all subjects. Digital tools can help students develop good reading and writing skills by providing myriad opportunities for practice and application. Students with limited language arts and information literacy skills will struggle with ICT applications in the content areas. Learning platforms for these students must be strengthened.
The literacy development of our students demands better professional development. Teachers presently are doing the best they can with what they know, but many of us will have to learn models of teaching that are currently unfamiliar if students’ literacy is to improve rapidly enough to help them experience success in school and beyond.
- Similarly, we came to understand that students will have to master cooperative/inductive/inquiry-oriented ways of learning—and that will not happen unless teachers master these ways of learning. (Everywhere we turned, we found another need for first-class professional development.) ICT skills can lead to information overload without increasing understanding of the concepts that form a domain of study. We need more instruction and curricula in which students gather information, learn to classify and organize it to increase understanding and use of concepts, and put their learning to work in solving problems and generating new ideas. Learning to work inductively and build inquiries supports both in-school and lifelong learning.
- We agreed that our natural optimism was refreshed because we saw avenues for solving some problems that have been intractable. For example, low socioeconomic status (SES) has had a terrifying effect on the development of literacy for many and on their access to learning opportunities. Providing access to ICT, incorporating language arts and information literacy in all courses, and teaching students how to learn can ameliorate the SES-related problem seriously.
- We wanted to address actions that school districts and school faculties can take now. We wanted not just to provide grand examples of what [Page viii]is possible with extraordinary leadership and funding but to illustrate actions that any willing faculty can pursue. For the fulfillment of the opportunity to improve education will not come to us—we have to go to it. Whether the promise of the century will be realized in public K–12 education is primarily a matter of the will and work of those who reside there.
We have again appreciated working with the Corwin organization in the production of this book. In particular, Dan Alpert, acquisitions editor, worked through the draft manuscript knowledgeably, thoughtfully, and assiduously. Paula Fleming edited the book and prepared it to be printed in an exemplary manner. Together, they make the best support we have ever had.—and [Page xiv]
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Annotated Bibliography[Page 154]I. ThemesWe have been inspired by the surviving writings of the philosophers from the Greek classics to The Audacity of Hope. We'll list just a couple here. Ortega y Gasset captured the essence of modern education in a succinct and compelling style. Halberstam dealt with our culture incisively, captured the changes that electronic media were making in our behavior and, in so doing, forecast our current promises.1993). The fifties. New York, NY: Random House.(1992). Mission of the university. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. (Original work published 1930).(II. Problems to AddressNeeds are everywhere, but the secondary school is falling apart. Coughlin captured one of the current dilemmas eloquently. Kirn brought forward a major problem that is usually swept under the pundit rug.2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, Grades 6–12: A framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(Deals with one of the major issues in American education. Millions of students need to be helped—again, right now!2010). High school at a crossroads. Educational Leadership, 67(7), 48–53. Retrieved from http://learningthenow.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/High-Schools-at-a-Crossroads-Ed-Coughlin2.pdf(Coughlin presents the disturbing proposition that many high schools may become mere credential-counting offices as students present credits rather[Page 155]than attending on-campus courses. As some districts build virtual high schools, they are inviting that consequence.1984). The phoenix agenda: Essential reform in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 13(4), 5–18. doi:10.3102/0013189X013004005 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X013004005, & (After all these years, the issues facing teacher education have not changed much. In a worst-case scenario, the much-maligned teacher education curriculum may simply go online.2010, February 28). Class dismissed. New York Times Magazine, 11–12. Retrieved at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/magazine/28FOB-wwln-t.html(After describing the weird changes in the senior year for many students, Kirn raises a reasonable question. Essentially, the year represents a chunk of life that should have a fine and academic quality. If we can't provide that, he argues, perhaps we'd be better off eliminating it.2011, March 6). Degrees and dollars. New York Times, p. A19. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/07/opinion/07krugman.html(Points out that education as we have known it will not solve the problems of unemployment because technology is taking the place of many operations that were previously done by people—a very serious challenge.2011). Creating virtual classrooms for rural and remote communities. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(6), 22–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172171109200605, , & (This is an obvious application of ICT. Essentially states, and possibly the nation, should become hot spots. Rural teachers can develop fabulous hybrid courses that take the world to their students.2011). Transforming education with technology: A conversation with Karen Cator. Educational Leadership, 68(5), 16–21.(Cator is the director of the Office of Educational Technology in the U.S. Department of Education. Cator is down to earth. She agrees with our contention that teachers are not immigrants to a new country inhabited by more technology-efficient students. “We have to get beyond calling teachers digital immigrants” (p. 21). On the other hand, she stresses that we are just at the beginning stages of capitalizing on ICT.III. Provocative Analyses: A Sampling2009). Maine 1-to-1 effort moves forward. Education Week Digital Directions, 3(1), 14–15. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2009/10/21/01maine.h03.html(Maine's effort to try to put computers into the hands of every student is worth applauding.[Page 156]2009). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(The futurists are concentrating on artificial intelligence, first augmenting human intelligence and then, possibly, surpassing it.2010, July 8). The medium is the medium. New York Times, p. A17. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/09/opinion/09brooks.html(The always-thoughtful Brooks comments on how what becomes captured by a media presentation becomes a reality in its own right.2010). The shallows: What the Internet is doing to our brains. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.(An omigod analysis. Claims that our minds are being “Googled.”2009). Rethinking education in the age of technology: The digital revolution and schooling in America. New York, NY: Teachers College Press., & (A general treatment of many ICT possibilities.Dalton School. (2010). The Dalton Technology Plan. Retrieved from http://dalton.org/program/technology/plan/A small private school, long a star, is not afraid to move into the new world.2010). Unbundling schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(3), 41–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003172171009200312, & (Some conservative educators really outdo themselves in their desire to control the curriculum through virtual schools.2002). Orality and literacy: The technologizing of the word. London, UK: Routledge.(This seminal piece raises the issue of whether long centuries of changing practice affect cognitions.The Open University (http://www.open.ac.uk/)Founded 50 years ago by the government, The Open University offers not only a full undergraduate menu but a great number of graduate programs. From the beginning it has used distance means (broadcast television has only recently been discontinued because other technologies now fill its place) supplemented with tutorial centers. Evaluation of courses is rigorous. Many students are employed full-time (most employers have helped out with time and money) and more than 3,000,000 have graduated. As ICT becomes more accessible and its resources richer, OU will only get better. We have a special fondness because we have had extensive contact with their press, including publishing with them, and have become acquainted with their enthusiastic and very competent staff.2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.([Page 157]The title has captured the imaginations of many people, but it is a somewhat romantic depiction of young folks and a pessimistic view of older folks, such as teachers. The idea that the school can become out-of-date with respect to the mainstream culture is a serious one.2010, June 13). Merely human? That's so yesterday. New York Times, pp. BU1–BU2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/13/business/13sing.html(Discusses the Singularity movement with its emphasis on using very complex advances to support and enhance human capacity.Promises Fulfilled by Distance Media for Half a CenturyTwo marvelous initiatives capture the immensity of social change that can be generated by distance education: The Open University and Sesame Street. Here are two studies, 40 years apart, that came to the same positive conclusion about Sesame Street.1970). The first year ofSesame Street. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service., & (An early and very thorough study. Effects on language development were greatest where schools as well as homes brought the program to the children and teachers were active in following up on the content in their classes.2010). Ready to learn summative evaluation. New York, NY: Center for Children and Technology., , , , , , & (Sesame Street appears again, 40 years later, as a federal initiative in literacy incorporates media and technology. Results are modest, but, as with Sesame Street, many students are reached.IV. Some New Government ProposalsCouncil of Chief State School Officers, Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium. (2010). Model core teaching standards: A resource for state dialogue—Draft for public comment. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.Federal Communications Commission. National broadband plan: Connecting America. Retrieved from http://www.broadband.gov/plan/Office of Educational Technology, U.S. Department of Education. (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/sites/default/files/NETP-2010-final-report.pdfV. Literacy as Part of the Theme2010). Graduate enrollment and degrees, 1999–2009. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools. Retrieved from http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/R_ED2009.pdf([Page 158]A reliable source. About 1.8 million students are currently enrolled in graduate studies. Nearly one-fifth are not U.S. citizens. About three-fifths are females. And last year for the first time, more females than males received doctoral degrees.1991). Word processing and writing in elementary classrooms: A critical review of related literature. Review of Educational Research, 61(1), 107–155. doi:10.3102/00346543061001107 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543061001107(Occasionally a study confirms the remarkable effects of better achievement in the basic curriculum areas. This is one of them. The most important conclusion of this study is that how writing is taught affects the impact of word processing in classrooms. If instruction is poor, the use of technology makes no difference.2009). A synthesis of reading interventions and effects on reading comprehension outcomes for older struggling readers. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 262–300. doi:10.3102/0034654308325998 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654308325998, , , , , , & (The review brings together a number of interventions for students in Grades 6 to 12. They varied from a half year to a full year and had an average effect size over 0.80. Essentially provides evidence that doing something is the important thing. On the whole, high schools have usually not developed this sort of intervention. The situation is not hopeless, but action is necessary.2005). Success with struggling readers: The benchmark school approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.(2000). Is handwriting causally related to learning to write? Treatment of handwriting problems in beginning writers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(4), 620–633. doi:10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.110 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1680, , & (1996). A review of handwriting research: Progress and prospects from 1980 to 1994. Education Psychology Review, 8(1), 7–87. doi:10.1007/BF01761831 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01761831, & (2008). Stuck in the shallow end: Education, race, and computing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., , , , & (A passionate book detailing the terrible inequities in access to computers and instruction in the early 2000s. Makes the serious point that access is a part of instruction.2010). The effects of vocabulary intervention on young children's word learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 300–335. doi:10.3102/0034654310377087 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654310377087, & (Examined 67 preK and K studies with 216 effect sizes. The average effect on word learning (vocabulary) was 0.88. However, SES was a factor. The higher the SES of the students’ parents, the greater the effects.2003). Bridging the summer reading gap. Instructor, 112(8), 17–19., & (Just providing books to low-SES kids made a big difference in achievement and pride.[Page 159]1990). The prediction of college course performance from reading comprehension performance: Evidence for general and specific prediction factors. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 158–179. doi:10.3102/00028312027001158 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312027001158, , , & (The title says it all. Competence in reading comprehension accounted for 30 percent of student performance in courses in a pair of experiments.2005). Literacy learning of at-risk first-grade students in the Reading Recovery intervention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 257–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1247(A very good treatment of one of the major programs to help struggling first-grade readers. Contains extensive analysis of results.1991). Equity and computers in the schools: A decade of research. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 475–503. doi:10.3102/00346543061004475 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543061004475(When this was written, access to computers was inversely correlated with SES, and the difference appeared to be exacerbating inequity—this despite the massive Title I program.2002). Tracing teachers’ use of technology in a laptop computer school: The interplay of teacher beliefs, social dynamics, and institutional culture. American Educational Research Journal, 39(1), 165–205. doi:10.3102/00028312039001165 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312039001165, & (The ubiquitous presence of technology did not generate a movement toward constructivist teaching. However, teachers who were dissatisfied with normative teaching took advantage of the technology to generate cooperative and project-based teaching.2003). Factors affecting technology uses in schools: An ecological perspective. American Educational Research Journal, 40(4), 807–840. doi:10.3102/00028312040004807 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312040004807, & (The familiar essentials—leadership, collegiality, and professional development—are outlined and rationalized very well.VI. On Inductive Curriculum and TeachingThe challenge of the 21st century is to teach students how to learn. Technology greatly expands their possibilities, but teaching students to study inductively, to inquire into content, to take on problems, and to do so cooperatively is the core goal of effective campus and distance courses. There is now ample evidence that the success of ICT depends utterly on the models of teaching and learning that are employed.Fortunately, we have a massive body of literature on how to do this. What follows is a small sample that includes studies from several perspectives, with some items annotated briefly.[Page 160]1988). The interaction of domain-specific and strategic knowledge in academic performance. Review of Educational Research, 58(4), 375–404. doi:10.3102/00346543058004375 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543058004375, & (This is where the teachers’ different roles in teaching students to learn conceptually interact. Where teachers have strategic, conceptual control of content, students learn to think conceptually and learn more.1970). Logical thinking in the second grade. New York: Teachers College Press.(One of the greatest studies of the impact of inductive/inquiry/cooperative teaching/learning on the development of the intellect. The discipline-based inquiry approaches to the teaching of science, mathematics, and social studies were brought together for these primary-grade students, and their capacity to think logically—the ability to learn intelligently—increased.2010). Teacher's mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133–180. doi:10.3102/0002831209345157 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831209345157, , , , , ,… (You can't just tell the students to go off and inquire; you have to inquire yourself. A nice study that ties teacher knowledge and use of that knowledge to student learning.1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher13(6), 4–16. doi:10.3102/0013189X013006004 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X013006004(One-on-one turoring brought out more intensity of inquiry for the students.1993). Long-term effects of the Calculus Workshop Model. Cooperative Learning, 13(3), 19–20.(Conducted with entering students in engineering, this approach improved passing rates dramatically by bringing students together to inquire into the subject matter.1983). Effects of activity-based elementary science on student outcomes: A quantitative synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 499–518. doi:10.3102/00346543053004499 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543053004499(From the 1950s through the 1970s, the National Science Foundation and private foundations made substantial initiatives in the sciences, mathematics, and social studies, basing their approaches on the structures of the disciplines and their modes of inquiry. Bredderman brought together 57 studies with 900 classrooms involving three approaches with more than 25,000 elementary school children. The conceptual/inquiry curriculums generated more learning of content, concepts, methods of inquiry, and attitudes toward science. The findings embraced all disciplines as well as intergrated and separate-subject approaches. They applied to children of all grades, all SES levels, English language learners, and students qualified for[Page 161]special education (mild to moderate levels). These findings have been repeated in a variety of studies over the years.1997). Learning by understanding: The role of multiple representations in learning algebra. American Educational Research Journal, 34(4), 663–689. doi:10.3102/00028312034004663 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312034004663, , , , , , & (A straightforward study. Electronic media expands the ways in which content can be seen and the dimensions by which it can be learned.1997). Gender and science learning early in high school: Subject matter and laboratory experiences. American Educational Research Journal, 34(2), 297–331. doi:10.3102/00028312034002297 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312034002297, , & (A large-scale study of tenth-grade achievement in science with a particularly interesting conclusion: that hands-on laboratory experiences, while benefitting all students, were of particular benefit to females.1999). Teaching beginning reading and writing with the Picture Word Inductive Model. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. A natural language, inductive approach that is well studied and very effective.(1942). Did they succeed in college? The follow-up study of the graduates of the thirty schools. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers., , , & (The great study that explored whether cooperative, inquiry-oriented schools prepared their students for college as well as delivery-oriented schools did.1993). Strategy mastery by at-risk students: Not a simple matter. Elementary School Journal, 94(2), 153–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461757, & (The most important finding is that students identified as “at risk,” including generic problems (e.g., ADHD) and specific problems (e.g., verifiable learning disabilities), can learn strategies that enable them to improve their achievement in the core curriculum areas. The treatments include the Sentence Writing strategy, the TAPE paraphrasing strategy, and the Visual Imagery strategy.1979). A meta-analysis of the outcomes of teaching biology as inquiry (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.(This was one of the most thorough reviews of studies of the implementation of academic reform movement programs in secondary schools. The findings parallel those in the elementary programs, but effect sizes were generally larger.2009). Learner performance in multimedia learning arrangements: An analysis across instructional approaches. American Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 1107–1149. doi:10.3102/0002831209340235 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831209340235, , , , , & ([Page 162]Indicated advantages in self-explanations and the development of experiments. Most important was that all appeared to engage the students positively. Inquiry stood up well.1998). High-achieving students’ interactions and performance on complex mathematical tasks as a function of homogeneous and heterogeneous pairings. American Educational Research Journal, 35(2), 227–267. doi:10.3102/00028312035002227 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312035002227, , , & (Third- and fourth-grade high-achieving students were assigned to study groups in homogeneous and heterogeneous achievement pairs. The heterogeneously assigned high achievers performed better, confirming the hypothesis that differences are synergistically positive. Heterogeneity generates greater inquiry and conceptual understanding.1978). Memory structures and learning outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 48(2), 187–222., & (A major piece on cognitive learning. Makes the case that long-term retention and transfer of learning depends on building networks of concepts where information and skills are nested and retrievable.1999). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (, & (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.A thorough review of the varieties of cooperative study that generate positive interdependence.2009). Models of teaching. Boston, MA: Pearson., , & (Discusses a spectrum of models, including combinations that make up the cooperative, inductive, inquiry complex.2008). Perceptual learning and the technology of expertise: Studies in fraction learning and algebra. Pragmatics & Cognition, 16(2), 356–405., , , , , , … (A group of cognitive psychologists from several universities, including the University of Pennsylvania and the University of California at Los Angeles, are examining how people build categories from a perceptual discrimination point of view. Essentially, discrimination of the characteristics of items is at or near the core of concept development. They are contributing to our understanding, and their work suggests support for the contention that inductive thinking is at the core of higher-order skills.2008). Inductive reasoning: A training approach. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 85–123. doi:10.3102/0034654307313402 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654307313402, & (This study examined the effects of curricula on teaching students inductive processes. Looking at the results of 74 studies involving 3,600 children, it found positive effects on measures of cognitive functioning—essentially, general intelligence—as well as positive effects on academic performance.[Page 163]1995). Teaching for meaning in high-poverty classrooms. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.(In 140 high-poverty classrooms, teaching for meaning—comprehension—generated more growth than did teaching with an emphasis on skills.2003). Enhancing mathematical reasoning in the classroom: The effects of cooperative learning and metacognitive training. American Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 281–310. doi:10.3102/00028312040001281 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312040001281, & (This study of 384 subjects in eighth grade demonstrated that a combination of cooperative/metacognitive strategies outperformed the effects of either cooperative or metacognitive strategies alone.1991). A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning. American Educational Research Journal, 28(1), 117–153. doi:10.3102/00028312028001117 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312028001117, & (This study followed Grades 1 and 2 students who received supplementary instruction in science concept maps through audio tutorials throughout their school careers. There was considerable variance within the trained group and a control group, but overall, the effects could be seen in science learning throughout the students’ time in school.2010). Methods of instructional improvement in algebra: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 372–400. doi:10.3102/0034654310374880 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654310374880, , , & (This study examined five innovations in the teaching of algebra, including technology assists. All improved student learning, but the concept-oriented innovations generated effect sizes double those that focused on procedural content.1965). Biological Sciences Curriculum Study: Biology teachers’ handbook. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.(One of the most important designers of science curriculum and accompanying professional development.1980). Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations. Review of Educational Research, 50(2), 241–271. doi:10.3102/00346543050002241 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543050002241(Indicates how complex cooperative inquiry increases conceptual work and reduces the effects of ethnic, SES, and learning history.1994). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice ((2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.An extensive review, particularly of the structured approaches to cooperative learning.[Page 164]2008). Effective programs in elementary mathematics: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 427–515. doi:10.3102/0034654308317473 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654308317473, & (The best effects were seen in programs that emphasized instructional processes, such as cooperative learning.1995). The cooperative elementary school: Effects on students’ achievement, attitudes, and social relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 321–351. doi:10.3102/00028312032002321 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312032002321, & (Describes a “cooperative immersion” school with positive effects on students, including special education and gifted students who were taught in heterogeneous cooperative groups.1980). The teaching of concepts: A review of instructional design research literature. Review of Educational Research, 50(1), 55–70. doi:10.3102/00346543050001055 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543050001055, & (The concept-attainment model is the focus here. Particularly important is the test of the hypothesis that the learning of concepts facilitates both long-term retention and transfer to problem-solving situations.1981). Relationship between range of examples and of instructions and attention in concept attainment. Journal of Educational Research, 74(3), 144–148., & (VII. Formative Evaluation2006). Common formative assessments: How to connect standards-based instruction and assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (A survey of practices—useful for practitioners who need help as they generate and implement performance testing.1971). Handbook on formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill., , & (The book that distinguished between formative and summative evaluation, this work has had a major impact on both evaluation and research design.2004). Using data to assess your reading program. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(This is a comprehensive kit. If you really want to know, this will lead you to processes and resources.2008). Transformative assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(A compact treatment of the real difference between normative and performance tests and a full-scale argument for embedded formative evaluation. The[Page 165]apologists for norm-referenced tests have not provided an adequate answer—chiefly because there is no rational defense. But the commercial test makers and their benefactors under No Child Left Behind continue on their obsolete and self-enriching courses.VIII. Definitions of 21st-Century SkillsThis body of literature is becoming huge. A good bit of material is on the web, much from the Partnership for 21st Century Skills (http://www.21stcenturyskills.org), and a number of books have been published on the vision (see, for example, The Achievement Gap by Tony Wagner and Catching Up or Leading the Way by Yong Zhao). Some of the visionary books will be quite successful. Wagner has a substantial following, and Zhao is building one.Following are examples from various perspectives:2008). Powerful learning: What we know about teaching for understanding. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass., , & (Thin on data, but eloquent in the argument that students need to be taught not just ideas but how to create them. Sponsored by the George Lucas Educational Foundation.2006). Multiple intelligences: New horizons. New York, NY: Basic Books.(The eloquent standard for arguments that teaching students how to think is the central goal of education and that it comes in many forms.2010). 21st century skills: Why they matter, what they are, and how we get there. In J. A.Bellanca, & R. S.Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp. xiii–xxi). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.(An early chapter in a book in which two dozen educators discuss the future. This is a succinct statement of the frame of reference of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills.2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don't teach the new survival skills our children need—and what we can do about it. New York, NY: Basic Books.(Despite the outrageous title, Wagner eloquently argues for basic changes necessitated by technological development and the new flat world.2009). Catching up or leading the way: American education in the age of globalization. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(Another eloquent argument for school renewal necessitated by technological developments and global change.[Page 166]IX. Implementation and Professional Development in ICTWe reference descriptive studies that show that simply providing hardware and software does not result in instructional use in many schools unless there is strong leadership and rich staff development. Too, there is a small but emerging literature on professional development as such in the digital world.2009). Changing conceptions and uses of computer technologies in the everyday: Literacy practices of sixth and seventh graders. Research in the Teaching of English, 43(4), 363–396., & (This type of research is hard to pull off, but the estimates and analysis make good sense.2010). Learning on demand: Online education in the United States, 2009. Retrieved from Sloan Consortium website: http://sloanconsortium.org/publications/survey/pdf/learningondemand.pdf, & (A general view with some data.2009, Fall). Can teachers “learn” in an online environment?Kappa Delta Pi Record, 46(1), 34–38. Retrieved from http://www.kdp.org/publications/pdf/record/fall09/RF09_Clary.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2009.10516689, & (A nice beginning to research on this important subject.2001). High access and low use of technologies in high school classrooms: Explaining an apparent paradox. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 813–834. doi:10.3102/00028312038004813 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004813, , & (The researchers studied use of computers and software for instruction in schools in the heart of Silicon Valley and concluded that access rarely affected curriculum and instruction and that when it was incorporated, it supported rather than changed existing patterns of schooling.1996). Creating the conditions for scientific literacy: A re-examination. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 261–295. doi:10.3102/00028312033002261 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312033002261, , & (Argues that extensive professional development is necessary and that changes in curriculum guides, standards, and assessments are relatively powerless.2001). What makes professional development effective? Results from a national sample of teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915–945. doi:10.3102/00028312038004915 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00028312038004915, , , , & (Emphasizes the practical, hands-on, site-based delivery of professional development, including self-study by teams.[Page 167]2010, February 28). In middle school, charting their course to college and beyond. New York Times, p. A19. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/01/education/01schools.html(At Linwood Middle School in North Brunswick, New Jersey, 428 sixth graders think about their futures.2011). Unmistakable impact: A partnership approach for dramatically improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(A careful look at the importance of a collaborative school culture.2003). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(A very important contributor to professional development discusses design and implementation.2010). Connecting instructional technology professional development to teacher and student outcomes. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 53–74. Retrieved from http://cct.edc.org/admin/publications/feature/JRTE%2043-1%20Martin%2055-76.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2010.10782561, , , , , & (One of the early attempts to conduct this difficult type of research. Like most studies on professional development, this one indicates that well-designed professional development, of sufficient length to deal with the content, can make a difference.2009). Does research-based professional development make a difference? A longitudinal investigation of teacher learning in technology integration. Teachers College Record, 111(5), 1195–1241.(Another nice beginning to research in the area, this article emphasizes that long-term, well-followed-up modes are effective.2008). Blended learning for professional development: An evaluation of a program for middle school mathematics and science teachers. Teachers College Record, 110(5), 1033–1064. Retrieved from http://www.yorku.ca/rowston/TCRfinal.pdf, , & (2010). Assessing new technological literacies. In F.Scheuermann & F.Pedró (Eds.), Assessing the effects of ICT in education: Indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons (pp. 121–142). Paris: Organisation for Economic and Co-operative Development.(2010–2011). Assessing teacher performance in the 21st century. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(2), 41., & (A thoughtful reminder that teachers’ knowledge of ICT and how to use it will be an important dimension of their competence.2010). Professional development in the United States: Trends and challenges. Dallas, TX: National Council for Staff, , & ([Page 168]Development. Retrieved from http://www.nsdc.org/news/NSDCstudytechnicalreport2010.pdfReports teachers’ descriptions of professional development they experienced and found to be effective. Taken largely from the SASS surveys by the National Center for Educational Statistics. Emphasizes down-to-earth, practical experiences of some length that are related to the workplace in an ongoing fashion. Does not deal with effects.Resources: Some Places to GoWe can't begin to give you a comprehensive list, but start with these resources and you will have a good beginning.Some of the professional organizations are doing a fine job of distributing ideas and even explicit lesson plans. The National Council for the Social Studies (see Social Education and Social Studies for the Young Learner) and the journals of the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics and the National Science Teachers Organization are filled with ideas.2007). Digital age: Technology-based K–12 lesson plans for social studies. Silver Spring, MD: National Council for the Social Studies., & (The social studies thirsts for the world, and ICT is there to help.ISTE [International Society for Technology in Education]. http://www.iste.org/Will pour ideas on you if you let them. Has been a great help to the teachers who have been early users of ICT.National Science Teachers Association Learning Center. http://learningcenter.nsta.org/Teacher's Discovery. Social Studies. http://www.teachersdiscovery-socialstudies.com/socialstudies.asp.X. Addressing Effectiveness of the Virtual1993). The word processor as an instructional tool: A meta-analysis of word processing in writing instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63(1), 69–93. doi:10.3102/00346543063001069 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543063001069(Thirty-two studies were analyzed. Word processing appeared to help quality of writing, particularly for the poorer writers, but attitudes toward writing did not improve as much as did quality.2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 74(3), 379–439. doi:10.3102/00346543074003379 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543074003379, , , , , , … & ([Page 169]The researchers looked at 232 studies with 688 effects. “Overall results indicated effect sizes of essentially zero on all measures” (abstract). However, considerable variance occurred within both distributions. Each approach can generate good or poor results.Federal Communications Commission. National broadband plan: Connecting America. Retrieved from http://www.broadband.gov/plan/1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction: An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75–94. Retrieved from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/29534/1/0000622.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0747-5632%2891%2990030-5, & (An early review with the then surprising finding that average achievement was similar and variance in effectiveness was large for both computer-assisted and face-to-face instruction.2011, March 11). Hearing sees financial success and education failures of for-profit college. New York Times, p. A13. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/11/education/11college.html(For-profit virtual high schools and colleges are springing up rapidly. The hearings resulted in depictions of unscrupulous fly-by-night “colleges” where federally backed loans support poorly nurtured students with unbelievably high dropout rates. The students don't get an education. Either we pay the bill, or the failing students do over a significant period in their young lives. And the profiteers like Bridgepoint “College” are remarkably well off (its “CEO” took a $20 million salary last year). Perhaps the most astonishing thing is that states accredit these places, as do national “accrediting” agencies. Many preservice teacher education programs that exist only in virtual space have been approved as avenues for certification.2010, February 3). Beyond teacher chalk talk. Education Week Digital Directions, 3(2), 34–37. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2010/01/08/02whiteboards.h03.html(A cheerleading article, really an editorial, claiming a superiority that is not reflected in scholarly reviews.Office of Educational Technology, US Department of Education. (2010). Transforming American education: Learning powered by technology. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/sites/default/files/NETP-2010-final-report.pdf2006). The comparative effectiveness of web-based and classroom instruction: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 623–664. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00049.x http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00049.x, , , & (With a much larger number of studies available for analysis, the findings of this review were remarkably similar to those of the Kulik and Kulik (1991) team.2006). Teaching courses online: A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 93–135. doi:10.3102/00346543076001093 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543076001093, , , , , , & ([Page 170]Generally, this review's results replicated those of the Bernard et al.(2004) review. The variance in effects of both online and campus courses is striking. The means are important also, with average effects of close to zero. Essentially, where standard content is delivered on campus or online, it can be done poorly or well in either case, and the averages are very close to each other.http://Wikipedia.org. (2011). The Open University. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_UniversityTraces the massive impact of The Open University on access to higher education in the UK—a demonstration of what a carefully organized and planned national distance effort can accomplish. Over 3 million students have been educated in the last 40 years. Courses and course assessments range over most disciplines and include traditional and innovative designs. Evaluation of each student's progress in each course is rigorous and British-traditional.2005). What makes the difference? A practical analysis of research on the effectiveness of distance education. Teachers College Record, 107(8), 1836–1884. Retrieved from http://ott.educ.msu.edu/literature/report.pdfhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9620.2005.00544.x, , , , & (The researchers report that the aggregate of studies indicates that distance offerings as compared to campus offerings generated about equal effects with respect to the outcomes that were tested. They also confirm that there is considerable variance. In some cases, the effects of the campus courses exceeded those of the distance courses by a considerable margin. In others, the opposite finding appeared. Among other recommendations, the researchers believe that developers need to give attention to the interactive dimensions of distance offerings, particularly instructor contact and interaction among students.The researchers do not include the massive body of work on The Open University nor on the Childrens’ Television Workshop. Importantly, the researchers decided that only 49 journal-reported studies provided data from which an effect size could be computed.XI. Dilemmas of the Secondary School2009). Reflections on a century of college admissions tests. Educational Researcher, 38(9), 665–676. doi:10.3102/0013189X09351981 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09351981, & (A super analysis of tests used for college admission. Follows the time when achievement in the core curriculum was common to when aptitude tests were dominant, and the return now to the achievement genre. Presents an analysis indicating that achievement is a better measure of success than the so-called aptitude tests.[Page 171]1964). Big school, small school: High school size and student behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., & (2010). High school at a crossroads. Educational Leadership, 67(7), 48–53. Retrieved from http://learningthenow.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/High-Schools-at-a-Crossroads-Ed-Coughlin2.pdf(A clarion call. Discusses the very real possibility that high schools could drift into becoming mere credential-counting institutions as more and more students take distance courses in the core curriculum subjects.2010). Male and female pathways through four-year colleges: Disruption and sex stratification in higher education. American Educational Research Journal, 47(4), 744–773. doi:10.3102/0002831210374351 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210374351(Indicates that academic performance in high school predicts the more disruptive pathways and characterizes the route for a good many males.2010, February 28). Class dismissed. New York Times Magazine, 11–12. Retrieved at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/magazine/28FOB-wwln-t.html(The title underlines the serious drift into a situation where many students use their senior year to take only one or two remaining courses for graduation.2009). A review of empirical evidence about school size effects: A policy perspective. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 464–490. doi: 10.3102/0034654308326158 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654308326158, & (The most solid review that confirms the studies that for 40 years have shown that small high schools (see Barker & Gump, 1964, above) generate many effects—academic, social, and personal—better than do most large schools.2010, August 15). Triumph fades on racial gap in city schools. New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/16/nyregion/16gap.html, & (Another episode in the battle to make schools hospitable to everyone.XII. International Comparisons2010, March 10). Many nations passing U.S. in education, expert says. New York Times, p. A21. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/10/education/10educ.html(Testimony before Congress by Andreas Schleicher of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Drawing from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), he asserts that the United States is a year behind other countries. He notes that we have a peculiar mix of decentralization and central control—that schools in other nations are more autonomous.[Page 172]We believe he is wrong about this. Per Noon and Noon's article on South Korea, 96 percent of students graduate from high school, the highest percentage in the world. The United States graduates about 70 percent of its students. However, European high schools may operate somewhat like small liberal arts colleges.1988). Concepts of ability and effort in Japan and the United States. Review of Educational Research, 58(3), 327–345. doi:10.3102/00346543058003327 http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543058003327(Generally supports the Stevenson/Stigler contention that Japanese adults emphasize the role of effort more than do adults in the United States.2010, June 10). Graduation rate for US high schoolers falls for second straight year. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Education/2010/0610/Graduation-rate-for-US-high-schoolers-falls-for-second-straight-year(The worrisome trend continues—something basic is out of kilter.PISA studies achievement of reading, mathematics, and science 15-year-old students in the OECD countries and other countries that volunteer to be included.OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Programme). (2010). PISA 2009 results: What students know and can do—Student performance in reading, mathematics, and science: Vol I. Paris: Author. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264091450-enCompares achievement in 34 OECD member countries plus other, partner countries. This is the definitive work to date.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Programme (OECD). (2007). PISA 2006: Science competencies for tomorrow's world OECD briefing note for the United States. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/28/39722597.pdfOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Programme (OECD). (2011). Strong Performers and successful reformers in education: Lessons from PISA for the United States. Paris: Author. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264096660-en
About the Authors[Page 177]
Bruce Joyce grew up in New Jersey, was educated at Brown University, and, after military service, taught in the schools of Delaware. He was a professor at the University of Delaware, the University of Chicago, and Teachers College, Columbia University, where he directed the laboratory school and the elementary teacher education program. His research, writing, and consultation are focused on models of teaching, professional development design and implementation, school renewal, and programs for K–12 beginning readers and Grade 3–12 struggling readers. Primary topics of his speaking and consultation include Teaching Methods, Curriculum and Content, Staff Development, and 21st Century School Renewal. He lives in Saint Simons Island, Georgia, and can be reached via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. With Emily Calhoun, his most recent book is Models of Professional Development (2010). Thousand Oaks: Corwin.
Emily Calhoun currently focuses on school improvement and professional development, where she combines practice and research. She specializes in the language arts, particularly the teaching of reading and writing in the elementary grades and literacy development K–12, including programs for struggling readers.
She writes and consults on action research, The Picture-Word Inductive Model of Teaching, and ways of incorporating digital technologies into K–12 learning environments through the development of hybrid courses.
She lives in Saint Simons Island, Georgia.
Corwin: A SAGE Company[Page 178]
The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”Learningforward: Advancing Professional Learning for Student Success
Learning Forward (formerly National Staff Development Council) is an international association of learning educators committed to one purpose in K–12 education: Every educator engages in effective professional learning every day so every student achieves.