This is an entirely new edition of the author’s 1984 study (originally published by South End Press) of radical media and movements. The first and second sections are original to this new edition. The first section explores social and cultural theory in order to argue that radical media should be a central part of our understanding of media in history. The second section weaves an historical and international tapestry of radical media to illustrate their centrality and diversity, from dance and graffiti to video and the internet and from satirical prints and street theatre to culture-jamming, subversive song, performance art and underground radio. The section also includes consideration of ultra-rightist media as a key contrast case. The book’s third section provides detailed case studies of the anti-fascist media explosion of 1974-75 in Portugal, Italy’s long-running radical media, radio and access video in the USA, and illegal media in the dissolution of the former Soviet bloc dictatorships.
Religion, Ethnicity, and the International Dimension
We have far from exhausted the issues that need weaving into a satisfactory framework for analyzing radical media. We could address many such with profit, not least how these media relate to such deep divisions as language, gender, age, sexuality, ecology, but for now, we will leave these to further research. Those we will begin to grapple with in this chapter are the religious, the ethnic, and the international dimensions of the topic, a rich enough diet for the moment.
Without claim to comprehensiveness, we will examine
- Radical media expression of explicit religiously based challenges to the political order
- Subterranean religious contestation of the status quo
- Attacks on religious endorsement of an unjust order
[Page 76]In religiously saturated cultures ...