We hear much about ‘race’ and ‘racism’ in public discourse but the terms are frequently used without clear definitions or practical examples of how these phenomena actually work.

Racisms introduces practical methods which enable students to think coherently and sociologically about this complex feature of the global landscape.

Steve Garner argues that there is no single monolithic object of analysis but rather a plural set of ideas and practices that result in the introduction of ‘race’ into social relations. This differs over time and from one place to another.

Focusing on the basics, Racisms:

Defines ‘race’, ‘racism’, ‘institutional racism’ and ‘racialization’; Provides examples of how these function in fields like the natural sciences and asylum; Clearly sets out theoretical arguments around collective identities (‘race’, class, gender, nation, religion); Uses empirical case studies, including some drawn from the author's own fieldwork; Points students and other readers toward sources of further web and text based information

Engaging and accessible this book provides a sign-posted route into key elements of contemporary debates.

Racisms is an ideal introduction for undergraduates studying ‘race’ and ethnicity, social divisions, stratification, and social work.



The term ‘Islamophobia’ emerged relatively recently.1 However, it covers a phenomenon which is far from new: the process of homogenising Muslims and attributing negative, backward and exotic otherness to them as a group. We will critically present some definitions of Islamophobia and its establishment as a genuine phenomenon in the twenty-first century. Clearly, there is racism addressed towards Muslims, and has been for some time, so the question is, do we need this new term? If so, what does it describe? What does it do? Could it be dealt with under ‘racism’?

In this chapter, we are going to exmine the history of the relationship between the ‘West’ and the ‘East’, to summarise, and to observe some of the specifics of how Muslims in the ...

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