Numerical data are everywhere. Charts and statistics appear not just in geography journals but also in the media, in public policy, and in business and commerce too. To engage with quantitative geography, we must engage with the quantitative methods used to collect, analyse, present and interpret these data. Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the perfect introduction for undergraduates beginning any quantitative methods course. Written in short, user-friendly chapters with full-colour diagrams, the book guides the reader through a wide range of topics from the basic to the more advanced, including: • Statistics • Maths • Graphics • Models • Mapping and GIS • R Closely aligned with the Q-Step quantitative social science programme, Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the ideal starting point for understanding and exploring this fundamental area of Geography.

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

5.1 Introduction

Chapters 3 and 4 have introduced some statistical and mathematical foundations upon which this chapter now builds. It looks at common ways to summarise a set of data, including determining their average and variation. These are often referred to as descriptive statistics, in that they describe the centre and spread of the data and allow comparisons of different variables to be made. An extension to this idea is to calculate a statistic for different parts of a study region and see how the statistic varies across the study region – a geographically minded approach ...

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