Numerical data are everywhere. Charts and statistics appear not just in geography journals but also in the media, in public policy, and in business and commerce too. To engage with quantitative geography, we must engage with the quantitative methods used to collect, analyse, present and interpret these data. Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the perfect introduction for undergraduates beginning any quantitative methods course. Written in short, user-friendly chapters with full-colour diagrams, the book guides the reader through a wide range of topics from the basic to the more advanced, including: • Statistics • Maths • Graphics • Models • Mapping and GIS • R Closely aligned with the Q-Step quantitative social science programme, Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the ideal starting point for understanding and exploring this fundamental area of Geography.

An Introduction to R

An Introduction to R

12.1 Introduction

Figure 1.2, in Chapter 1, introduced seven components of quantitative geography: social and scientific knowledge; maths and numeracy; statistics and statistical modelling; geographical information science; visualisation and data presentation; thinking geographically and looking at spatial variation; and data handling and (geo)computation. Of these, computation has taken a back seat. It has been there, of course, in the analyses, the calculations and the production of the graphics (you will have realised that I did not do them by hand). However, there has been no specific discussion of why computational skills and programming are important skills ...

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