Numerical data are everywhere. Charts and statistics appear not just in geography journals but also in the media, in public policy, and in business and commerce too. To engage with quantitative geography, we must engage with the quantitative methods used to collect, analyse, present and interpret these data. Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the perfect introduction for undergraduates beginning any quantitative methods course. Written in short, user-friendly chapters with full-colour diagrams, the book guides the reader through a wide range of topics from the basic to the more advanced, including: • Statistics • Maths • Graphics • Models • Mapping and GIS • R Closely aligned with the Q-Step quantitative social science programme, Quantitative Geography: The Basics is the ideal starting point for understanding and exploring this fundamental area of Geography.

# Statistical Testing, Statistical Significance and Why they are Contentious

### Statistical Testing, Statistical Significance and Why they are Contentious

Statistical Testing, Statistical Significance and Why they are Contentious

### 6.1. Introduction

Methods of statistical testing are found in almost any textbook introduction to statistics. However, traditional ways of conducting and evaluating statistical tests are increasingly questioned, especially in the social sciences, when the data do not constitute a random sample of a population. Blithe conformity to orthodox practice has been denounced as bad science that can misdirect policy, waste money and, in some circumstances, cost lives. A particular proposition has proved particularly problematic. Called the p-value, it has provoked pages of polemic in print.

The basic idea of statistical testing is simple enough. It is used to test whether some level of difference (or association) between two or ...