Quality Implementation: Leveraging Collective Efficacy to Make “What Works” Actually Work
Publication Year: 2020
Harness the power of collective efficacy to achieve quality implementation! Designed to overcome a common barrier to successful implementation of school improvement efforts--entrenched belief systems--this book digs deeper into the power of collective efficacy. Teams with a strong sense of collective efficacy devise ways to make “what’s supposed to work” actually work, and find ways to exercise control over challenges that surround them. In addition to the examples from both inside and outside of education, readers will find • Ways to create environments that tap into mastery as the number one source of collective efficacy • Methods to strengthen vicarious experiences through observational learning • Examination of social persuasion and affective states as additional sources of collective efficacy Expanding on this critically-important topic, this book accentuates the importance ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Beliefs as the Foundation to Quality Implementation
- Chapter 1: The Elusive Quest for Quality Implementation
- Chapter 2: Why Implementation Frequently Fails
- Chapter 3: Collective Efficacy as an Enabler of Quality Implementation
Part II: Fostering Beliefs to Realize Quality Implementation
A SAGE Company
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
18 Cross Street #10-10/11/12
China Square Central
Copyright © 2020 by Corwin
All rights reserved. Except as permitted by U.S. copyright law, no part of this work may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
When forms and sample documents appearing in this work are intended for reproduction, they will be marked as such. Reproduction of their use is authorized for educational use by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book.
All third party trademarks referenced or depicted herein are included solely for the purpose of illustration and are the property of their respective owners. Reference to these trademarks in no way indicates any relationship with, or endorsement by, the trademark owner.
Printed in the United States of America
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Program Director and Publisher: Dan Alpert
Content Development Editor: Lucas Schleicher
Senior Editorial Assistant: Mia Rodriguez
Production Editor: Tori Mirsadjadi
Copy Editor: Patrice Sutton
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Liann Lech
Indexer: Nancy Fulton
Cover Designer: Anupama Krishnan
Marketing Manager: Sharon Pendergast
DISCLAIMER: This book may direct you to access third-party content via web links, QR codes, or other scannable technologies, which are provided for your reference by the author(s). Corwin makes no guarantee that such third-party content will be available for your use and encourages you to review the terms and conditions of such third-party content. Corwin takes no responsibility and assumes no liability for your use of any third-party content, nor does Corwin approve, sponsor, endorse, verify, or certify such third-party content.
List of Figures, Tables, and Resources
Ray Navarro, a California fire chief, and his fellow firefighters always shared a strong conviction that they could succeed, despite all other circumstances. Navarro described how this worked to their advantage during a particular rescue that he and his team will never forget. It was a nearly impossible situation they encountered on January 12, 2012, when they were called to the scene of an accident on Highway 101 in Buellton, California. Kelli Groves, a second-grade teacher, and her two daughters were in a horrific automobile crash. The BMW that Kelli was driving was so badly crushed, it was barely recognizable.
Kelli was traveling to San Francisco with her ten-week-old daughter in a rear car seat and her ten-year-old daughter in the backseat next to her infant sister when a semitruck ran over the car, damaging it so badly, it seemed impossible that anyone could have survived. In our interview with Ray Navarro, he described how the firefighting team put their training and practice to use as the team got into “operational mode.” Below, Ray described how the team stayed focused, relied on their training, and worked interdependently during the two-hour rescue operation.
“I recall when arriving on the incident and scene, we had three different things that were going on at the time. We had a semitruck that had demolished Kelli’s BMW. The semitruck went over the highway where there was a gap between two bridges, fell one hundred feet, and exploded into flames. Unfortunately, the driver had perished. Hazardous materials had spilled from the truck, and we have this car dangling off a bridge by a tire with people inside. Kelli could feel the heat from the flames coming up the cavern between the two bridges and informed us her daughters were in the backseat. We were also dealing with a traffic jam and a road closure on a major freeway.
“With that,” Ray continued, “arriving on the scene, the acting captain made a call for more help. He asked for more resources because originally the call had been sent out as a single engine call. We knew we had to access additional resources and then use them to the best advantage. In other words, we placed people in positions where they needed to be.
“It was my responsibility to develop teams: a cutting team, a stabilizing team, a paramedic team, and another team to stand by because we still had a fire underneath us and the BMW had gasoline in it, so we also needed a rescue team with extinguishment. From the team aspect, we looked at this and said we have to divide ourselves up to get the job done. Our emphasis to Kelli was ‘We’re [Page xii]going to get all of you out. It’s going to take a while but we’re going to do this.’ As a team, we didn’t have to say what our job was, we just did it, and that came as the result of practice and training” (R. Navarro, interview, October 18, 2017).
Ray noted that as the firefighters were reassuring Kelli, they were getting no response from her children. He continued to describe what they did next. “We needed to steady the vehicle, so we got a rope and used a tow truck as an anchor in an attempt to stabilize Kelli’s car. I remember looking at one of our firefighters whose only job was to watch the rope. I saw him kneeling with a constant eye on the rope. If we lost any tension, he would call out to us. It might have seemed like an unimportant job, just kneeling there, but it was one of the most integral parts of teamwork. We had men on top of that BMW and if the rope slackened, their safety was in jeopardy” (R. Navarro, interview, 2017).
Kelli’s oldest daughter was enveloped in the car with metal all around her. Ray and his team had to peel the pieces of metal off of her in order to get to her; they could hear her moaning from her injuries. Ray noted that “we just went to work. Kelli and her children became part of our team, and we reassured her of that telling her ‘we’re not going to let anyone go!’ When you make it personal to yourself, you leave no one behind” (R. Navarro, interview, 2017). Ray noted that Kelli and her daughters were what made their rescue team relevant and that they weren’t going to fail because if they failed Kelli and her girls, they failed themselves.
In what Ray described as a “divine moment,” the team was approached by drivers of a military truck with an arm-like crane. The truck had broken down only moments before the accident happened. The crane was able to provide the stability needed to free Kelli and her daughters from the wreck. Ray reflected on the significance of this. He noted, “Others, who belonged to a different discipline—these were naval guys—had the tool we needed, and their instinct was to help” (R. Navarro, interview, 2017). With the help of the extended team, Kelli and her daughters were freed from the wreck and airlifted to a hospital in Santa Barbara. They all fully recovered from their injuries.
Ray shared with us a final thought from his team’s successful experience in what he referred to as “The Bridge Incident.” He said that there was an urgency to reopen the highway but that in the midst of everything, the team needed to pause. Ray asked for ten minutes, gathered the team in a circle, and acknowledged the incredible job that everyone did in saving three lives. He said that after the wave of emotion that was going to take over, he knew the team would need to debrief so that they would have a better understanding of what took place.
The Bridge Incident is an example of how confidence in the power of the collective helps teams overcome extraordinary obstacles. When recounting the events, Ray noted, “It was never our focus that we couldn’t do this. It was our watch, as a team, we knew we could do what it would take to keep Kelli and her daughters safe” (R. Navarro, interview, 2017). Key elements of the teams’ [Page xiii]success included that they were well trained in the best practices required to get the job done, they were able to execute these practices in response to the task they faced, and they adjusted their strategies accordingly. The team was coordinated and relied on each other in jointly interdependent ways. Most importantly, they shared the belief that they could succeed. This example shows the power of collective efficacy—the belief that a team can accomplish its goals despite difficult circumstances.
This book is about the power of collective efficacy in schools. Collective efficacy refers to educators’ shared beliefs that through their combined efforts they can positively influence student outcomes, including outcomes for those who are disengaged, unmotivated, and/or disadvantaged. Collective efficacy is a significant belief system for improving student outcomes. When educators share the belief that they can influence student achievement, regardless of some of the difficult circumstances faced in schools today, the results can be very powerful. In fact, research shows that collective efficacy matters more in relation to increasing student achievement than the neighborhoods where students come from and their level of household income (Donohoo, Hattie, & Eells, 2018). That is not to say that demographic characteristics are irrelevant—they are relevant! These things matter; however, what educator teams do to create a better environment for student learning has a clear, measurable, and greater impact on student achievement than do demographic variables. This book is about the power of educator teams in overcoming challenges and obstacles. It is about the important contributions that educators make to students’ lives over and above the impact of students’ homes and communities.
Collective efficacy influences student achievement because greater efficacy drives behaviors that are instrumental to quality implementation. Quality implementation is a process through which evidence-based promises of improvement-oriented interventions get realized in practice. In the first half of this book, readers will find examples of how educators’ beliefs affect thought patterns in ways that either support or hinder quality implementation. Using examples from both inside and outside of education, readers will learn how an established sense of collective efficacy helps teams figure out ways to make what’s supposed to work actually work given their unique environments. Efficacious teams find ways to exercise control over the challenges that surround them. They also exert greater effort and muster up the strength, motivation, and resolve needed in order to meet challenging goals (as evidenced in The Bridge Incident). Conversely, teams who lack collective efficacy become preoccupied by constraints, show significant reduction in the goals they set, and lower their efforts. Readers will find examples of how the consequences of a reduced sense of collective efficacy impede quality implementation in schools.
In the second half of this book, we identify factors that influence a team’s interpretation of their effectiveness and outline what educator teams can do to strengthen efficacy-shaping sources. Since successful performance accomplishments are the most significant source of collective efficacy, we share key features of mastery experiences and discuss what teams can focus on in order to create mastery environments. We also examine ways to strengthen vicarious experiences through observational learning. In the final chapter, we discuss two additional sources of collective efficacy, social persuasion and affective states, and consider how teams could use theories of persuasion in order to capitalize on persuasion as an efficacy-enhancing source. Each chapter finishes with a section headed “Time for Reflection,” which presents a number of questions relating to the main ideas in the chapter. These questions are designed to help readers reflect on and mobilize the content in each chapter in a personal way.
We conclude by encouraging readers to examine the conceptual framework (see Figure 1) we developed. This conceptual framework maps the ideas and relationships among the concepts contained in this book. A key finding from cognitive science is that in order to develop competence in an area of inquiry, learners must understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). Our aim is to help educators realize quality implementation by directly utilizing the knowledge gained from reading this book. Therefore, the conceptual framework is offered as a strategy to encourage transfer.
School improvement depends upon the collective belief that the teaching faculty has what it takes to improve student achievement. If we want to realize the promise of improvement-oriented interventions, one of the most important things we can do is equip teacher teams with the confidence that they have what it takes to improve outcomes for students. The purpose of this book is to help teams achieve quality implementation of evidence-based practices by fostering a sense of collective efficacy. When efficacy is firmly established, educators go outside their comfort zones; use focused, goal-driven activity to improve an area of weakness; and make changes based on feedback received. Theory and practice are brought together in a way that is mediated by context. The result of quality implementation is innovative and lasting change that becomes accepted practice and produces positive outcomes.
About the Authors
References[Page 91]1999). Early teacher perceptions and later student academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 731–746., & (2012). Teacher beliefs as predictors of adolescents’ cognitive engagement and achievement in mathematics. The Journal of Educational Research, 105(5), 319–328., , & (2000). Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement. Yearbook of Medical Informatics, 9(1), 65–70. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1637943, & (1977). Self efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.(1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.(1997). Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.(1998). Personal and collective efficacy in human adaptation and change. In , , & (Eds.), Advances in psychological science, Vol. 1: Social, personal, and cultural aspects (pp. 52–71). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.(2015). An introduction to implementation science for the non-specialist. BMC Psychology, 3(1), 32. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4573926/, , , , & (2011). Investigating the use of vicarious and mastery experiences in influencing early childhood education majors’ self-efficacy beliefs. Journal for Science Teacher Education, 22, 333–349.(2014). The power of the Pygmalion effect: Teachers’ expectations strongly predict college completion. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress., , & (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press., , & (Eds.). (1983). Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 236–247.(2009). Protocols for professional learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(2013). Assessing the effects of collaborative professional learning: Efficacy shifts in a three-year mathematics study. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 58(4), 691–709., & (2014). Observation interventions as a means to manipulate collective efficacy in groups. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36, 27–39., , & (2017). Predictive power of group cohesion and perceived motivational climate for collective efficacy perception in the football teams. Sport and Society International Journal of Physical Education, 17(1), 91–97., & (2011). The invisible gorilla: How our intuitions deceive us. New York, NY: Random House., & ([Page 92] , , & (2008). A top-down analysis of high school teacher motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 533–560.2009). Instructional rounds in education: A network approach to improving teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA Harvard Education Press., , , & (2003). Rethinking scale: Moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change. Educational Researcher, 32(6), 3–12.(2019). Lab class: Professional learning through collaborative inquiry and student observation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: HarperCollins.(2005). Applying communication theory for professional life: A practical introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2012). The jigsaw technique and self-efficacy of vocational training students: A practice report. Journal of Psychological Education, 27, 439–449., , & (2013). Collaborative inquiry for educators: A facilitator’s guide to school improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2017). Collective efficacy: How educators’ beliefs impact student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2018). Collective teacher efficacy research: Productive patterns of behaviour and other positive consequences. Journal of Educational Change, 19, 323–345.(2018). The power of collective efficacy. Educational Leadership, 75(6), 41–44., , & (2016, February 25). What Google learned from its quest to build the perfect team. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/magazine/what-google-learned-from-its-quest-to-build-the-perfect-team.html(2008). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.(2011). Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective efficacy and student achievement (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Loyola University of Chicago.(2016). Peak: How to master almost anything. Toronto, ON: Penguin Canada., & (2009). Moving the learning of teaching closer to practice: Teacher education implications of school-based inquiry teams. The Elementary School Journal, 109(5), 1–18., , , & (2001). Collective efficacy: A neglected construct in the study of schools and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(3), 467–476.(2015). A theoretical and empirical analysis of the roles of instructional leadership, teacher collaboration, and collective efficacy beliefs in support of student learning. American Journal of Education, 121, 501–530., , , & (2004). Collective efficacy beliefs: Theoretical developments, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33(3), 3–13., , & (Google. (n.d.). Introduction. Re:Work. Retrieved from https://rework.withgoogle.com/print/guides/5721312655835136/2000). The impact of individual efficacy beliefs on group goal selection and group goal commitment. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 451–459., , & . ([Page 93] , , , & (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 819–832.2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2006). The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom. New York, NY: Basic Books.(2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.(2017). Visible Learningplus [Chart]. Retrieved from https://visible-learning.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/VLPLUS-252-Influences-Hattie-ranking-DEC-2017.pdf(2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. Toronto, Ontario: Random House Canada., & (2017). The power of moments: Why certain experiences have extraordinary impact. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster., & (2000). Motivating the academically unmotivated: A critical issue for the 21st century. Review of Educational Research, 70(2), 151–179., & (2006). Beyond method: Assessment and learning practices and values. The Curriculum Journal, 17(2), 109–138., & (1987). Joining together: Group therapy and group skills (, & (3rded.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.2014). The multilevel effects of motivational climate on the collective efficacy in a cheerleading team. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(4), 593–603., & (2013). Intentional interruption: Breaking down learning barriers to transform professional practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., & (2018). The intelligent, responsive leader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , & (2009). Building and connecting learning communities: The power of networks for school improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin., , & (2014). Focus on teaching: Using video for high-impact instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.(2008). Ten mismatches between teachers’ beliefs and written feedback. ETE Journal, 63(1), 13–22.(2015). Just do it: Communicating implementation science and practice. Frameworks Institute. Retrieved March 3, 2018, from https://www.frameworksinstitute.org/assets/files/evidence_implementation/NIRNreprt_justdoit_2015.pdf, , , , & (1995). Efficacy-performance spirals: A multilevel perspective. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 645–678., , & (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.(2003, January). Pygmalion in management. Harvard Business Review Classic, Impact on Productivity section. Retrieved March 11, 2018, from https://hbr.org/2003/01/pygmalion-in-management(2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705–717., & ([Page 94] , & (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265–268.2004). Individual and crew level determinants of collective efficacy in rowing. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 136–153., , & (2007). The opposable mind: How successful leaders win through integrative thinking. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.(2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(2012). Art and science of teaching/It’s how you use a strategy. Educational Leadership, 69(4), 88–89.(1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York, NY: Plenum.(2012). Teaming up: Linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and student achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 251–262., , & (2007). Understanding classroom teachers’ perceptions of integrating physical activity: A collective efficacy perspective. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(3), 316–328., , & (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Penguin.(2008). Reframing teacher leadership to improve your school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(2010). Transforming professional development into student results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.(2009). School leadership and student outcomes: Identifying what works and why. Best evidence synthesis iteration [BES]. Auckland, New Zealand: Ministry of Education., , & (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., & (2015, November 17). The five keys to a successful Google team. Re:Work. Retrieved from https://rework.withgoogle.com/blog/five-keys-to-a-successful-google-team/(2011). The psychological power of storytelling. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/positively-media/201101/the-psychological-power-storytelling(2015). What writing teachers say and what they actually do: The mismatch between theory and practice. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 6(4), 803–810., & (2011). The relationship between teachers’ collective efficacy and student achievement at economically disadvantaged middle school campuses. Journal on Educational Psychology, 5(1), 9–23., , & (2017, June). Occupational stress and mental health symptoms: Examining the moderating effect of work recovery strategies in firefighters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(3), 443–456. Advance online publication doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000091, , , & (2006). The new science of learning. In (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (p. 4). New York: Cambridge University Press.(2005). Learning versus performance goals: When should each be used? Academy of Management Executive, 19(1), 124–131., & ([Page 95] , , & (2014). Seminar Series 234: A framework for transforming learning in schools: Innovation and the spiral of inquiry. Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Strategic Education.2013). Healthy relationships: The foundation of a positive school climate. In Conversation, 4(3), 1–14.(2004). Fostering student learning: The relationship of collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 189–209., & (2004). Increasing preservice teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 36(3), 231–250., , & (2016). Examining theory-based behavior-change constructs, social interaction, and sociability features of the Weight Watchers’ online community. Health Education and Behavior, 43(6), 656–664., & (Learners in the driving seat: Leading learning pedagogy. School Leadership Today, 1(2), 28–31.(n.d.).2002). The development of achievement motivation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press., & ([Page 96] (2009). Why don’t students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.