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… at 9 years of age, variation in brain structure is associated with individual differences in intelligence measures. This relation is entirely explained by genetic factors common to both sets of traits. The genes that influence brain volume, probably influence intelligence …(van Leeuwen, Peper, van den Berg et al., 2009, p. 189)

It is now clear that intelligence is highly modifiable by the environment. Without formal education a person is simply not going to be very bright – whether we measure intelligence by IQ tests or any other matrix. (Richard Nisbett, 2009, p. 2)

The above quotations reflect what on the surface seem to be two very different perspectives on intelligence, which for now we can define as problem-solving ability. Problem solving is something humans do ...

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