The Second Edition of Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors, Educators, and Parents has been completely revised and expanded to provide the most up-to-date and extensive coverage of prejudice and racism available. The new edition of this bestselling text presents a comprehensive overview of these topics and also includes practical tools for combating prejudice development in children, adolescents, and adults.
Chapter 5: European American (White) Racial Identity Development, Mental Health, and Prejudice
European American (White) Racial Identity Development, Mental Health, and Prejudice
Historically, in the progression of the psychology and education professions, White racial identity development models were developed after minority identity development models. Whereas the psychology literature in the early 1970s introduced models of Black racial identity development (e.g., Cross, 1971; Dizard, 1970), the late 1970s and 1980s witnessed the introduction of racial identity models focused on White persons (e.g., Hardiman, 1982; Helms, 1984; Ponterotto, 1988; Terry, 1977). The Black identity theories focused on the “oppressed”—individuals who were in a numerical minority; who had less power, fewer resources, and diminished life-quality access; and who had been the subject of violent physical and psychological torture for centuries. White ...