Preventing Bullying in Schools: A Guide for Teachers and other Professionals


Chris Lee

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    Author Biography

    Dr Chris Lee is a Principal Lecturer at the University of Plymouth where he works mainly with teachers researching their own practice and he also is Director in the MA (Education) programme. His main lecturing and research foci are bullying and behaviour management. Prior to his role as a lecturer he taught in both secondary and special education.


    I am indebted to all those who have supported me, especially Lizzie, Nick and Ben. I should like to dedicate the book to Graham and Tom – both missed so much and both so influential in their own ways. Their wisdom and their smiles have been a powerful force.

  • Useful Resources


    Anti-bullying Campaign020 7378 1446
    Advisory Centre for Education020 7354 8321
    The Children's Legal Centre01206 873 820
    Kidscape020 7730 3300
    Parentline plus0808 800 2222

    The following list is a selection of books that have proved useful as part of professional development courses and by staff working in schools. It is by no means exhaustive, but serves to illustrate the breadth of material available.

    Beane, A. (1999) The Bully Free Classroom. Minneapolis, MIN: Free Spirit Publications.
    CowieH. and WallaceP. (2000) Peer Support in Action. London: Sage.
    Donnellan, C. (2001) Victims of Bullying. Cambridge: Independence.
    Elliott, M. and Kilpatrick, J. (1994) How to Stop Bullying: A Kidscape Training Guide. London: Kidscape.
    Lines, D. (2002) Brief Counselling in Schools: Working with Young People from 11 to 18. London: Sage.
    Rhodes, J. and Ajmal, Y. (1995) Solution Focused Thinking in Schools. London: BT Press.
    Sullivan, K., Cleary, M. and Sullivan, G. (2004) Bullying in Secondary Schools: What it Looks Like and How to Manage it. London: Sage.
    Stacey, H. and Robinson, P. (1997) Let's Mediate. Bristol: Lucky Duck.
    Tyrrell, J. (2002) Peer Mediation: A Process for Primary Schools. London: Souvenir Press.


    Ahmad, Y., Whitney, I. and Smith, P. (1991) ‘A survey for schools on bully/victim problems’, in Smith, P. and Thompson, D. (eds) Practical Approaches to Bullying. London: David Fulton.
    Askew, S. (1989) ‘Aggressive behaviour in boys: to what extent is it institutionalised?’ in Tattum, D. and Lane, D. (eds) Bullying in Schools. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Besag, V. (1989) Bullies and Victims in Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Blatchford, P. (1996) ‘Taking pupils seriously: recent research and initiatives on breaktime in schools’, Education 3–13, 24 (3), pp. 60–5.
    Blatchford, P. (1998) Social Life in School: Pupils' Experience of Breaktime and Recess from 7–16 years. London: Falmer Press.
    Boulton, M. (1995) ‘Playground behaviour and peer interaction patterns of primary school boys classified as bullies, victims and not involved’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65, pp. 165–77.
    Boulton, M. (1997) ‘Teachers' views on bullying: definitions, attitudes and ability to cope’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67 (2), pp. 223–33.
    Bowers, L., Smith, P. and Binney, V. (1994) ‘Perceived family relationships of bullies, victims and bully/victims in middle childhood’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 11, pp. 215–32.
    Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brier, J. and Ahmad, Y. (1991) ‘Developing a school court as a means of addressing bullying in schools’, in Smith, P. and Thompson, D. (eds) Practical Approaches to Bullying. London: David Fulton.
    Byrne, B. (1994) Coping with Bullying in Schools. London: Cassell.
    Cartwright, N. (1996) ‘Combating bullying in school: the role of peer helpers’, in Cowie, H. and Sharp, S. (eds) Peer Counselling in Schools: A Time to Listen. London: David Fulton.
    Casdagli, P. and Gobey, F. (1990) ‘Only Playing, Miss!’: the Playscript/Workshop In Schools. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Clarkson, P. (1987) ‘The bystander role’, Transactional Analysis Journal, 17 (3), pp. 82–7.
    Clarkson, P. (1996) The Bystander (An End to Innocence in Human Relationships?). London: Whurr.
    Cowie, H. (1995) ‘Approaches to peer support: befriending, counselling and mediation’, Young Minds Newsletter, 23 October.
    Cowie, H. and Sharp, S. (1992) ‘Students themselves tackle the problem of bullying’, Pastoral Care in Education, 9 (4), pp. 31–7.
    Cowie, H. and Wallace, P. (2000) Peer Support in Action: From Bystanding to Standing By. London: Sage.
    Cowie, H., Boulton, M. and Smith, P. (1992) ‘Bullying: pupil relationships’, in JonesN. and Baglin-JonesE. (eds) Learning to Behave: Curriculum Whole School Management Approaches to Discipline. London: Kogan Page.
    Cullingford, C. and Brown, G. (1995) ‘Children's perceptions of victims and bullies’, Education 3–13, 23 (2), pp. 11–16.
    Department for Education (DfE) (1994) Bullying: Don't Suffer in Silence: An Anti-bullying Pack for Schools. London: HMSO.
    Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) (1998) Taking Forward our Plans to Raise Standards for All. Sudbury: DfEE.
    Department of Education and Science (DES) (1989) Discipline in Schools – Report of the Committee of Enquiry: The Elton Report. London: HMSO.
    Elliott, M. (1997a) ‘Bullies and victims’, in Elliott, M. (ed.) Bullying: A Practical Guide to Coping for Schools (2nd Edn). London: Pitman Publishing.
    Elliott, M. (1997b) ‘Bully courts’, in Elliott, M. (ed.) Bullying: A Practical Guide to Coping for Schools (2nd Edn). London: Pitman Publishing.
    Eslea, M. and Smith, P. (1998) ‘The long-term effectiveness of anti-bullying work in primary schools’, Educational Research, 40 (2), pp. 203–18.
    Hazler, R., Hoover, J. and Oliver, R. (1992) ‘What kids say about bullying’, Executive Educator, 14 (11), pp. 20–2.
    Herbert, C. (1996) Stop the Bullying. Cambridge: Carrie Herbert Press.
    Johnstone, M., Munn, P. and Edwards, L. (1992) Action Against Bullying: A Support Pack for Schools. Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education, the Scottish Office Education Department.
    Knights, L. (1998) ‘A student- and staff-developed anti-bullying initiative’, Pastoral Care in Education, 16 (1), pp. 33–4.
    La Fontaine, J. (1991) Bullying: The Child's View. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
    Lane, D. (1989) ‘Bullying in school: the need for an integrated approach’, School Psychology International, (10), pp. 211–15.
    Laslett, R. (1982) ‘A children's court for bullies’, Special Education: Forwards Trends, 9 (1), pp. 9–11.
    Lee, C. (1993) ‘The perceptions of bullying in schools by pupils at the age of transition’, Collected Original Resources in Education, 17 (3), Birmingham: Carfax.
    Lee, C. (2001) ‘Bullying in a primary school: a case study’. PhD dissertation, University of Plymouth.
    Lines, D. (2002) Brief Counselling in Schools: Working with Young People from 11 to 18. London: Sage.
    Lowenstein, L. (1978) ‘Who is the bully?’, Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 31, pp 147–9.
    Maines, B. and Robinson, G. (1991) ‘Don't blame the bullies’, Educational Psychology in Practice, 7 (3), pp. 168–72.
    Maines, B. and Robinson, G. (1992) The No-Blame Approach. Bristol: Lame Duck.
    Molnar, A. and Lindquist, B. (1990) Changing Problem Behaviour in Schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2003) Bullying: Effective Action in Secondary Schools. Report HMI 465. London: The Stationery Office.
    Oliver, C. and Candappa, M. (2003) Tackling Bullying: Listening to the Views of Children and Young People. London: Institute of Education/Department for Education and Skills.
    Oliver, R., Young, T. and LaSalleS. (1994) ‘Early lessons in bullying and victimization: the help and hindrance of children's literature’, School Counsellor, 42, pp. 137–43.
    Olweus, D. (1991) ‘Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program’, in Pepler, D. and Rubin, K. (eds) The Development and Treatment of Childhood. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Olweus, D. (1993) Bullying in School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Olweus, D. (1999) ‘Sweden’, in Smith, P., Motita, Y., Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. and Slee, P. (eds) The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-National Perspective. London: Routledge.
    Pervin, K. (1995) ‘Parental attitudes and beliefs about bullying: an investigation into parents whose children attend an inner-city school’, Pastoral Care and Education, 13 (3), pp. 14–18.
    Pervin, K. and Turner, A. (1994) ‘An investigation into staff and pupils’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about bullying in an inner-city school', Pastoral Care and Education, 12 (3), pp. 4–10.
    Rigby, K. (1996) Bullying in Schools and What to Do About It. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Rigby, K. and Slee, P. (1991) ‘Bullying among Australian school children: reported behaviour and attitudes toward victims’, Journal of Social Psychology, 131 (5), pp. 615–27.
    Salmivalli, C., Huttenton, A. and Lagerspetz, K. (1997) ‘Peer networks and bullying in school’, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38, pp. 305–12.
    Sharp, S. (1995) ‘Self esteem, response style and victimisation: possible ways of preventing victimi-sation through parenting and school based training programmes’. Unpublished paper presented at ECER Conference, September, Bath.
    Sharp, S. and Smith, P. (1994) Tackling Bullying in Your School. London: Routledge.
    Sharp, S., Sellars, A. and Cowie, H. (1994) ‘Time to listen: setting up a peer-counselling service to help tackle the problem of bullying in schools’, Pastoral Care in Education, 12 (2), pp. 3–6.
    Smith, P. (1991) ‘The silent nightmare: bullying and victimisation in school peer groups’, Psychologist, 4, pp. 243–8.
    Stephenson, P. and Smith, D. (1987) ‘Anatomy of a playground bully’, Education, 18, pp. 236–7.
    Stones, R. (ed.) (1998) Children's Books about Bullying. Reading: Books for Keeps.
    Tattum, D. (1989) ‘Bullying – a problem crying out for attention’, Pastoral Care in Education, 7 (2), pp. 21–5.
    Whitney, I.Nabuzoka, D. and Smith, P.(1992) ‘Bullying in schools: mainstream and special needs’, Support for Learning, 7 (1), pp. 3–7.
    Whitney, I. and Smith, P. (1993) ‘A survey of the nature and extent of bullying in junior/middle and secondary schools’, Educational Research, 35 (1), pp. 3–25.
    Zehr, H. (1990) Changing Lenses: a New Focus for Crime and Justice. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
    Zeigler, S. and Rosenstein-Manner, M. (1991) Bullying at School: Toronto in an International Context. Toronto: A report to the Toronto Board of Education, pp. 1–38.

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