Power in Contemporary Politics: Theories, Practices, Globalizations


Edited by: Henri Goverde, Philip G. Cerny, Mark Haugaard & Howard H. Lentner

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    In Memoriam

    Susan Strange

    List of Contributors

    • BAS J.M. ARTS
    • Lecturer
    • Department of Environmental Policy Sciences
    • Faculty of Policy Sciences
    • University of Nijmegen
    • The Netherlands
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Department of Political Science
    • University of Helsinki
    • Finland
    • Professor of Government
    • University of Manchester
    • United Kingdom
    • Professor of Management
    • School of Management, Faculty of Business
    • University of Technology
    • Sydney
    • Australia
    • Professor of Political Theory
    • Department of Political Science
    • Free University of Berlin
    • Germany
    • Associate Professor in Public Administration
    • School of Public Affairs
    • University of Nijmegen, and
    • Professor in Political Science
    • Wageningen University and Research Center
    • The Netherlands
    • Lecturer
    • Department of Political Science and Sociology
    • National University of Ireland
    • Galway
    • Professor of Political Science
    • Baruch College and the Graduate School,
    • City University of New York
    • United States
    • Ph.D. Student
    • Department of Political Science and International Relations
    • University of Tampere
    • Finland
    • Head of Research
    • RF-Rogaland Research, Stavanger, and
    • Researcher
    • Norwegian Research Centre in Organization and Management,
    • Bergen
    • Norway
    • Lecturer in Polirical Science of the Environment
    • Department of Environmental Policy Sciences
    • University of Nijmegen
    • The Netherlands
    • and
    • Associate Professor
    • Department of Political Science
    • University of Amsterdam
    • The Netherlands

    List of Tables and Figures

    • Table 1.1 Main characteristics of transitive and intransitive power 50
    • Table 3.1 Rationalities of government: social framing of available knowledge 84
    • Table 5.1 Most important strategies and actions to achieve the organizations' goals 120
    • Table 5.2 Most important targets of influence for the organizations 120
    • Table 5.3 Frequencies of organizational contacts with various authorities 123
    • Table 5.4 Changes in the importance of contacts with different authorities 125
    • Table 5.5 Impact of organizations' views on various authorities 128
    • Table 5.6 Impact of organizational enquiries in Parliament 129
    • Table 6.1 The EAR instrument 139
    • Table 6.2 FCCC and CBD cases and the extent of political influence of global environmental NGOs 145


    This book was conceived and produced in order to provide an overview of current thinking and research on political power as we begin the new millennium, and is to be launched at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association in Quebec City in August 2000. The chapters included here represent the latest work of members of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power (Research Committee no. 36), formerly the IPSA Study Group on Political Power. The Study Group was set up at the 1979 IPSA World Congress in Moscow and officially became a Research Committee in 1991. The contributions of participants in various group and committee meetings over the years have always demonstrated a healthy disrespect for disciplinary boundaries, on the one hand, and familiarity with and respect for the work of others in political science and the other social sciences, as well as history and other related disciplines, on the other.

    In 1993, the group put together a special issue of the International Review of Sociology entitled On Power, edited by David A. Baldwin of Columbia University. Indeed, Professor Baldwin was the driving force of the group and later the committee for many years before stepping down as chair in 1994. Since that time, the committee has been chaired by Henri Goverde of the University of Nijmegen. The committee has organized panels of various kinds at all the triennial IPSA World Congresses, as well as holding meetings in between these congresses in order to examine and debate more focused issues at greater depth. In particular, especially with regard to the development of this book, we were invited to organize roundtable meetings at the University of Helsinki in December 1995 as part of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Finnish Association of Political Science, and we held a lively colloquium at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands as part of the activities marking the Second Lustrum (Quinquennium) of Nijmegen's Faculty of Policy Sciences in May 1998. These panels and meetings have brought more continuity, cohesion and collaboration to the study of power as a complex and widespread phenomenon.

    This book – Power in Contemporary Politics: Theories, Practices, Globalizations – developed out of the Nijmegen conference organized by Henri Goverde and has involved extensive collaboration and cross-fertilization among the authors as well as the editors. The contributors are grateful to the Faculty of Policy Sciences in Nijmegen, particularly the Nijmegen Centre for Business, Environment and Government, for its administrative support, accommodation and hospitality. Special thanks go to Lily van Wersch, Maurice Bogie and Annie van Bergen. The editors of the book are also grateful to the National University of Ireland in Galway, particularly the Department of Sociology and Politics and the Faculty of Arts, for hosting the final editorial meeting, organized by Mark Haugaard, in August 1999. Finally, our acquisitions editor at Sage Publishers, Lucy Robinson, offered early and continuing encouragement and support to this book, and her efforts have facilitated its timely appearance.

    We dedicate the book to the late Susan Strange, a long–time participant in the Research Committee, who saw and understood the wider horizons of power, including those that were unspoken and obscure and those, both public and private, that cut across the boundaries of disciplines and the borders of nations. She did not suffer the intellectually timid gladly, and her driving force in the study of power in the contemporary world will be sorely missed.

  • Epilogue

    The analyses of power contained in this work are quite unlike modern ‘advice books’, such as The 48 Laws of Power (1998) by Robert Greene and Joost Elffers, or classic handbooks like Machiavelli's The Prince. Such guides do not give insight into the position, function, structure and dynamics of power in communities, organizations, states and societies. In fact, they provide neither a sociology of power nor a coherent theory about power.

    The book you have just read is different, for it offers a state of the art overview of social scientific research on power. Still, there is not a complete and satisfactory theory of power, although the authors of the chapters of this work have contributed to theory construction and have demonstrated an intellectual shift in developing novel theoretical notions about power. Furthermore, they have noted new global conditions that lead to rethinking power as a key concept in the social sciences.

    An epilogue provides the opportunity to reflect upon the issues of this book, particularly to link some conclusions and trends to an ongoing research program. Based upon earlier work by the International Political Science Association (IPSA) Research Committee on Political Power, attention is focused upon certain trends discussed in the last 10 years. Moreover, potential future developments of the main themes advanced are outlined by our authors.

    The activities of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power reflect changes in the literature on power. Following the ‘classical discussion’ on power by Hunter, Dahl, Mills, Bachrach and Baratz, and Lukes – referred to by several authors in this book – research on power a decade ago focused primarily on actors. Those studying power posed such questions as the following: Who are the relevant actors in power relations? How do those actors themselves perceive their power and that of competing actors? In policy research, attention shifted in the 1980s from ‘who governs?’ to ‘how to govern?’ while, in social and political theory, Foucault's work became influential.

    As this book has explained, power analysis reflects a deep shift in social theory (Part I). Understanding the dynamics of power in different practices, particularly in multilevel governance, requires knowledge of the exercise of power, structural power and systemic power (Part II). The analysis of contemporary power in the international system, which often functions as a context for individuals, organizations, networks of private and public actors, and states, has produced a great variety of continuities and discontinuities (Part III). When reflecting on these three parts it is important to bear in mind that ‘theories, practices and globalizations’ are not separate ‘dimensions’ or ‘faces’ of power but, rather, form an integral whole.

    What type of research agenda on power can be deduced from current developments in the field of political and social power analysis? In attempting to answer such a question one of the main issues which we have to deal with concerns the question of paradigm shifts. If it is the case that the discourse of power has been radically changed since Lukes's Power (1974), is such a change likely again? It is difficult to answer this definitively because, as Thomas Kuhn argued, paradigm shifts are, by their very nature, unpredictable. However, Kuhn's work also tells us that paradigm shifts are likely if a theory has run into conceptual difficulty and if there are new data. If we look back to 1974, and the changes since then, both these elements were present. Lukes's concept of three-dimensional power was in severe conceptual difficulty. The whole idea of ‘false consciousness’ was theoretically indefensible within the tradition of remaining open to falsification that characterizes good scientific practice. On the empirical side, the events of 1989 fundamentally changed the global order. Consequently, between conceptual problems of the third dimension of power and a radical change in the world of politics, the conditions were ripe for a paradigm shift. If we look at the position now there are both similarities and differences to circumstances then. On a theoretical level there is no theoretical impasse. In fact, power analysts are still trying to come to grips with the implications of the new paradigm. On the other hand, however, empirical events are changing rapidly: we do not know if the nation-state will survive, if there will be global governance, if neoliberalism can remain a dominant discourse or if the future lies in the direction of American hegemony. In short, on a theoretical level a new paradigm shift appears unlikely but, on the other hand, it may be the case that events in the ‘world out there’ will render our present conceptual tools inadequate.

    However, for the moment, these events have not occurred. As a consequence, we, the editors of this book (and also the members of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power), would like to invite you, our readers, to help us work out the full implications of the present paradigm.


    Aarts, Kees (1991) ‘Collectieve actie: een overzicht van recentelijke Nederlandse literatuur’, Acta Politica, (3): 327–55.
    Albrow, Martin (1996) The Global Age: State and Society Beyond Modernity. Cambridge: Polity.
    Aldrich, Howard E. (1979) Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Allen, Amy (1999) The Power of Feminist Theory: Domination, Resistance, Solidarity. Boulder: Westview.
    Alvesson, Mats (1996) Communication, Power and Organization. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Aman, Alfred C. Jr (1999) ‘Administrative law for a new century’, in AseemPrakash and Jeffrey A.Hart (eds), Globalization and Governance. London: Routledge. pp. 263–84.
    Andersen, Martin-Arne and Lauritsen, Jan-Ståle (1990) Organisasjonsarkivet. Rapport 86. Tromsø: Norsk sammfunnsvitenskapelig datatjeneste.
    Anderson, Perry (1983) In the Tracks of Historical Materialism. London: Verso.
    Anderson, Perry (1985) Western Marxism. London: New Left.
    Arendt, Hannah (1958) The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Arendt, Hannah (1970) On Violence. London: Allen Lane, Penguin. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
    Arts, Bas (1998) The Political Influence of Global NGOs: Case Studies on the Climate and Biodiversity Conventions. Utrecht: International Books.
    Arts, Bas and van Roozendaal, Gerda (eds) (1999) The Influence of NGOs on International and Transnational Politics. Nijmegen: Nijmegen University Press.
    Arts, Bas and Verschuren, Piet (1999) ‘Assessing political influence in complex decision-making: an instrument based on triangulation’, International Political Science Review, 20 (4): 411–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192512199204006
    Ashley, David (1997) History without a Subject: the Postmodern Condition. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Axford, Barrie (1995) The Global System: Economics, Politics and Culture. New York: St Martin's.
    Baakman, Nikolaas (1993) ‘De Socio-genese van beleidsinstrumenten’, in J.Hans, Th.A.Bressers (eds), Beleidsinstrumenten bestuurskundig beschouwd. Den Haag: VUGA. pp. 173–89.
    Bacevich, Andrew J. (1999) ‘Policing utopia: the military imperatives of globalization’, The National Interest, 56 (Summer): 5–13.
    Bachrach, Peter and Baratz, Morton S. (1962) ‘Two faces of power’, American Political Science Review, 56: 947–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1952796
    Bachrach, Peter and Baratz, Morton S. (1963) ‘Decisions and non decisions: an analytical framework’, American Political Review57: pp. 632–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1952568
    Ball, Terence (1988) ‘The changing face of power,’ in TerenceBall (ed.), Transforming Political Discourse. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 80–105.
    Banfield, Edward C. (1961) Political Influence. New York: Free Press.
    Barbalet, Jack M. (1985) ‘Power and resistance’, British Journal of Sociology, XXXVI (1): 521–48.
    Barbalet, Jack M. (1987) ‘Power, structural resources and agency’, Perspectives in Social Theory, 8: 1–24.
    Barnes, Barry (1988) The Nature of Power. Cambridge: Polity.
    Barry, Brian (1991) Democracy and Power. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1988) Selected Writings, ed. MarkPoster. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
    BaumanZygmunt (1988) Legislators and Interpreters. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1989) ‘Hermeneutics and modern social theory’, in D.Held and J.B.Thompson (eds), Social Theory of Modern Societies: Anthony Giddens and His Critics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1991) Modernity and Ambivalence. Cambridge: Polity.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1998) Globalization: the Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity.
    Baxi, Upendra (1996) ‘Review essay, “global neighbourhood” and the “universal otherhood”: notes on the Report of the Commission on Global Governance’, Alternatives, 21 (4): 525–49.
    Beck, Ulrich (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.
    Beck, Ulrich (1994) ‘The reinvention of politics: towards a theory of reflexive modernization’, in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash (eds), Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Oxford: Polity.
    Beck, Ulrich (1996a) ‘Risk society and the provident state’, in S.Lash, B.Szerszynski and B.Wynne (eds), Risk, Environment and Modernity: Towards a New Ecology. London: Sage. pp. 27–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221983
    Beck, Ulrich (1996b) ‘World risk society as cosmopolitan society? Ecological questions in a framework of manufactured uncertainties’, Theory, Culture and Society, 13 (4): 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276496013004001
    Beck, Ulrich (1998) ‘Politics of risk society’, in J.Franklin (ed.), The Politics of Risk Society. Cambridge, Oxford: Polity.
    Beetham, David (1991) The Legitimation of Power. London: Macmillan.
    Bell, Roderick, Edwards, David V. and Wagner, R. Harrison (eds) (1969) Political Power: a Reader in Theory and Research. New York: Free Press.
    Benhabib, Seyla (1990) ‘Epistemologies of postmodernism: a rejoinder to Jean-François Lyotard’, in Linda J.Nicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism. New York: Routledge. pp. 107–30.
    Benson, J. Kenneth (1975) ‘The interorganizational network as a political economy’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 20: 229–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391696
    Bentley, Arthur F. (1908) The Process of Government: a Study of Social Pressures. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Berger, Peter L. and Luckmann, Thomas (1966) The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday.
    Berndtson, Erkki (1985) ‘The party system and the future of the state in advanced capitalist countries’, International Political Science Review, 6 (1): 65–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251218500600108
    Biersteker, Thomas J. (1993) ‘Constructing historical counterfactuals to assess the consequences of international regimes: the global debt regime and the course of the debt crisis of the 1980s’, in VolkerRittberger (ed.), Regime Theory and International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon. pp. 315–38.
    Birnbaum, Norman (1977) ‘On the possibility of a new politics in the West,’ in NormanBirnbaum (ed.), Beyond the Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 199–232.
    Blau, Peter M. (1964) Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.
    Bodansky, David (1993) ‘The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: a commentary’, Yale Journal of International Law, 18: 453–559.
    Bos, J. and Geurts, P.A. Th. M. (1994) ‘Procesmethode’, in L.W.J.C.Huberts and J.Kleinnijenhuis (eds), Methoden van invloedsanalyse. Amsterdam/Meppel: Boom. pp. 61–82.
    Boschi, Renato (1997) ‘The corporatist heritage and new patterns of interest representation in Brazil’. Paper presented at the XVIIth IPSA World Congress, Seoul, 17–21 August.
    Boulding, Kenneth E. (1989) Three Faces of Power. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1979) ‘Symbolic power’, Critique of Anthropology, 4: 77–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0308275X7900401307
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1985) Sozialer Raum und ‘Klassen’. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. pp. 7–46.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1986) ‘The forms of capital’, in John G.Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1989) ‘Social space and symbolic power’, Sociological Theory, 7: 14–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202060
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1990) The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity.
    Braam, Gerard P.A. (1973) Invloed van bedrijven op de overheid: Een empirische studie over de verdeling van maatschappelijke invloed. Meppel: Boom.
    Braudel, Fernand, Aymard, Maurice, Dupaquier, Jacques, Gourou, Pierre and Pallottino, Massimo (1992) Eurooppa. Tampere: Vastapaino.
    Braverman, Harry (1974) Labor and Monopoly Capital: the Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review.
    Bull, Hedley (1977) The Anarchical Society. London: Macmillan.
    Burawoy, Michael (1979) Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under Capitalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Burchell, Graeme, Gordon, Colin and Miller, Peter (eds) (1991) The Foucault Effect. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Burke, Tim (1982) ‘Friends of the Earth and the conservation of resources’, in PeterWillets (ed.), Pressure Groups in the Global System. London: Pinter. pp. 105–24.
    Butler, Judith (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.
    Caldwell, Lynton K. (1990) International Environmental Policy: Emergence and Dimensions. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Callon, Michel (1980) ‘Struggles and negotiations to define what is problematic and what is not: the socio-logic of translation’, in Karen D.Knorr-Cettina, R.Krohn and Richard D.Whitley (eds), The Social Processes of Scientific Investigation: Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook, (vol. 4). Dordrecht: Reidel. pp. 197–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9109-5_8
    Callon, Michel (1986) ‘Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Briene Bay’, in J.Law (ed.), Power, Action and Belief: a New Sociology of Knowledge? Sociological Review Monograph 32. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Callon, Michel and Latour, Bruno (1981) ‘Unscrewing the big leviathan: how actors macrostructure reality and sociologists help them to do so’, in Karen D.Knorr-Cettina and AaronCicourel (eds), Advances in Social Theory and Methodology: Towards an Integration of Micro- and Macro-Sociologies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 227–303.
    Callon, Michel and Law, John (1982) ‘On interests and their transformation’, Social Studies of Science, 1: 615–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012004006
    Callon, Michel, Courtial, JeanP., Turner, WilliamA. and Bauin, S. (1983) ‘From translations to problematic networks: an introduction to co-word analysis’, Social Science Information, 22: 199–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901883022002003
    Callon, Michel, Law, John and Rip, Arie (eds) (1986) Mapping out the Dynamics of Science and Technology: Sociology of Science in the Real World. London: Macmillan.
    Cassirer, Ernst (1923–9) Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, 3 vols,
    2nd edn
    . Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
    Castells, Manuel (1996) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume I: The Network Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Castells, Manuel (1997) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume II: Power and Identity. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Castells, Manuel (1998) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Volume III: The End of Millennium. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Caves, Richard E. (1995) ‘The multinational enterprise as an economic organization’, in Jeffry A.Frieden and David A.Lake (eds), International Political Economy: Perspectives on Global Power and Wealth.
    3rd ed
    . New York: St Martin's Press.
    Cerny, Philip G. (1990) The Changing Architecture of Politics: Structure, Agency and the Future of the State. London: Sage.
    Cerny, Philip G. (1993) ‘Plurilateralism: structural differentiation and functional conflict in the post-Cold War world order’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 22 (1): 27–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03058298930220010401
    Cerny, Philip G. (1995) ‘Globalization and the changing logic of collective action’, International Organization, 49 (4): 595–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300028459
    Cerny, Philip G. (1997) ‘Paradoxes of the competition state: the dynamics of political globalization’, Government and Opposition, 32 (2): 251–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1997.tb00161.x
    Cerny, Philip G. (1998) ‘Neomedievalism, civil wars and the new security dilemma: globalization as durable disorder’, Civil Wars, 1 (1): 36–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13698249808402366
    Cerny, Philip G. (1999a) ‘Globalization, governance and complexity’, in A.Prakash and J.A.Hart (eds), Globalization and Governance. London: Routledge, pp. 184–208.
    Cerny, Philip G. (1999b) ‘Globalization and the erosion of democracy’, European Journal of Political Research, 36 (1): 1–26.
    Cerny, Philip G. (1999c) ‘Reconstructing the political in a globalizing world: states, actors, institutions and governance’, in FransBuelens (ed.), Globalization and the Nation-State. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar for the Belgian-Dutch Association for Institutional and Political Economy.
    Cerny, Philip G. (2000a) ‘Embedding global financial markets: securitization and the emerging web of governance’, in K.Ronit and V.Schneider (eds), Private Organizations, Governance and Global Politics. London: Routledge.
    Cerny, Philip G. (2000b) ‘The new security dilemma: divisibility, defection and disorder’, Review of International Studies, 26: 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500006239
    Cerny, Philip G. and Evans, M. (1999) ‘New Labour, globalization and the competition state’. Center for European Studies, Harvard University, Working Paper Series #70.
    Chandler, Alfred D. Jr (1992) Scale and Scope: the Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Christensen, Tom and Egeberg, Morten (1979) ‘Organized group-government relations in Norway’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 2: 239–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.1979.tb00221.x
    Christiansen, Peter Munk and Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1999) ‘From corporatism to lobbyism? Parliaments, executives, and organized interests in Denmark and Norway’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 22: 195–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9477.00013
    Clegg, Stewart R. (1989) Frameworks of Power. London: Sage.
    Clegg, Stewart R. (1994) ‘Power and the resistant subject’, in JohnJermier, WalterNord and DavidKnights (eds), Resistance and Power in Organizations: Agency, Subjectivity and the Labour Process. London: Routledge.
    Clegg, Stewart R. and Rura-Polley, T. (1998) ‘“Pfeffer and Salancik”, in M.Warner (ed.), The IEBM Handbook of Management Thinking’. London: International Thomson Business Press. pp. 537–3.
    Climate Action Network (1992) No Joint Implementation and Emissions Trading.Geneva.
    Climate Action Network (1994) Joint Implementation from a European NGO Perspective. Brussels.
    Cohen, Ira (1989) Structuration Theory: Anthony Giddens and the Constitution of Social Life, London: Macmillan.
    Cohen, Margot and Sigli (1998) ‘Deport and deter: Indonesian illegal workers get a harsh send-off from Malaysia,’Far Eastern Economic Review, Interactive Edition E-Newsletter Version 1.1, 161 (17), 23 April.
    Collinson, David (1994) ‘Strategies of resistance: power, knowledge and subjectivity in the workplace’, in JohnJermier, WalterNord and DavidKnights (eds), Resistance and Power in Organizations: Agency, Subjectivity and the Labour Process. London: Routledge.
    Commission on Global Governance (1995) Our Global Neighbourhood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Cooke, Maeve (1994) Language and Reason: a Study of Habermas' Pragmatics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Cox, Robert and Jacobson, Harold Karan (eds) (1973) The Anatomy of Influence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Crepaz, M.M.L. (1994) ‘From semisovereignty to sovereignty: the decline of corporatism and rise of Parliament in Austria’, Comparative Politics, 27: 45–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/422217
    Crozier, Michel (1963) The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. London: Tavistock.
    Crozier, Michel and Friedberg, Erhard (1977) L'Acteur et le systeme: les contraintes de l'action collective. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
    Cutler, A. Claire (1995) ‘Global capitalism and liberal myths: dispute settlement in private international trade relations’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 24 (3): 377–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03058298950240030701
    Dahl, Robert A. (1957) ‘The concept of power’, Behavioral Science, 2: 201–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830020303
    Dahl, Robert A. (1961) Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1968) ‘Power’, in David L.Sills (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 12. New York: Macmillan.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1989) Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1993) ‘Americans struggle to cope with a new political order that works in opaque and mysterious ways’, Public Affairs Report (Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California Press), 34 (5): 1, 4–6.
    Damgaard, Erik (1994) ‘The strong parliaments of Scandinavia’, in Gary W.Copeland and Samuel C.Patterson (eds), Parliaments in the Modern World. Ann Arbor: Michigan.
    De Jong, Mart-Jan (1997) Grootmeesters van de sociologie. Amsterdam: Boom.
    Dinan, Desmond (1999) Ever Closer Union: an Introduction to European Integration,
    2nd edn.
    London: Macmillan.
    Douglas, Ian R. (1999) ‘Globalization as governance: toward an archaeology of contemporary political reason’, in AseemPrakash and Jeffrey A.Hart (eds), Globalization and Governance. London: Routledge, pp. 134–60.
    Dowding, Keith (1991) Rational Choice and Political Power. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
    Dowding, Keith (1996) Power. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Dowding, Keith and Dunleavy, Patrick (1995) ‘Rational choice and community power structures’, Political Studies, XLIII: 265–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1995.tb01711.x
    Eccleshall, Robert, Geoghegan, Vincent, Jay, Richard, Kenny, Michael, MacKenzie, Ian and Wilford, Rick (1994) Political Ideologies: an Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Eco (1993) NGO Journal ‘Eco’: a Special Joint Implementation Insert. INC8, Geneva, August.
    Edelman, Murray (1964) The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Edelman, Murray (1971) Politics as Symbolic Action: Mass Arousal and Quiescence. Chicago: Markham.
    Egeberg, Morten (1981) Stat og organisasjoner. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
    Egeberg, Morten, Olsen, Johan P. and Saetren, Harald (1978) ‘Organisasjonssamfunnet og den segmenterte stat’, in Johan P.Olsen (ed.), Politisk organisering. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget. pp. 115–42.
    Elias, Norbert (1969) Über den Prozess der Zivilisation: Soziogenetische und Psychogenetische Untersuchungen, vols I and II. Bern: Francke.
    Elias, Norbert (1971) Wat is Sociologie?Utrecht, Antwerpen: Het Spectrum.
    Elias, Norbert (1987) ‘Wandlungen der Wir-Ich-Balance’, in NorbertElias (ed.), Die Gesellschaft der Individuen. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. pp. 207–315.
    Elias, Norbert (1994) The Civilizing Process: The History of Manners and State Formation and Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Elias, Norbert and Scotson, John L. (1965) The Established and the Outsiders: A Sociological Enquiry into Community Problems. London: Frank Cass.
    Ellwood, David, van Elteren, Mel, Gidley, Mick, Kroes, Rob, NyeDavid E., and Rydell, Bob (1994) ‘Questions of cultural exchange: the NIAS statement on the European reception of American mass culture’, American Studies International32 (2): 32–44.
    Emmerson, Donald K. (1998) ‘Americanizing Asia?’, Foreign Affairs, 77 (3): 46–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048875
    Espeli, Harald (1998) Lobbyvirksomhet på Stortinget. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug.
    Everdell, William R. (1997) The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Everts, Philip P. (1985) Controversies at Home: Domestic Factors in the Foreign Policy of the Netherlands. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Falk, Richard (1997) ‘The critical realist tradition and the demystification of interstate power’, in StephenGill and James H.Mittelman (eds), Innovation and Transformation in International Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Farrands, Chris (1996) ‘The globalization of knowledge and the politics of global intellectual property: power, governance and technology’, in EleanoreKofman and GillianYoungs (eds), Globalization: Theory and Practice. London: Cassell. pp. 175–87.
    Farsund, Arild Aurvag (1997) ‘Den globale utfordring: CO2 målsettingen og klimapolitikken’, in Jan ErlingKlausen and HilmarRommetvedt (eds), Miljøpolitikk: Organisasjonene, Stortinget og forvaltningen. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug. pp. 74–93.
    Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) (1995) Conclusion of Outstanding Issues and Adoption of Decisions: Activities Implemented Jointly under the Pilot Phase FCCC/CP/1995/L.13, 6 April.
    Feld, Werner J. and Jordan, Robert S. (1983) International Organizations: a Comparative Approach. New York: Praeger.
    Feldstein, Martin (1998) ‘Refocusing the IMF,’Foreign Affairs, 77 (2): 20–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048786
    Ferguson, Yale H. and Mansbach, Richard W. (1999) ‘Global politics at the turn of the millennium: changing bases of “us” and “them”’, in DavisBobrow (ed.), Special Issue of International Studies Review1 (2): pp. 77–107.
    Flyvberg, Bent (1998) Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    Foucault, Michel (1977) Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, Michel (1978) The History of Sexuality. Volume 1: An Introduction. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, Michel (1980a) ‘Body power’, in ColinGordon (ed.), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977. New York: Harvester.
    Foucault, Michel (1980b) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, ed. C.Gordon. Brighton: Harvester.
    Foucault, Michel (1983) ‘Afterword: the subject and power’, in HubertL. Dreyfus and PaulRabinow (eds), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 208–25.
    Foucault, Michel (1986) The History of Sexuality. Volume 2: The Use of Pleasure. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, Michel (1988) ‘On power’, in Lawrence D.Kritzman (ed.), Michel Foucault: Politics, Philosophy, Culture, Interviews and Other Writings 1977–1984. New York: Routledge. pp. 96–109.
    Foucault, Michel (1990) The History of Sexuality. Volume 3: The Care of the Self. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, Michel (1991) The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, eds GrahamBurchell, ColinGordon and PeterMiller. Exeter: Wheatons.
    Friedman, Thomas L. (1999) ‘A manifesto for the fast world. From supercharged financial markets to Osama bin Laden, the emerging global order demands an enforcer. That's America's new burden’, The New York Times Magazine, 28 March.
    Friman, H. Richard and Andreas, Peter (eds) (1999) The Illicit Global Economy and State Power. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Frouws, Jaap (1994) ‘Mest en Macht: Een politiek-sociologische studie naar belangenbehartiging en beleidsvorming inzake de mestproblematiek in Nederland vanaf 1970’. Dissertation, WAU, Wageningen.
    Frouws, Jaap and van Tatenhove, Jan (1993) ‘Agriculture, environment and the state: the development of agro-environmental policy-making in the Netherlands’, Sociologia Ruralis, 2: 220–39.
    G77 and China (1995) Position on Proposals from the Co-chairs of Working Group I. Matters relating to Commitments. Criteria for Joint Implementation. Draft Decision of the Committee, 15 February.
    Gaddis, John Lewis (1997) We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Garfinkel, Harold (1984) Studies in Ethnomethodology. Cambridge: Polity.
    Gaventa, John (1980) Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Geras, Norman (1987) ‘Post-Marxism?’, New Left Review, 163: 40–82.
    Geras, Norman (1988) ‘Post-Marxism: a rejoinder’, New Left Review, 169: 34–62.
    Gibbins, John R. and Reimer, Bo (1999) The Politics of Post-Modernity: an Introduction to Contemporary Politics and Culture. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217146.
    Giddens, Anthony (1968) “Power” in the recent writings of Talcott Parsons', Sociology, 2: 257–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803856800200301
    Giddens, Anthony (1979) Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. London: Macmillan.
    Giddens, Anthony (1981) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Volume 1: Power, Property and the State. London: Macmillan.
    Giddens, Anthony (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony (1985) The Nation-State and Violence. Cambridge: Polity.
    Giddens, Anthony (1991) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity.
    Gill, Stephen (1990) American Hegemony and the Trilateral Commission. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gill, Stephen (1995) ‘The global panopticon? The neoliberal state, economic life, and democratic surveillance’, Alternatives, 2 (1): 1–49.
    Gill, Stephen (1997a) ‘Transformation and innovation in the study of world order’, StephenGill and James H.Mittelman (eds), Innovation and Transformation in International Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511559006.003
    Gill, Stephen (1997b) ‘Globalization, democratization and indifference’, in James H.Mittelman (ed.), Globalization: Critical Reflections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. pp. 205–28.
    Godfroij, Arnold (1989) ‘Netwerken van Organisaties’, in P.van de Bunt and K.J.Nijkerk (eds), Handboek Organisaties. Alphen aan den Rijn.
    Goehler, Gerhard (1997) Institution – Macht – Repräsentation: Wofür politische Institutionen stehen und wie sie wirken. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    Goehler, Gerhard (1998) ‘Rationalität und Symbolizität der Politik’, in M. Th.Greven and R.Schmalz-Bruns (eds), Politische Theorie – heute. Baden-Baden: Nomos. pp. 255–74.
    Goehler, Gerhard and Speth, Rudolf (1998) ‘Symbolische Macht: Zur institutionentheoretischen Bedeutung von Pierre Bourdieu’, in R.Blänkner and B.Jussen (eds), Institutionen und Ereignis. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht. pp. 17–48.
    Goffman, Erving (1961) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goldthorpe, John H., Lockwood, David, Bechofer, Frank, and Platt, Jennifer (1969) The Affluent Worker in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gomez, Edmund Terence and Jomo, K.S. (1997) Malaysia's Political Economy: Politics, Patronage and Profits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goudsblom, Johan (1974) ‘Norbert Elias’, in LeonardusRademaker and ErritPetersma (eds), Hoofdfiguren uit de sociologie. Deel 2: de Modernen. Utrecht: Het Spectrum. pp. 94–109.
    Goverde, Henri (1987) Macht over de Markerruimte. Nijmegen: Geografisch en Planologisch Instituut.
    Goverde, Henri, Wisserhof, Johan, Dijkstra, Erik and Tilmans, Raymond (1997) Bestuurlijke evaluatie Strategische Groenprojecten Natuurontwikkeling. IBN-rapport 269, Wageningen, IBN-DLO.
    Gramsci, Antonio (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Greco, M. (1993) ‘Psychosomatic subjects and “the duty to be well”: personal agency within medical rationality’, Economy and Society, 22 (3): 357–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000024
    Greene, Robert and Elffers, Joost (1998) The 48 Laws of Power. New York: Viking.
    Greenspan, Alan (1998) ‘On Asian financial crisis: a testimony before the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations of the Committee on Appropriations’. US Senate, 3 March.
    Group of Thirty (1997) Global Institutions, National Supervision and Systemic Risk: A Study Group Report. Washington, DC: Group of Thirty.
    Gundelach, Peter (1982) ‘Grass-roots organizations, societal control and dissolution of norms’, Acta Sociologica, 25: 57–65.
    Guzzini, Stefano (1993) ‘Structural power: the limits of neo-realist power analysis’, International Organization, 7 (3): 443–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300028022
    Habermas, Jürgen (1976) ‘Hannah Arendts Begriff der Macht’, in JürgenHabermas, Politisch-philosophische Profile. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. pp. 228–48. English translation: ‘Hannah Arendt: on the concept of power’, in Philosophical-Political Profiles, 1983. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 168–89.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1977) ‘Hannah Arendt's communications concept of power’, Social Research, 44: 2–24.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1979) Communication and the Evolution of Society. London: Heinemann.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1981) Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. English translation The Theory of Communicative Action, 2 vols, 1984 and 1987. Cambridge: Polity.
    Habermas, Jürgen (1992) Faktizität und Geltung. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Hajer, Maarten (1995) The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process, Oxford: Clarendon.
    Hallenstvedt, Abraham and Trollvik, Jan (eds) (1993) Norske organisasjoner. Oslo: Fabritius.
    Hanf, Kenneth (1978) ‘Introduction’, in K.Hanf and F.W.Scharpf (eds) Interorganizational Policy Making: Limits to Coordination and Central Control. London: Sage.
    Hanf, Kenneth and Scharpf, F.W. (1978) (eds) Interorganizational Policy Making: Limits to Coordination and Central Control. London: Sage.
    Hardy, Cynthia and Clegg, Stewart R. (1996) ‘Some dare call it power’, in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy and Walter R.Nord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage. pp. 622–41http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781848608030.
    Hastings, Adrian (1997) The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612107
    Haugaard, Mark (1992) Structures, Restructuration and Social Power. Aldershot: Avebury.
    Haugaard, Mark (1997a) The Constitution of Power: a Theoretical Analysis of Power, Knowledge and Structure. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Haugaard, Mark (1997b) ‘Power, knowledge and capital’. Paper presented at the IPSA World Congress, Seoul.
    Haugaard, Mark (1999) ‘Power, social and political theories of’, in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Heilbroner, Robert L. (1990) ‘The future of capitalism,’ in Nicholas X.Rizopoulos (ed.), Sea Changes: American Foreign Policy in a World Transformed. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
    Heinz, John P., Laumann, Edward O., Nelson, Robert L., and Salisbury, Robert H. (1993) The Hollow Core: Private Interests in National Policy Making. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard.
    Held, David (1995) Democracy and the Global Order: from the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance. Cambridge: Polity.
    Helleiner, Eric (1994) States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: from Bretton Woods to the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Heller, Hermann (1934) Staatslehre. Leiden: Sijthoff.
    Heller, Hermann (1971) ‘Politische Demokratie und soziale Homogenität’, in Gesammelte Schriften, vol. 2 (1928). Leiden: Sijthoff. pp. 421–33.
    Higgott, Richard (1997) ‘Mondialisation et gouvernance: l'émergence du niveau regional’, Politique Étrangere, 66 (2): 277–92.
    Hindess, Barry (1996) Discourses of Power: from Hobbes to Foucault. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hinsley, F.H. (1966) Sovereignty. London: Watts.
    Hirst, Paul (1997a) ‘Challenges of globalization to the nation state’, Politiikka, 39 (1): 3–13.
    Hirst, Paul (1997b) From Statism to Pluralism: Democracy, Civil Society and Global Politics. London: UCL Press.
    Hirst, Paul and Thompson, Grahame (1996) Globalization in Question? The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance. Oxford: Polity.
    Hobsbawm, E.J. (1972) Bandits,
    rev. edn
    . Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Hocking, Brian and Smith, Michael (1990) World Politics: an Introduction to International Relations. New York: Harvester/Wheatsheaf.
    Huberts, Leo (1988) De politieke invloed van protest en pressie: Besluitvormings-processen over rijkswegen. Leiden: DSWO.
    Huberts, Leo (1989) ‘The influence of social movements on government policy’, International Social Movement Research, 2: 395–426.
    Huberts, Leo (1994) ‘Intensieve procesanalyse’, in L.W.J.C.Huberts and J.Kleinnijenhuis (eds), Methoden van invloedsanalyse. Meppel: Boom. pp. 38–60.
    Huberrs, Leo and Kleinnijenhuis, J. (1994) Methoden van invloedsanalyse. Meppel: Boom.
    Hunter, Floyd (1953) Community Power Structures. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    Hunter, Ian (1993) ‘Subjectivity and government’, Economy and Society, 22 (1): 123–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000007
    Huntington, Samuel P. (1991) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Huntington, Samuel P. (1993) ‘Democracy's Third Wave,’ in LarryDiamond and Marc F.Plattner (eds), The Global Resurgence of Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Hurrell, Andrew and Kingsbury, Benedict (eds) (1992) The International Politics of the Environment: Actors, Interests, and Institutions. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Jenkins, Craig (1983) ‘Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements’, Annual Review of Sociology, 9: 527–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.09.080183.002523
    Jomo, K.S. (1998) ‘Notes for a talk, “Malaysia “’, at Institute for Malaysian and International Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 16 March.
    Jordan, Grant and Schubert, Klaus (1992) ‘A preliminary ordering of policy network labels’, European Journal of Political Research, 21: 7–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1992.tb00286.x
    Kaplan, R.D. (1997) The Ends of the Earth: a Journey at the Dawn of the 21st Century. London: Macmillan.
    Kapstein, Ethan B. (1994) ‘Governing global finance’, The Washington Quarterly, 17 (Spring): 77–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01636609409451452
    Kennedy, Paul (1987) The Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. New York: Random House. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Kennedy, Paul (1999) ‘Will the next century be American too?’, New Perspectives Quarterly, 16 (1): 53–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0893-7850.2091999209
    Keohane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph S. (1989) Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition,
    2nd edn
    . Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Kickert, Walter, Klijn, Erik-Hans and Koppenjan, Joop (eds) (1997) Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217658
    Kimbrell, Andrew (1997) ‘Biocolonization: the patenting of life and the global market in body parts’, in JerryMander and EdwardGoldsmith (eds), The Case against the Global Economy. San Francisco: Sierra. pp. 131–45.
    Kimmelman, Michael (1999) ‘A century of art: just how American was it?’, The New York Times, 18 April.
    Klausen, Jan Erling and Rommetvedt, Hilmar (eds) (1997) Miljøpolitikk: Organisasjonene, Stortinget og forvaltningen. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug.
    Klijn, Erik-Hans (1997) ‘Policy networks: an overview’, in WalterKickert, Erik-HansKlijn and JoopKoppenjan (eds) (1997) Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. London: Sage. pp. 14–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217658
    Knights, David and Vurdubakis, Theo (1993) ‘Power, resistance and all that’, in John M.Jermier, David Knights and Walter R.Nord (eds), Resistance and Power in Organizations. London: Routledge. pp. 167–98.
    Korten, David C. (1996) ‘The mythic victory of market capitalism’, in JerryMander and EdwardGoldsmith (eds), The Case against the Global Economy. San Francisco: Sierra. pp. 183–91.
    Kuhn, Thomas (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kuypers, Gijsbert (1973) Grondbegrippen van politiek. Utrecht: Het Spectrum.
    Kvavik, Robert B. (1976) Interest Groups in Norwegian Politics. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Laclau, Ernesto (1980) ‘Non populist rupture and discourse’, Screen Education, 34: 87–93.
    Laclau, Ernesto (1983a) ‘The impossibility of society’, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 7: 21–4.
    Laclau, Ernesto (1983b) ‘“Socialism”, the “people”, “democracy”: the transformation of hegemonic logic’, Social Text, 7: 115–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466458
    Laclau, Ernesto and Mouffe, Chantal (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. London: Verso.
    Laclau, Ernesto and Mouffe, Chantal (1987) ‘Post-Marxism without apologies’, New Left Review, 166: 77–106.
    Lake, David A. (1999) ‘Global governance: a relational contracting approach’, in AseemPrakash and Jeffrey A.Hart (eds), Globalization and Governance. London: Routledge. pp. 30–53.
    Landshut, Siegfried (1968) ‘Der politische Begriff der Repräsentation’, in H.Rausch (ed.), Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Repräsentation und der Repräsentativverfassung (1964). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. pp. 482–97.
    Lasswell, Harold D. (1936) Politics: Who Gets What, When and How?New York: Meridian, 1958.
    Lasswell, Harold D. and Kaplan, Abraham (1950) Power and Society. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Law, John (1996) Organizing Modernity. Oxford: Polity.
    Lentner, Howard H. (2000) ‘Globalization and power,’ in Michael G.Schechter and PreetAulakh (eds) Rethinking Globalization(s): from Corporate Transnationalism to Local Interventions. New York: St Martin's Press. pp. 56–72.
    Lentner, Howard H. (1999) ‘Implications of the economic crisis for East Asian foreign policies’, The Journal of East Asian Affairs, 13 (1): 1–32.
    Leroy, Pieter and van Tatenhove, Jan (2000) ‘Political modernization theory and environmental politics’, in GertSpaargaren, ArthurP.J. Mol and Frederick H.Buttell (eds), Environment and Global Modernities. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220139.
    Levi, Margaret (1981) ‘The predatory theory of rule’, Politics and Society, 10 (4): 431–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003232928101000403
    Levine, S. and White, P.E. (1961) ‘Exchange as a conceptual framework for the study of interorganizational relationships’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 5: 583–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390622
    Lewin, Leif (1994) ‘The rise and decline of corporatism: the case of Sweden’, European Journal of Political Research, 26: 59–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1994.tb01205.x
    Lieshout, Robert H. (1993) Anarchie en Hierarchie: Een theorie van internationale betrekkingen en buitenlandse politiek. Bussum: Coutinho.
    Lijphart, Arendt and Crepaz, Markus M.L. (1991) ‘Corporatism and consensus democracy in eighteen countries: conceptual and empirical linkages’, British Journal of Political Science, 21: 235–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400006128
    Littler, Craig and Salaman, Graeme (1982) ‘Bravermania and beyond: recent theories of the labour process’, Sociology, 16: 251–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038582016002006
    Lockwood, David (1964) ‘Social integration and system integration’, in G.K.Zollschan and W.Hirsch (eds), Explorations in Social Change. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 244–57.
    Lowi, Theodore J. (1984) ‘Why is there no socialism in the United States?’, International Political Science Review, 5 (4): 369–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251218400500404
    Luhmann, Niklas (1988) Macht (1975),
    2nd edn
    . Stuttgart: Enke.
    Lukes, Steven (1974) Power: a Radical View. London: Macmillan.
    Lyotard, Jean-François (1986) The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Maddison, Angus (1995) Monitoring the World Economy, 1829–1991. Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
    Malecki, Edward S. (1990) ‘Learning lessons from our critics: post-modern insights into the study of power’. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.
    Mann, Michael (1986) The Sources of Social Power. Volume 1: A History of Power from the Beginning to A.D. 1760. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570896
    March, James G. and Simon, Herbert A. (1958) Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Marin, Bernd and Mayntz, Renate (eds) (1991) Policy Networks: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Boulder, co: Westview.
    Marsh, David and Rhodes, Roderick (eds) (1992) Policy Networks in British Government. Oxford: Clarendon. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198278528.001.0001
    Martin, Hans-Peter and Schumann, Harold (1997) The Global Trap: Globalization and the Assault on Democracy and Prosperity. London: Zed.
    Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich (1970) The German Ideology. Moscow: International Publishing Company.
    May, Christopher (1997) ‘Knowing, owning, enclosing: a global political economy of intellectual property rights.’ PhD dissertation, Nottingham Trent University.
    Mayer, Arno J. (1981) The Persistence of the Old Regime: Europe to the Great War. London: Croom Helm.
    McCormick, John (1989) The Global Environmental Movement. London: Belhaven.
    McKinley, Alan and Starkey, Ken (eds) (1998) Foucault, Management, and Organization Theory. London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221686.
    Melucci, Alberto (1985) ‘The symbolic challenge of contemporary movements’, Social Research, 52: 789–816.
    Mennell, Stephen and Goudsblom, Johan (1998) Norbert Elias: On Civilization, Power and Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Merriam, Charles E. (1964) Political Power. New York: Collier.
    Mies, Maria (1993) ‘New reproductive technologies: sexist and racist implications’, in MariaMies and VandanaShiva (eds), Ecofeminism. Halifax: Fernwood. pp. 174–97.
    Miller, Peter (1994) ‘Accounting and objectivity: the invention of calculating selves and calculable spaces’, in A.Megill (ed.), Rethinking Objectivity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 239–64.
    Miller, Stuart (1990) Understanding Europeans. Santa Fe, NM: Muir.
    Mills, C. Wright (1956) The Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Minc, Alain (1993) Le Nouveau Moyen Age. Paris: Gallimard.
    Mintzberg, Henry (1983) Power in and around Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mintzer, Irving and Leonard, J. (eds) (1994) Negotiating Climate Change: the Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558917
    Moglen, Eben (1998) ‘Antitrust and American democracy’, The Nation, 267 (18): 11–15.
    Morriss, Peter (1987) Power: a Philosophical Analysis. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Morss, Elliot (1991) ‘The new global players: how they compete and collaborate’, World Development, 19 (1): 55–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2891%2990037-I
    Newland, Kathleen (1999) ‘Workers of the world, now what?’, Foreign Policy, 114 (Spring): 52–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1149590
    Nordberg-Hodges, Helena (1996) ‘The pressure to modernize and globalize’, in JerryMander and EdwardGoldsmith (eds), The Case against the Global Economy. San Francisco, CA: Sierra. pp. 33–46.
    Nordby, Trond (1994) Korporatisme på norsk 1920–1990. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Nye, Joseph S. Jr (1993) Understanding International Conflicts: an Introduction to Theory and History. New York: HarperCollins.
    Offe, Claus (1977) ‘Einleitung’, in PeterBachrach and Morton S.Baratz (eds), Macht und Armut. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. pp. 7–34.
    Olsen, Johan P. (1983) Organized Democracy: Political Institutions in a Welfare State – the Case of Norway. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Opedal, Ståle and Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1995a) Miljøvernorganisasjonenes påvirkningsstrategier – korporatisme, lobbyisme, aksjonisme. Stavanger: Rogalandsforskning, arbeidsnotat 95/052.
    Opedal, Ståle and Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1995b) Nærings- og miljøorganisasjonenes politiske påvirkning. Stavanger: Rogalandsforskning, arbeidsnotat 95/111.
    Opedal, Ståle and Farsund, Arild Aurvåg (1997a) ‘Miljøhensyn og lokal sysselsetting: Avgiften på engangsemballasje’, in Jan ErlingKlausen and HilmarRommetvedt (eds), Miljøpolitikk: Organisasjonene, Stortinget og forvaltningen. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug. pp. 58–73.
    Opedal, Ståle and Farsund, Arild Aurvåg (1997b) ‘Klassisk naturvern: Bevaring av barskog’, in Jan ErlingKlausen and HilmarRommetvedt (eds), Miljøpolitikk: Organisasjonene, Stortinget og forvaltningen. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug. pp. 94–112.
    Osborne, David and Gaebler, Ted (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector, from Schoolhouse to Statehouse, City Hall to the Pentagon. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Parsons, Talcott (1963) ‘On the concept of political power’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 107: 232–62.
    Parsons, Talcott (1986) ‘On the concept of political power’ (1963), in StevenLukes (ed.), Power. New York: New York University Press. pp. 94–143.
    Pateman, Carole (1970) Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Pells, Richard (1997) ‘The local and global loyalties of Europeans and Americans’, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 2 May.
    Peters, Bernhard (1993) Die Integration moderner Gesellschaften. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Pettman, Jindy J. (1996) Worlding Women: a Feminist International Politics. London: Routledge.
    Phillips, Kevin (1990) The Politics of Rich and Poor: Wealth and the American Electorate in the Reagan Aftermath. New York: Random House.
    Pitkin, Hanna F. (1967) The Concept of Representation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Pitkin, Hanna F. (1972) Wittgenstein and Justice. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Polanyi, Karl (1944) The Great Transformation: the Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. New York: Rinehart.
    Polsby, Nelson W. (1960) ‘How to study community power: the pluralist alternative’, Journal of Politics, 22: 474–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2126892
    Potter, David (1996) ‘Non-governmental organizations and environmental policies’, in A.Blowers and P.Glasbergen (eds), Environmental Policy in an International Context. Volume III: Prospects for Environmental Change. London: Arnold. pp. 25–50.
    Princen, Thomas (1994) ‘The ivory trade ban: NGOs and international conservation’, in ThomasPrincen and M.Finger (eds), Environmental NGOs in World Politics: Linking the Local to the Global. London: Routledge. pp. 121–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203429037
    Pulkkinen, Tuija (1996) The Postmodern and the Political Agency. Helsinki: Hakapaino.
    Putnam, Robert D. (1988) ‘Diplomacy and domestic policy: the logic of two-level games’, International Organization, 42: 427–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027697
    Ransom, John S. (1997) Foucault's Discipline: The Politics of Subjectivity. London: Duke University Press.
    Rawls, John (1971) A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Rawls, John (1993) Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Ray, James L. (1987) Global Politics,
    3rd edn
    . Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rhodes, Richard (1995) Dark Sun: the Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Rhodes, Roderick (1997) ‘Foreword’, in WalterKickert, Erik-HansKlijn and JoopKoppenjan (eds), Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. London: Sage. pp. xi-xv. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217658
    Rhodes, Roderick A.W. (1996) ‘The new governance: governing without government’, Political Studies19: 652–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9248.1996.tb01747.x
    Rhodes, Roderick and Marsh, David (1992) ‘New directions in the study of policy networks’, European Journal of Political Research, 21: 181–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1992.tb00294.x
    Richardson, James L. (1997) ‘Contending liberalism: past and present’, European Journal of International Relations, 3 (1): 5–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066197003001001
    Riker, William H. (1964) ‘Some ambiguities in the notion of power’, American Political Science Review, 58: 341–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1952866
    Ritzer, George (1998) The McDonaldization Thesis: Explorations and Extensions. London: Sage.
    Robertson, Roland (1992) Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage.
    Roche, Maurice (1992) Rethinking Citizenship: Welfare, Ideology and Change in a Modern Society. Cambridge: Polity.
    Rokkan, Stein (1966) ‘Norway: numerical democracy and corporate pluralism’, in Robert A.Dahl (ed.), Political Oppositions in Western Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 70–115.
    Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1997a) ‘Utviklingsfaser i det norske organisasjon/statforholdet’, in Guy-ErikIsaksson (ed.), Inblickar i nordisk parlamentarism. Åbo: Åbo Akademi, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Series A, 470: 129–56.
    Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1997b) ‘Næringslivets politiske påvirkning’, in MortenMalmø (ed.), Politisk årbok 1997. Oslo: Andante. pp. 98–114.
    Rommetvedt, Hilmar (1998) ‘Norwegian parliamentary committees: performance, structural change and external relations’, in Lawrence D.Longley and Roger H.Davidson (eds), The New Roles of Parliamentary Committees. London: Cass. pp. 60–84.
    Rommetvedt, Hilmar and Opedal, Ståle (1995) ‘Næringskorporatisme og miljølobbyisme? Norske miljø- og næringsorganisasjoners politiske påvirkning’, Nordisk Administrativt Tidsskrift, 76: 277–302.
    Rommetvedt, Hilmar, Farsund, Arild Aurvåg and Melberg, Kjersti (forthcoming) ‘Corporatism and lobbyism in Norwegian environmental policy-making’, in StuartNagel (ed.), Handbook of Global Technology Policy. New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Rose, Nikolas and Miller, Peter (1992) ‘Political power beyond the state: the problematics of government’, British Journal of Sociology, 43 (2): 173–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591464
    Rosenau, James N. (1992) ‘Governance order and change in world politics’, in James N.Rosenau and Ernst-OttoCzempiel (eds), Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521775.003
    Rosenau, James N. (1997) Along the Domestic-Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511549472
    Rowlands, Ian H. (1995) The Politics of Global Atmospheric Change. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Rowlands, Ian H. and Greene, Malory (eds) (1992) Global Environmental Change and International Relations. London: Macmillan.
    Ruggie, John Gerard (1993) ‘Territoriality and beyond’, International Organization, 47: 139–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300004732
    Sarcinelli, Ulrich (1987) Symbolische Politik. Opladen: Westdeutscher.
    Sassen, Saskia (1999) ‘Global financial centers’, Foreign Affairs, 78 (1): 78–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20020240
    Schaap, Linze and van Twist, Marcus (1997) ‘The dynamics of closedness in networks’, in WalterKickert, Erik-HansKlijn and JoopKoppenjan (eds), Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector. London: Sage. pp. 62–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217658
    Scharpf, Fritz W. (1978) ‘Interorganizational policy studies: issues, concepts and perspectives’, in KennethHanf and Fritz W.Scharpf (eds), Interorganizational Policy Making: Limits to Coordination and Central Control. London: Sage.
    Scharpf, Fritz, Reissert, Bernd and Schnabel, Fritz (1976) Politikverflechtung: Theorie und Empirie des kooperativen Föderalismus in der Bundesrepublik. Kronberg: Scriptor.
    Schmitt, Carl (1989) Verfassungslehre (1928). Leipzig. Reprinted Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.
    Schmitter, Philippe C. (1979) ‘Still the century of corporatism?’, in Philippe C.Schmitter and GerhardLehmbruch, Trends towards Corporatist Intermediation. London: Sage. pp. 7–52.
    Schmitter, Philippe C. (1982) ‘Reflections on where the theory of neo-corporatism has gone and where the praxis of neo-corporatism may be going’, in GerhardLehmbruch and Philippe C.Schmitter (eds), Patterns of Corporatist Policy-Making. London: Sage. pp. 259–79.
    Scott, William R. (1987) ‘The adolescence of institutional theory’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 32 (4): 493–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392880
    Self, Peter (1985) Political Theories of Modern Government. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Sewell, Graham and Wilkinson, Barry (1992) ‘“Someone to watch over me”: surveillance, discipline and the just-in-time labour process’, Sociology, 26 (2): 271–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038592026002009
    Shiva, Vandana and Holla-Bhar, Radha (1996) ‘Piracy by the patent: the case of the neem tree’, in JerryMander and EdwardGoldsmith (eds), The Case against the Global Economy. San Francisco: Sierra. pp. 146–59.
    Singer, Max and Wildavsky, Aaron (1993) The Real World Order: Zones of Peace/Zones of Turmoil. Chatham, NJ: Chatham.
    Smend, Rudolf (1956) ‘Integrationslehre’, in Handwörterbuch der Sozial-wissenschaften, vol. 5. Göttingen. pp. 299–302. Also in Rudolf Smend, Staatsrechtliche Abhandlungen,
    2nd edn
    . Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1968. pp. 475–81.
    Smend, Rudolf (1968) ‘Verfassung und Verfassungsrecht’ (1928), in Staatsrechtliche Abhandlungen,
    2nd edn
    . Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 119–276.
    Sorauf, Frank J. (1972) Party Politics in America,
    2nd edn
    . Boston: Little, Brown.
    Spruyt, Hendrik (1994) The Sovereign State and its Competitors: an Analysis of Systems Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Spybey, Tony (1996) Globalization and World Society. Cambridge: Polity.
    Stiglitz, Joseph (1998) ‘The East Asian miracle and the crisis’. Talk presented at University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 16 March.
    Stokman, F.N. (1994) ‘Besluitvormingsmodellen binnen beleidsnetwerken’, in L.Huberts and J.Kleinnijenhuis (eds), Methoden van invloedsanalyse. Meppel: Boom. pp. 165–87.
    Strange, Susan (1996) The Retreat of the State: the Diffusion of Power in the World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511559143
    Talbott, Strobe (1997) ‘East meets West: regional integration in an era of global interdependence’. Speech at the Meeting of the World Affairs Council of Northern California, San Francisco, 18 September.
    Taylor, Charles (1975) Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Taylor, Charles (1989) Sources of the Self: the Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Thompson-Feraru, A. (1974) ‘Transnational political interests and the global environment’, International Organization, 28: 31–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300004355
    Truman, David B. (1951) The Governmental Process: Political Interests and Public Opinion. New York: Knopf.
    Van der Schot, Jos and van de Veen, Hans (1997) ‘De nieuwe macht van NGO's’, in K.Waagmeester (ed.), Houdbare Economie. Kroniek van Duurzaam Nederland. Amsterdam: NCDO/Kok Agora. pp. 197–209.
    Van Elteren, Mel (1996) ‘Conceptualizing the impact of US popular culture globally’, Journal of Popular Culture, 30 (1): 47–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1996.47654.x
    Van Krieken, Robert (1996) ‘Proto-governmentalization and the historical formation of organizational subjectivity’, Economy and Society, 25 (2): 195–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000010
    Van Noort, Wim, Huberts, Leo and Rademakers, Leo (1987) Protest en Pressie: Een systematische analyse van collectieve actie. Assen: Van Gorcum.
    Van Schendelen, M.P.C.M. (1981) ‘Politieke invloed’, in M.P.C.M.van Schendelen (ed.), Kernthema's van de politicologie. Meppel: Boom. pp. 11–138.
    Van Tatenhove, Jan (1993) ‘Milieubeleid onder dak? Beleidsvoeringsprocessen in het Nederlandse milieubeleid in de periode 1970–1990; nader uitgewerkt voor de Gelderse Vallei’. PhD thesis, WAU, Wageningen.
    Van Tatenhove, Jan and Leroy, Pieter (1995) ‘Beleidsnetwerken: een kritische analyse’, Beleidswetenschap, 9 (2): 128–45.
    Van Tatenhove, Jan, Arts, Bas and Leroy, Pieter (2000) Political Modernization and the Environment: The Renewal of Environmental Policy Arrangements. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    Van Waarden, Frans (1992) ‘Dimensions and types of policy networks’, European Journal of Political Research, 21: 29–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.1992.tb00287.x
    Verschuren, Piet and Doorewaard, Hans (1995) Het ontwerpen van een onderzoek. Utrecht: Lemma.
    Visser, Jelle and Hemerrijck, Anton (1998) ‘Een Nederlands Mirakel’, beleidsleren in de verzorgingsstaat (‘A Dutch Miracle’: Policy Learning in the Welfare State). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    Voegelin, Eric (1952) The New Science of Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    VROM (1991) Report of the Dutch Delegation to INC3. The Hague.
    VROM (1994) Report of the Dutch Delegation to INC10. The Hague.
    Wallace, William and Zielonka, Jan (1998) ‘Misunderstanding Europe’, Foreign Affairs, 77 (6): 65–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20049131
    Walsh, Kieron, Hinings, Christopher R., Greenwood, Royston and Ransom, Stuart (1981) ‘Power and advantage in organizations’, Organization Studies, 2 (2): 131–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068100200202
    Walt, Stephen M. (1998–9) ‘The ties that fray: why Europe and America are drifting apart’, The National Interest, 54 (Winter): 3–11.
    Waltz, Kenneth N. (1979) Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Wartenberg, Thomas E. (1990) The Forms of Power: from Domination to Transformation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Waste, Robert J. (1986a) ‘Community power and pluralist theory,’ in Robert J.Waste (ed.), Community Power: Directions for Future Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Waste, Robert J. (ed.) (1986b) Community Power: Directions for Future Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Waters, Malcolm (1995) Globalization. London: Routledge.
    Weber, Max (1948) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, trans. TalcottParsons and A. M.Henderson. New York: Free Press.
    Weber, Max (1978) Economy and Society (1922), ed. GuentherRoth and ClausWittich. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
    Wendt, Alexander E. (1992) ‘Anarchy is what states make of it: the social construction of power politics’, International Organization, 46: 391–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027764
    Westerheijden, D. (1987) ‘The substance of a shadow: a critique of power measurement methods’, Acta Politica (1): 39–59.
    White, Randall (1995) Global Spin: Probing the Globalization Debate: Where in the World Are We Going?Toronto: Dundurn.
    Whitman, Marina v. N. (1999) ‘Global competition and the changing role of the American corporation’, The Washington Quarterly, 22 (2): 59–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01636609909550388
    Wilks, Stephen and Wright, Maurice (eds) (1987) Comparative Government-Industry Relations: Western Europe, the United States and Japan. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Willets, Peter (ed.) (1982) Pressure Groups in the Global System. London: Pinter.
    Williamson, Peter J. (1989) Corporatism in Perspective: an Introductory Guide to Corporatist Theory. London: Sage.
    Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1968) Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. E. M.Anscombe. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1969) The Blue and Brown Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Woerdman, Edwin (1997) ‘Internationale onderhandelingen over klimaatbeleid: emissiereductie, Joint Implementation, en verhandelbare emissierechten’, Milieu, no. 5: 218–27.
    Wrong, Dennis H. (1988) Power: Its Forms, Bases and Uses. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Yearley, Stephen (1996) Sociology, Environmentalism, Globalization. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250419
    Zuckerman, Mortimer B. (1998) ‘A second American century’, Foreign Affairs, 77 (3): 18–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20048873

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website