Power in Contemporary Politics: Theories, Practices, Globalizations

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Edited by: Henri Goverde, Philip G. Cerny, Mark Haugaard & Howard H. Lentner

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    Dedication

    In Memoriam

    Susan Strange

    List of Contributors

    • BAS J.M. ARTS
    • Lecturer
    • Department of Environmental Policy Sciences
    • Faculty of Policy Sciences
    • University of Nijmegen
    • The Netherlands
    • ERKKI BERNDTSON
    • Senior Lecturer
    • Department of Political Science
    • University of Helsinki
    • Finland
    • PHILIP G. CERNY
    • Professor of Government
    • University of Manchester
    • United Kingdom
    • STEWART R. CLEGG
    • Professor of Management
    • School of Management, Faculty of Business
    • University of Technology
    • Sydney
    • Australia
    • GERHARD GOEHLER
    • Professor of Political Theory
    • Department of Political Science
    • Free University of Berlin
    • Germany
    • HENRI GOVERDE
    • Associate Professor in Public Administration
    • School of Public Affairs
    • University of Nijmegen, and
    • Professor in Political Science
    • Wageningen University and Research Center
    • The Netherlands
    • MARK HAUGAARD
    • Lecturer
    • Department of Political Science and Sociology
    • National University of Ireland
    • Galway
    • HOWARD H. LENTNER
    • Professor of Political Science
    • Baruch College and the Graduate School,
    • City University of New York
    • United States
    • ELINA PENTTINEN
    • Ph.D. Student
    • Department of Political Science and International Relations
    • University of Tampere
    • Finland
    • HILMAR ROMMETVEDT
    • Head of Research
    • RF-Rogaland Research, Stavanger, and
    • Researcher
    • Norwegian Research Centre in Organization and Management,
    • Bergen
    • Norway
    • JAN VAN TATENHOVE
    • Lecturer in Polirical Science of the Environment
    • Department of Environmental Policy Sciences
    • University of Nijmegen
    • The Netherlands
    • and
    • Associate Professor
    • Department of Political Science
    • University of Amsterdam
    • The Netherlands

    List of Tables and Figures

    Tables
    • Table 1.1 Main characteristics of transitive and intransitive power 50
    • Table 3.1 Rationalities of government: social framing of available knowledge 84
    • Table 5.1 Most important strategies and actions to achieve the organizations' goals 120
    • Table 5.2 Most important targets of influence for the organizations 120
    • Table 5.3 Frequencies of organizational contacts with various authorities 123
    • Table 5.4 Changes in the importance of contacts with different authorities 125
    • Table 5.5 Impact of organizations' views on various authorities 128
    • Table 5.6 Impact of organizational enquiries in Parliament 129
    • Table 6.1 The EAR instrument 139
    • Table 6.2 FCCC and CBD cases and the extent of political influence of global environmental NGOs 145
    Figures

    Preface

    This book was conceived and produced in order to provide an overview of current thinking and research on political power as we begin the new millennium, and is to be launched at the World Congress of the International Political Science Association in Quebec City in August 2000. The chapters included here represent the latest work of members of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power (Research Committee no. 36), formerly the IPSA Study Group on Political Power. The Study Group was set up at the 1979 IPSA World Congress in Moscow and officially became a Research Committee in 1991. The contributions of participants in various group and committee meetings over the years have always demonstrated a healthy disrespect for disciplinary boundaries, on the one hand, and familiarity with and respect for the work of others in political science and the other social sciences, as well as history and other related disciplines, on the other.

    In 1993, the group put together a special issue of the International Review of Sociology entitled On Power, edited by David A. Baldwin of Columbia University. Indeed, Professor Baldwin was the driving force of the group and later the committee for many years before stepping down as chair in 1994. Since that time, the committee has been chaired by Henri Goverde of the University of Nijmegen. The committee has organized panels of various kinds at all the triennial IPSA World Congresses, as well as holding meetings in between these congresses in order to examine and debate more focused issues at greater depth. In particular, especially with regard to the development of this book, we were invited to organize roundtable meetings at the University of Helsinki in December 1995 as part of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Finnish Association of Political Science, and we held a lively colloquium at the University of Nijmegen in the Netherlands as part of the activities marking the Second Lustrum (Quinquennium) of Nijmegen's Faculty of Policy Sciences in May 1998. These panels and meetings have brought more continuity, cohesion and collaboration to the study of power as a complex and widespread phenomenon.

    This book – Power in Contemporary Politics: Theories, Practices, Globalizations – developed out of the Nijmegen conference organized by Henri Goverde and has involved extensive collaboration and cross-fertilization among the authors as well as the editors. The contributors are grateful to the Faculty of Policy Sciences in Nijmegen, particularly the Nijmegen Centre for Business, Environment and Government, for its administrative support, accommodation and hospitality. Special thanks go to Lily van Wersch, Maurice Bogie and Annie van Bergen. The editors of the book are also grateful to the National University of Ireland in Galway, particularly the Department of Sociology and Politics and the Faculty of Arts, for hosting the final editorial meeting, organized by Mark Haugaard, in August 1999. Finally, our acquisitions editor at Sage Publishers, Lucy Robinson, offered early and continuing encouragement and support to this book, and her efforts have facilitated its timely appearance.

    We dedicate the book to the late Susan Strange, a long–time participant in the Research Committee, who saw and understood the wider horizons of power, including those that were unspoken and obscure and those, both public and private, that cut across the boundaries of disciplines and the borders of nations. She did not suffer the intellectually timid gladly, and her driving force in the study of power in the contemporary world will be sorely missed.

  • Epilogue

    The analyses of power contained in this work are quite unlike modern ‘advice books’, such as The 48 Laws of Power (1998) by Robert Greene and Joost Elffers, or classic handbooks like Machiavelli's The Prince. Such guides do not give insight into the position, function, structure and dynamics of power in communities, organizations, states and societies. In fact, they provide neither a sociology of power nor a coherent theory about power.

    The book you have just read is different, for it offers a state of the art overview of social scientific research on power. Still, there is not a complete and satisfactory theory of power, although the authors of the chapters of this work have contributed to theory construction and have demonstrated an intellectual shift in developing novel theoretical notions about power. Furthermore, they have noted new global conditions that lead to rethinking power as a key concept in the social sciences.

    An epilogue provides the opportunity to reflect upon the issues of this book, particularly to link some conclusions and trends to an ongoing research program. Based upon earlier work by the International Political Science Association (IPSA) Research Committee on Political Power, attention is focused upon certain trends discussed in the last 10 years. Moreover, potential future developments of the main themes advanced are outlined by our authors.

    The activities of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power reflect changes in the literature on power. Following the ‘classical discussion’ on power by Hunter, Dahl, Mills, Bachrach and Baratz, and Lukes – referred to by several authors in this book – research on power a decade ago focused primarily on actors. Those studying power posed such questions as the following: Who are the relevant actors in power relations? How do those actors themselves perceive their power and that of competing actors? In policy research, attention shifted in the 1980s from ‘who governs?’ to ‘how to govern?’ while, in social and political theory, Foucault's work became influential.

    As this book has explained, power analysis reflects a deep shift in social theory (Part I). Understanding the dynamics of power in different practices, particularly in multilevel governance, requires knowledge of the exercise of power, structural power and systemic power (Part II). The analysis of contemporary power in the international system, which often functions as a context for individuals, organizations, networks of private and public actors, and states, has produced a great variety of continuities and discontinuities (Part III). When reflecting on these three parts it is important to bear in mind that ‘theories, practices and globalizations’ are not separate ‘dimensions’ or ‘faces’ of power but, rather, form an integral whole.

    What type of research agenda on power can be deduced from current developments in the field of political and social power analysis? In attempting to answer such a question one of the main issues which we have to deal with concerns the question of paradigm shifts. If it is the case that the discourse of power has been radically changed since Lukes's Power (1974), is such a change likely again? It is difficult to answer this definitively because, as Thomas Kuhn argued, paradigm shifts are, by their very nature, unpredictable. However, Kuhn's work also tells us that paradigm shifts are likely if a theory has run into conceptual difficulty and if there are new data. If we look back to 1974, and the changes since then, both these elements were present. Lukes's concept of three-dimensional power was in severe conceptual difficulty. The whole idea of ‘false consciousness’ was theoretically indefensible within the tradition of remaining open to falsification that characterizes good scientific practice. On the empirical side, the events of 1989 fundamentally changed the global order. Consequently, between conceptual problems of the third dimension of power and a radical change in the world of politics, the conditions were ripe for a paradigm shift. If we look at the position now there are both similarities and differences to circumstances then. On a theoretical level there is no theoretical impasse. In fact, power analysts are still trying to come to grips with the implications of the new paradigm. On the other hand, however, empirical events are changing rapidly: we do not know if the nation-state will survive, if there will be global governance, if neoliberalism can remain a dominant discourse or if the future lies in the direction of American hegemony. In short, on a theoretical level a new paradigm shift appears unlikely but, on the other hand, it may be the case that events in the ‘world out there’ will render our present conceptual tools inadequate.

    However, for the moment, these events have not occurred. As a consequence, we, the editors of this book (and also the members of the IPSA Research Committee on Political Power), would like to invite you, our readers, to help us work out the full implications of the present paradigm.

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