Poverty and Children's Adjustment


Suniya S. Luthar

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series

    Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University

    Recent volumes in this series …


      by James H. Johnson


      2nd Ed.

      by Alan E. Kazdin

    • 10: CHILD ABUSE, 2nd. Ed.

      by David A. Wolfe


      by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen


      by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls


      by Thomas M. Achenbach and

      Stephanie H. McConaughy


      by Robert E. Emery

    • 15: AUTISM

      by Laura Schreibman


      by Scott W. Henggeler


      by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston


      by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last


      by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kaye Wilson


      by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi


      by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot


      by Joseph L. Woolston


      by George W. Hynd and Stephen R. Hooper


      by Laurie Schwab Zabin and Sarah C. Hayward


      by John R. Weisz and Bahr Weiss


      by Elisabeth M. Dykens, Robert M. Hodapp, and James F. Leckman


      by Stephen P. Hinshaw


      by Byron P. Rourke and Jerel E. Del Dotto


      by Jeffrey H. Snow and Stephen R. Hooper


      by Mark R. Dadds


      by Victor C. Strasburger


      by Joseph A. Durlak


      by Greta Francis and Rod A. Gragg


      by Robert D. Lyman and Nancy R. Campbell


      by Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan


      by David M. Brodzinsky, Daniel W. Smith, and Anne B. Brodzinsky


      by David A. Sugden and Helen Wright


      by David M. Fergusson and Paul E. Mullen


      by Suniya S. Luthar


    View Copyright Page


    For my mother, Naresh Luthar, who has made so much possible.

    Series Editor's Introduction

    Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet, only recently has the study of children benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation of the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.

    Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has proliferated considerably. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views to the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.

    The Sage Series on Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to uniquely serve several needs of the field. The Series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology which refers broadly here to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A working assumption of the Series is that understanding, identifying, and treating problems of youth must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.

    The task for individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the Series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research and clinical practice, and to outline the current status and future directions. The goals of the Series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the fields who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.

    In this book, Dr. Suniya Luthar examines Poverty and Children's Adjustment. The broad and pervasive impact of poverty on children's mental and physical health and adjustment are well-known. Dr. Luthar focuses on processes that exacerbate or ameliorate the effects on personal, emotional, and social development of the child. Among the many features that make this book unique is the focus on the moderators and mediators of poverty. Moderators, that is those factors that influence the impact of poverty, and mediators, the processes and mechanisms through which poverty influence child adjustment, lead to a meticulous evaluation of several topics critical to understanding child development. Examples include how poverty is influenced by characteristics of the child (e.g., intelligence, temperament), parents (e.g., parent psychopathology, teen pregnancy), family (e.g., marital relations, presence of extended family members), peer relations, schools, and neighborhoods, to mention a few of the topics. The book presents a sophisticated view of influences by emphasizing how the effects of risk and protective factors are modified by other influences such as ethnicity, child age and stage of development, and contexts and how influences can be reciprocal, bidirectional, and cumulative. The impact of poverty is enormous, as we are shown in this book. The global nature of the construct and the dependence on complex forces (e.g., education, economics) not easily harnessed can make conceptualization, research, and intervention daunting. Dr. Luthar conveys many specific mechanisms and processes through which the influences of poverty operate and hence provides multiple leads for advancing research and for intervening to help children. Her in-depth knowledge of key issues, current research, and theory, as well as her own program of research on risk and protective factors of children and adolescents, provide the basis for an authoritative, comprehensive, and cohesive presentation. The book is quite extraordinary in its contribution to understanding poverty and advancing prospects for improving child adjustment.

    ALAN E.Kazdin, PhDSeries Editor


    The focus of this book is on risk and protective processes that modify the effects of poverty on children's social and emotional adjustment. The attempt is to integrate findings of empirical research conducted over the past three decades, on processes implicated in the adjustment of children facing socioeconomic deprivation. The bulk of the research presented here derives from developmental psychology, a discipline which accords much emphasis to elucidating the psychological processes that underlie effects of “social address” variables, such as socioeconomic status, on child development (Bronfenbrenner, 1986; Zigler, Lamb, & Child, 1982). In addition, this review draws upon empirical evidence from several other disciplines concerned with children in poverty, including anthropology, sociology, epidemiology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and social work.

    I am deeply grateful to Alan Kazdin for the invitation to write this book, as well as for his unfailing good humor throughout the process. My special thanks to Herbert Ginsburg and Jacob Burack for their substantive comments on previous drafts, and to my students Bronwyn Becker and Shawn Latendresse for their many contributions to this effort.

    For diverse forms of support of my work, all critical, I am indebted to my mentors Edward Zigler and S. Anandalakshmy; to colleagues at Teachers College, Columbia University, the Yale Substance Abuse Center, and the APT Foundation, New Haven; and to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (grants ROM 1498, RO1-10726, P50-09241, K21-00202), the Social Sciences Research Council, and the William T. Grant Foundation. For their moral support over time and particularly through the preparation of this book, I am very grateful to my family: the late Mr. L. N. Suri, Anju Seth, Karuna Kumar, Judith Benenson, and especially my husband, Shiv, and children, Nikhil and Nina Kumar.

    Finally, I owe a great deal to collaborators in Connecticut—Andrew Karchich, Richard Mayer, George Moran, and Joyce Undella—who made it possible for me to begin, and later continue, my research on resilience and vulnerability among urban high school students. And for the many invaluable insights provided and lessons taught, my heartfelt appreciation goes to the children and families who have generously joined me in my research efforts over the years.

    Suniya S.Luthar
  • References

    Adler, N. E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R. L., & Syme, S. L.(1994).Socioeconomic status and health. The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 1524.
    Allen, J. P., Leadbeater, B. J., Aber, J. L.(1994).The development of problem behavior syndromes in at-risk adolescents. Development & Psychopathology, 6, 323–342.
    Allen, L., Denner, J., Yoshikawa, H., Seidman, E., & Aber, J. L.(1996).Acculturation and depression among Latina urban girls. In B. J.Leadbeater & J.Way (Eds.), Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities (pp. 337–352). New York: New York University Press.
    Allison, D.(1996).Two or three things I know for sure. New York: Plume.
    Alpern, L., & Lyons-Ruth, K.(1993).Preschool children at social risk: Chronicity and timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems at school and at home. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 371–387.
    Apfel, N., & Seitz, V.(1996).African-American adolescent mothers, their families, and their daughters: A longitudinal perspective over twelve years. In B. J.Leadbeater & N.Way (Eds.), Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities (pp. 149–170). New York: New York University Press.
    Apfel, N., & Seitz, V.(1997).The firstborn sons of African-American teenage mothers: Perspectives on risk and resilience. In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Weisz, (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 486–506). New York: Cambridge.
    Arroyo, C. G., & Zigler, E.(1995).Racial identity, academic achievement, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 903–914.
    Attar, B. K., Guerra, N. G., & Tolan, P. H.(1994).Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391–400.
    Azuma, S. D., & Chasnoff, I. J.(1993).Outcome of children prenatally exposed to cocaine and other drugs: A path analysis of three-year data. Pediatrics, 92, 396–402.
    Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C., & Cole, R. E.(1990).Stress-resistant families and stress-resistant children. In J.Rolf, A. S.Masten, D.Cicchetti, K. H.Nuechterlein, & S.Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 257–280). New York: Cambridge.
    Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C. P., Kasser, T., Zax, M., Sameroff, A., & Seifer, R.(1993).Contextual risk and resiliency during late adolescence. Development & Psycho-pathology, 5, 741–761.
    Barnett, W. S.(1993).Cost-benefit analysis. In L. J.Schweinhart, H. V.Barnes, & D. P.Weikart (Eds.), Significant benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 27 (pp. 142–173). Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.
    Baugher, E., & Lamison-White, L.(1996).U.S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P60-194, Poverty in the United States:1995.Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Baumrind, D.(1972).An exploratory study of socialization effects on Black children: Some Black-White comparisons. Child Development, 43, 261–267.
    Belluck, P.(1997, September 9).Tribes new power over welfare may come at too high a price. New York Timesp. A1.
    Belsky, J.(1980).Child maltreatment. An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335.
    Belsky, J.(1984).The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55, 83–96.
    Berman, S. L., Kurtines, W. M., Silverman, W. K., & Serafini, L. T.(1996).The impact of exposure to crime and violence on urban youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 329–336.
    Berrueta-Clement, J. R., Schweinhart, L. J., Barnett, W. S., Epstein, A. S., & Weikart, D. P.(1984).Changed lives: The effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youths through age 19. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.
    Bettes, B. A., Dusenbury, L., Kerner, J., James-Ortiz, S., & Botvin, G. J.(1990).Ethnicity and psychosocial factors in alcohol and tobacco use in adolescence. Child Development, 61, 557–565.
    Block, J. H., & Block, J.(1980).The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. A.Collins (Ed.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology: Vol. 13. Development of cognition, affect, and social relations (pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., Thompson, W. W., & Kupersmidt, J. B.(1995).Psychosocial adjustment among children experiencing persistent and intermittent family economic hardship. Child Development, 66, 1107–1129.
    Bowman, P. J.(1990).The adolescent-to adult transition: Discouragement among jobless black youth. In V. C.McLoyd & C. A.Flanagan (Eds.), New Directions for Child Development: Vol. 46. Economic stress: Effects on family life and child development (pp. 87–105). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Boxill, N. A., & Beaty, A. L.(1990).Mother/child interaction among homeless women and their children in a public night shelter in Atlanta, Georgia. Child and Youth Services, 14, 49–64.
    Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., & Flor, D.(1996).Parental religiosity, family processes, and youth competence in rural, two-parent African American families. Developmental Psychology, 32, 696–706
    Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D., McCrary, C., Hastings, L., & Conyers, O.(1994).Financial resources, parent psychological functioning, parent co-caregiving, and early adolescent competence in rural two-parent African-American families. Child Development, 65, 590–605.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.(1986).Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742.
    Brooks-Gunn, J.(1995).Children in families and communities: Risk and intervention in the Bronfenbrenner tradition. In P.Moen, G. H.Elder, & K.Luscher (Eds.), Examining lives in context (pp. 467–51). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Brooks-Gunn, J., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L.(1995).Adolescent parenthood. In M. H.Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of Parenting: Vol. 3. Status and social conditions of parenting (pp. 113–150). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Brooks-Gunn, J., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr.(1987).Continuity and change in the context of poverty: Adolescent mothers and their children. In J. J.Gallagher & C. T.Ramey (Eds.), The malleability of children (pp. 171–188). Baltimore: Brookes.
    Broman, C. L.(1996).Coping with personal problems. In H. W.Neighbors & J. S.Jackson (Eds.), Mental health in Black America (pp. 117–129). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Browne, A., & Bassuk, S. S.(1997).Intimate violence in the lives of homeless and poor housed women: Prevalence and patterns in an ethnically diverse sample. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 261–278.
    Brunswick, A., Lewis, C., & Messed, P.(1991).A life span perspective on drug use and affective distress in an African-American sample. Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 123–135.
    Burchinal, M. R., Follmer, A., & Bryant, D. M.(1996).The relations of maternal social support and family structure with maternal responsiveness and child outcomes among African-American families. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1073–1083.
    Burton, L.(1990).Teenage childbearing as an alternative life-course strategy in multi-generation Black families. Human Nature, 1, 123–143.
    Burton, L. M., Allison, K. W., & Obeidallah, D.(1995).Social context and adolescence: Perspectives on development among inner-city African-American teens. In L. J.Crockett & A. C.Crouter (Eds.), Pathways through adolescence: Individual development in relation to social contexts (pp. 119–138). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Canino, I., Gould, M., Prupis, S., & Shaffer, D.(1986).A comparison of symptoms and diagnoses in Hispanic and Black children in an outpatient mental health clinic. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 254–259.
    Cantwell, D., & Rutter, M.(1994).Classification: Conceptual and substantive issues. In M.Rutter, E.Taylor, & L.Hersov (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (3rd ed., pp. 3–21). Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific.
    Carnegie Corporation. (1994).Starting points: Meeting the needs of our youngest children. Carnegie Task Force. New York: Author.
    Cauce, A. M.(1986).Social networks and social competence: Exploring the effects of early adolescent friendships. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 607–628.
    Chaffin, M., Kelleher, K., & Hollenberg, J.(1996).Onset of physical abuse and neglect: Psychiatric, substance abuse, and social risk factors from prospective community data. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 191–203.
    Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Zamsky, E. S.(1994).Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: Quality of mothering and grandmothering. Child Development, 65(2), 373–393.
    Chase-Lansdale, P. L., & Gordon, R. A.(1996).Economic hardship and the development of five-and six-year olds: Neighborhood and regional perspectives. Child Development, 67, 3338–3367.
    Chavez, E. L., Oetting, E. R., & Swaim, R. C.(1994).Dropout and delinquency: Mexican-American and Caucasian Non-Hispanic youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 47–55.
    Christoffel, K. K.(1997).Firearm injuries affecting U.S. children and adolescents. In J. D.Osofsky (Ed.), Children in a violent society (pp. 42–71). New York: Guilford.
    Chute, C.(1985).The beans of Egypt, Maine. New York: Ticknor & Fields.
    Cicchetti, D.(1993).Developmental psychopathology: Reactions, reflections, projections. Developmental Review, 13, 471502.
    Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M.(1995).Failures in the expectable environment and their impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment. In D.Cicchetti & D. J.Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation, Vol. 2. (pp. 32–71). New York: Wiley.
    Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Lynch, M., & Holt, K. D.(1993).Resilience in maltreated children: Processes leading to adaptive outcomes. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 629–648.
    Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L.(1995).Developmental psychopathology and disorders of affect. In D.Cicchetti & D. J.Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation, Vol. 2. (pp. 369–420). New York: Wiley.
    Cohler, B. J., Stott, F. M., & Musick, J. S.(1995).Adversity, vulnerability, and resilience. Cultural and developmental perspectives. In D.Cicchetti, & D. J.Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Vol. 2. Risk, disorder and adaptation (pp. 753–800). New York: Wiley.
    Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Terry, R., & Wright, V.(1990).The role of aggression in peer relations: An analysis of aggression episodes in boys' play groups. Child Development, 62, 812–826.
    Coie, J. D., & Jacobs, M. R.(1993).The role of social context in the prevention of conduct disorder. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 263–275.
    Coie, J. D., Terry, R., Lenox, K., Lockman, J., & Hyman, C.(1995).Childhood peer rejection and aggression as predictors of stable patterns of adolescent disorder. Development & Psychopathology, 7, 697–713.
    Coie, J. D., Terry, R., Zakriski, A., & Lockman, J.(1995).Early adolescent social influences on delinquent behavior. In J.McCord (Ed.), Coercion and punishment in long-term perspectives (pp. 229–244). New York: Cambridge.
    Comer, J. P.(1988).Educating poor minority children. Scientific American, 259, 42–48.
    Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992).A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorders: The Fast Track Program. Development & Psychopathology, 4, 509–527.
    Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., & Elder, G. H.(1997).Family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment: Mediating and moderating processes. In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 288–310). New York: Russell Sage.
    Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L.(1994).Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541–561.
    Connell, J. P., Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Clifford, E., Crichlow, W., & Usinger, P.(1995).Hanging in there: Behavioral, psychological, and contextual factors affecting whether African American adolescents stay in high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 41–63.
    Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L.(1994).Educational risk and resilience in African-American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development, 65, 493–506.
    Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Stangl, D. K., Tweed, D. L., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. M.(1996).The Great Smoky Mountains Study of youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 1129–1136.
    Costello, E. J., Farmer, M. Z., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., & Erkanli, A.(1997).Psychiatric disorders among American Indian and White youth in Appalachia: The Great Smoky Mountains Study. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 827–832.
    Coulton, C. J., Korbin, J. E., So, M., & Chow, J.(1995).Community level factors and child maltreatment rates. Child Development, 66, 1262–1276.
    Cowen, E. L., Hightower, A. D., Pedro-Carroll, J. L., Work, W. C., Wyman, P. A., & Haffrey, W. G.(1996).School-based prevention for children at risk: The Primary Mental Health Project. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Wyman, P. A.(1997). In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti., & J. R.Weisz, (Eds.) Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 527–547). New York: Cambridge.
    Crittenden, P. M.(1985).Maltreated infants: Vulnerability and resilience. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 26, 85–96.
    Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T.(1994).Maternal depression and child development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 73–112.
    Danziger, S., & Danziger, S.(1993).Child poverty and public policy: Toward a comprehensive antipoverty agenda. Daedalus: America's Childhood, 122, 57–84.
    de Vries, M. W.(1984).Temperament and infant mortality among the Masai of East Africa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1189–1194.
    de Cubas, M. M., & Field, T.(1993).Children of methadone-dependent women: Developmental outcomes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 266–276.
    Dembo, R., Blount, W. R., Schmeidler, J., & Burgos, W.(1986).Perceived environmental drug use risk and the correlates of early drug use or nonuse among inner-city youths: The motivated actor. International Journal of the Addictions, 21, 977–1000.
    DiBiase, R., & Waddell, S.(1995).Some effects of homelessness on the psychological functioning of preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 783–791.
    Dishion, T. J., Andrews, D. W., & Crosby, L.(1995).Antisocial boys and their friends in early adolescence: Relationship characteristics, quality, and interactional process. Child Development, 66, 139–152.
    Dodge, K. A., Coie, J. D., Pettit, G. S., & Price, J. M.(1990).Peer status and aggression in boys' groups: Developmental and contextual considerations. Child Development, 61, 1289–1309.
    Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E.(1994).Socialization mediators of the relation between socioeconomic status and child conduct problems. Child Development, 65, 649–665.
    DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Brand, S., Adan, A. M., & Evans, E. G.(1992).A prospective study of life stress, social support, and adaptation in early adolescence. Child Development, 63, 542–557.
    DuBois, D. L., Felner, R. D., Meares, G., & Krier, M.(1994).Prospective investigation of the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage, life stress, and social support on early adolescent adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 511–522.
    Dubow, E. F., Edwards, S., & Ippolito, M. F.(1997).Stress, neighborhood disadvantage, and resources: A focus on inner-city children's adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 130–144.
    Dumas, J. E., & Wekerle, C.(1995).Maternal reports of child behavior problems and personal distress as predictors of dysfunctional parenting. Development & Psycho-pathology, 7, 465–479.
    Duncan, G. J.(1994).The economic environment of childhood. In A. C.Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty (pp. 23–50). New York: Cambridge.
    Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997a).Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage.
    Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J.(1997b).Income effects across the life span: Integration and interpretation. In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 541–595). New York: Russell Sage.
    Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P. K.(1994).Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development, 65, 296–318.
    Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M.(1981).Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
    DuRant, R. H., Getts, A., Cadenhead, C., Emans, S. J. & Woods, E. R.(1995).Exposure to violence and victimization and depression, hopelessness, and purpose in life among adolescents living in and around public housing. Development & Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 233–237.
    Eckenrode, J., Rowe, E., Laird, M., & Brathwaite, J.(1995).Mobility as a mediator of the effects of child maltreatment on academic performance. Child Development, 66, 1130–1142.
    Egami, Y., Ford, D. E., Greenfield, S. F., & Crum, R. M.(1996).Psychiatric profile and sociodemographic characteristics of adults who report physically abusing or neglecting children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 921–928
    Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Sroufe, L. A.(1993).Resilience as process. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 517–528.
    Egeland, B., & Kreutzer. (1991).A longitudinal study of the effects of maternal stress and protective factors on the development of high-risk children. In E. M.Cummings, A. L.Greene, & K. H.Karraker (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 61–84). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Egeland, B., & Sroufe, A.(1981).Developmental sequelae of maltreatment. In R.Rizley & D.Cicchetti (Eds.), New directions for child development: Developmental perspectives in child maltreatment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Elder, G. H.(1974).Children of the Great Depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Elder, G. H., Liker, J. K., & Cross, C. E.(1984).Parent-child behavior in the Great Depression: Life course and intergenerational influences. Life Span Development and Behavior, 6, 109–158.
    Elder, G., Nguyen, T., & Caspi, A.(1985).Linking family hardship to children's lives. Child Development, 56, 361–375.
    Elliot, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S.(1985).Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Ensminger, M. E., Lamkin, R. P., & Jacobson, N.(1996).School leaving: A longitudinal perspective including neighborhood effects. Child Development, 67, 2400–2416.
    Entwisle, D. R., & Astone, N. M.(1994).Some practical guidelines for measuring youth's race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Child Development, 65, 1521–1540.
    Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S.(1994).The gender gap in math: Possible origins in neighborhood effects. American Sociological Review, 59, 822–838.
    Fabrega, H., Ulrich, R., & Loeber, R.(1996).Adolescent psychopathology as a function of informant and risk status. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 27–34.
    Fantuzzo, J. W., McDermott, P. A., Manz, P. H., Hampton, V. R., & Burdick, N. A.(1996).The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance: Does it work with low-income urban children?Child Development, 67, 10711084.
    Farber, E. A., & Egeland, B.(1987).Invulnerability among abused and neglected children. In E. J.Anthony & B. J.Cohler (Eds.), The invulnerable child (pp. 253–288). New York: Guilford Press.
    Feiner, R. D., Aber, M. S., Primavera, J., & Cauce, A. M.(1985).Adaptation and vulnerability in high-risk adolescents: An examination of environmental mediators. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 365–379.
    Feiner, R. D., Brand, S., DuBois, D. L., Adan, A. M., Mulhall, P. F., & Evans, E. G.(1995).Socioeconomic disadvantage, proximal environmental experiences, and socioemotional and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Investigation of a mediated effects model. Child Development, 66, 774–792.
    Felsman, J. K., & Vaillant, G. E.(1987).Resilient children as adults: A 40 year study. In E. J.Anthony & B. J.Cohler (Eds.), The invulnerable child (pp. 289–314). New York: Guilford.
    Fergusson, D.M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M.(1994).The childhoods of multiple problem adolescents: A 15-year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 35, 1128–1140.
    Fergusson, D. M., & Lynskey, M. T.(1996).Adolescent resiliency to family adversity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 281–292.
    Finn, J. D., & Rock, D. A.(1997).Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 221–234.
    Fitzpatrick, K. M.(1993).Exposure to violence and presence of depression among low-income African-American youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 528–531.
    Flanagan, C. A.(1990).Change in family work status: Effects on parent-adolescent decisionmaking. Child Development, 61, 163–177.
    Florsheim, P., Tolan, P. H., & Gorman-Smith, D.(1996).Family process and risk for externalizing behavior problems among African-American and Hispanic boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 1222–1230.
    Ford, D. Y., & Harris, J. J., III. (1996).Perceptions and attitudes of Black students toward school, achievement, and other educational variables. Child Development, 67, 1141–1152.
    Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U.(1986).Black students' school success: Coping with the burden of “acting white.”The Urban Review, 18, 176–206.
    Fowler, C. M.(1996).Before women had wings. New York: Fawcett Columbine.
    Freeman, L. N., Mokros, H., & Poznanzki, E. O.(1993).Violent events reported by normal urban school-aged children: Characteristics and depression correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 419–423.
    Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., & Harris, K. M.(1993).When and why fathers matter: Impacts of father involvement on children of adolescent mothers. In R. I.Lerman & T. J.Ooms (Eds.), Young unwed fathers (pp. 117–138). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Garbarino, J.(1995).The American war zone: What children can tell us about living with violence. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 431–434.
    Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K., & Dubrow, N.(1991).No place to be a child. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D.(1980).High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188–198.
    Garcia Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & Vasquez Garcia, H.(1996).An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914.
    Garcia Coll, C. T., Meyer, E. C., & Brillon, L.(1995).Ethnic and minority parenting. In M. H.Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 2, pp. 189–210). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Garcia Coll, C. T., & Vasquez Garcia, H. A.(1995).Hispanic children and their families: On a different track from the very beginning. In H. E.Fitzgerald, B. M.Lester, & B.Zuckerman (Eds.), Children of poverty: Research, health, and policy issues (pp. 57–83). New York: Garland Publishing.
    Garmezy, N.(1991).Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416–430.
    Gaudin, J. M., Polansky, N. A., Kilpatrick, A. C., & Shilton, P.(1993).Loneliness, depression, stress, and social supports in neglectful families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 597–605.
    Geronimus, A. T. & Korenman, S.(1992).The socioeconomic consequences of teen childbearing reconsidered. Quarterly Journal of Economics, November, 1187–1214.
    Ginsburg, H. P.(1986).The myth of the deprived child: New thoughts on poor children. In U.Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children: New perspectives (pp. 169–189). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Giovannoni, J., & Billingsley, A.(1970).Child neglect among the poor: A study of parental adequacy in families of three ethnic groups. Child Welfare196–204.
    Glueck, S., & Glueck, E.(1950).Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: Commonwealth Fund.
    Gonzales, N. A., Cauce, A. M., Friedman, R., & Mason, C. A. (In press). Family, peer and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: One year prospective effects. American Journal of Community Psychology
    Goodman, R., Simonoff, E., & Stevenson, J.(1995).The impact of child IQ, parent IQ, and sibling IQ on child behavioral deviance scores. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 409–425.
    Graham, S.(1992).“Most of the subjects were white and middle class.”American Psychologist, 47, 629–639.
    Graham, S., & Hoehn, S.(1995).Children's understanding of aggression and withdrawal as social stigmas: An attributional analysis. Child Development, 66, 1143–1161.
    Graham, S., & Hudley, C.(1994).Attributions of aggressive and nonaggressive African-American male early adolescents: A study of construct accessibility. Developmental Psychology, 30, 365–373.
    Haapasalo, J., & Tremblay, R.E.(1994).Physically aggressive boys from ages 6 to 12: Family background, parenting behavior and prediction of delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1044–105.
    Hammond, W. R., & Yung, B.(1993).Psychology's role in the public health response to assaultive violence among young African-American men. American Psychologist, 48, 142–154.
    Harnish, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Valente, E.(1995).Mother-child interaction quality as a partial mediator of the roles of maternal depressive symptomatology and socioeconomic status in the development of child behavior problems. Child Development, 66, 739–753.
    Harwood, R. L., Schoelmerich, A., Ventura Cook, E., Schulze, P. A., & Wilson, S. P.(1996).Culture and class influences on Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers' beliefs regarding long-term socialization goals and child behavior. Child Development, 67, 2446–2461.
    Hashima, P. Y., & Amato, P. R.(1994).Poverty, social support, and parental behavior. Child Development, 65, 394–403.
    Hauser, R. M.(1994).Measuring socioeconomic status in studies of child development. Child Development, 65, 1541–1545.
    Hauser, R. M., & Sweeney, M. M.(1997).Does poverty in adolescence affect the life chances of high school graduates? In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 518–540). New York: Russell Sage.
    Hausman, B., & Hammen, C.(1993).Parenting in homeless families: The double crisis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 358–369.
    Hawley, T. L., & Disney, E. R.(1992).Crack's children: The consequences of maternal cocaine abuse. Society for Research in Child Development Social Policy Report6: (Winter).
    Hawkins, J. D., & Weis, J. G.(1985).The social development model: An integrated approach to delinquency prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 6, 73–97.
    Haynes, N. M., & Comer, J. P.(1996).Integrating schools, families, and communities through successful school reform: The School Development program. School Psychology Review, 25, 501–506.
    Herrnstein, R. A., & Murray, C.(1994).The bell curve. New York: Grove Press.
    Hetherington, M. E.(1997).Teenaged childbearing and divorce. In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Weisz, (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 350–373). New York: Cambridge.
    Hobfoll, S. E., Ritter, C., Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M. R., & Cameron, R. P.(1995).Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 445–453.
    Hook, M. P. V.(1990).The Iowa farm crisis: Perceptions, interpretations, and family patterns. In V. C.McLoyd & C. A.Flanagan (Eds.), New Directions for Child Development (Vol 46, pp. 71–86). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Hubbs-Tait, L., Hughes, K. P., Culp, A. M., Osofsky, J. D., Hann, D. M., Eberhart-Wright, A., & Ware, L. M.(1996).Children of adolescent mothers: Attachment representation, maternal depression, and later behavior problems. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 416426.
    Huston, A. C.(1994a).Children in poverty: Developmental and policy issues. In A. C.Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty (pp. 1–22). New York: Cambridge.
    Huston, A. C.(1994b).Children in poverty: Designing research to affect policy. Social Policy Report, 8, 1–12. Ann Arbor, MI: Society for Research in Child Development.
    Huston, A. C., McLoyd, V. C., & Garcia Coll, C.(1994).Children and poverty: Issues in contemporary research. Child Development, 65, 275–282.
    Huston, A. C., McLoyd, V. C., & Garcia Coll, C.(1998).Poverty and behavior: The case for multiple methods and levels of analysis. Developmental Review, 17, 376–393.
    Jarrett, R. L.(1990).A comparative examination of socialization patterns among low-income African-Americans, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and whites: A review of the ethnographic literature. Washington, DC: Social Sciences Research Council.
    Jarrett, R. L.(1994).Living poor: Family life among single parent, African-American women. Social Problems, 41, 30–49.
    Jarrett, R. L.(1995).Growing up poor: The family experiences of socially mobile youth in low-income African-American neighborhoods. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 111–135.
    Jessor, R., Van Den Bos, J., Vanderryn, J., Costa, F. M., & Turbin, M. S.(1995).Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923–933.
    Juarez, S. C., Viega, B., & Richards, M. H.(1997, April).The moderating effect of family environment on exposure to violence and PTSD symptoms. Paper presented at the biennial conference of the Society for Research on Child Development, Washington DC.
    Kagan, J.(1971).Change and continuity in infancy. New York: Wiley.
    Kazdin, A. E.(1995).Conduct disorders in childhood and adolescence (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kellam, S. G.(1987).Contributions by the Society for Life History Research on psycho-pathology: Epidemiology, life course development, and family research. Psychiatry, 50, 303–307.
    Kellam, S. G., Ensminger, M. E., & Turner, R. J.(1977).Family structure and the mental health of children: Concurrent and longitudinal community wide studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1012–1022.
    Kelley, M. L., Power, T. G., Wimbush, D. D.(1992).Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers. Child Development, 63, 573–582.
    Kendler, K.(1995).Genetic epidemiology in psychiatry: Taking both genes and environment seriously. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 895–899.
    Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H., & Kendler, K. S.(1994).Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IIIR psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.
    Kessler, R. C., & Neighbors, H. W.(1986).A new perspective on the relationships among race, social class, and psychological distress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27, 107–115.
    Klerman, L. V.(1994).The health of poor children: Problems and programs. In A. C.Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty (pp. 136–157). New York: Cambridge.
    Knitzer, J.(1996).Children's mental health: Changing programs and policies. In E. F.Zigler, S. L.Kagan, & N. W.Hall (Eds.), Children, families, and government: Preparing for the 21st century (pp. 207–232). New York: Cambridge.
    Knitzer, J. (In press). Early childhood mental health services through a policy and systems perspective. In S. J.Meisels & J. P.Shonkoff, (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge.
    Koblinsky, S. A., Morgan, K. M., & Anderson, E. A.(1997).African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: Comparison of parenting practices. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry67. 31–41.
    Kupersmidt, J. B., Griesler, P. C., DeRosier, M. E., Patterson, C. J., & Davis, P. W.(1995).Childhood aggression and peer relations in the context of family and neighborhood factors. Child Development, 66, 360375.
    Leadbeater, B. J., Bishop, S. J., & Raver, C. C.(1996).Quality of mother-toddler interactions, maternal depressive symptoms, and behavior problems in preschoolers of adolescent mothers. Developmental Psychology, 32, 280–288.
    Leadbeater, B. J., Hellner, I., Allen, P. J., Aber, J. L.(1989).Assessment of interpersonal negotiation strategies in youth engaged in problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 25, 465–472
    Leadbeater, B. J., Way, N., & Raden, A.(1997).Why not marry your baby's father? Answers from African-American and Hispanic adolescent mothers. In B. J.Leadbeater & N.Way (Eds.), Urban girls: Resisting stereotypes, creating identities (pp. 193–212). New York: New York University Press.
    LeCompte, M. D., & Preissle, J.(1993).Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. New York: Academic Press.
    Lempers, J. D., Clark-Lempers, D., & Simons, R. L.(1989).Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence. Child Development, 60, 25–39.
    Lepper, M. R., Sethi, S., Dialdin, D., & Drake, M.(1997).Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A developmental perspective. In S. S.Luthar, J.Burack, D.Cicchetti, and J.Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 23–50). New York: Cambridge.
    Lerman, R. L., & Ooms, T. J.(1993).Young unwed fathers. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Lewis, O.(1966).The culture of poverty. Scientific American, 215, 19–25.
    Lipman, E. L., & Offord, D. R.(1997).Psychosocial morbidity among poor children in Ontario. In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 239–287). New York: Russell Sage.
    Loeber, R., & Dishion, T.(1983).Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68–99.
    Luster, T., & McAdoo, H. P.(1994).Factors related to the achievement and adjustment of young African American children. Child Development, 65, 1080–1094.
    Luster, T., & McAdoo, H.(1996).Family and child influences on educational attainment: A secondary analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool data. Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 26–39.
    Luthar, S. S.(1991).Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616.
    Luthar, S. S.(1995).Social competence in the school setting: Prospective cross-domain associations among inner-city teens. Child Development, 66, 416–429.
    Luthar, S. S.(1997).Sociodemographic disadvantage and psychosocial adjustment: Perspectives from developmental psychopathology. In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Weisz, (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 459–485). New York: Cambridge.
    Luthar, S. S., & Burack, J. A. (in press). Adolescent wellness: In the eye of the beholder? In D.Cicchetti, J.Rappaport, I.Sandler, & R.Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Luthar, S. S., & Cushing, G.(1997).Substance use and personal adjustment among disadvantaged teenagers: A six-month prospective study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26, 353–372.
    Luthar, S. S., Cushing, G., & McMahon, T.(1997).Substance abusers and their families: Developmental perspectives. In S. S.Luthar, J.Burack, D.Cicchetti, and J.Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 437–458). New York: Cambridge.
    Luthar, S. S., Cushing, G., Merikangas, K., & Rounsaville, B. J.(1998).Multiple jeopardy: Risk/protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring. Development & Psychopathology, 10, 117–136.
    Luthar, S. S., & McMahon, T.(1996).Peer reputation among adolescents: Use of the Revised Class Play with inner-city teens. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 581–603.
    Luthar, S. S., & Suchman, N. E. (In press). Relational psychotherapy mothers' group: A developmentally informed intervention for at-risk mothers. Development & Psychopathology. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
    Luthar, S. S., & Zigler, E.(1991).Vulnerability and competence: A review of research on resilience in childhood. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 6–22.
    Lyons-Ruth, K., Zoll, D., Connell, D., Grunebaum, H. U.(1989).Family deviance and family disruption in childhood: Association with maternal behavior and infant maltreatment during the first two years of life. Development & Psychopathology, 1, 219–236.
    Lynam, D., Moffitt, T., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M.(1993).Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, test motivation, school failure, or self-control?Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 187–196.
    MacPhee, D., Fritz, J., & Miller-Heyl, J.(1996).Ethnic variations in personal social networks and parenting. Child Development, 67, 3278–3295.
    MacPhee, D., Kreutzer, J. C., & Fritz, J. J.(1994).Infusing a diversity perspective into human development courses. Child Development, 65, 699–715.
    Magnusson, D., & Bergman, L.(1988).Individual and variable-based approaches to longitudinal research on early risk factors. In M.Rutter (Ed.), Studies of Psychosocial Risk (pp. 45–61). Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge.
    Marans, S., & Adelman, A.(1997).Experiencing violence in a developmental context. In J. D.Osofsky (Ed.), Children in a violent society (pp. 202–221). New York: Guilford.
    Marans, S., Adnopoz, J., Berkman, M., Esserman, D., MacDonald, D., Nagler, S., Randall, R., Schaefer, M., & Wearing, M.(1995).Police mental health partnership: A community based response to urban violence. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Martinez, P., & Richters, J. E.(1993).The NIMH Community Violence Project: II. Children's distress symptoms associated with violence exposure. Psychiatry, 56, 22–35.
    Mason, C. A., Cauce, A. M., Gonzales, N., & Hiraga, Y.(1996).Neither too sweet nor too sour: Problem peers, maternal control, and problem behavior in African American adolescents. Child Development, 67, 2115–2130.
    Mason, C. A., Cauce, A. M., Gonzales, N., Hiraga, Y., & Grove, K.(1994).An ecological model of externalizing behaviors in African-American adolescents: No family is an island. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 639–655.
    Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N.(1990).Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development & Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.
    Masten, A. S., Sesma, A., Si-Asar, R., Lawrence, C., Miliotis, D., & Dionne, J. A.(1997).Educational risks for children experiencing homelessness. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 27–46.
    Mayer, S. E.(1997).What money can't buy: Family income and children's life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mayes, L. C., & Bornstein, M. H.(1997).The development of children exposed to cocaine. In S. S.Luthar, J.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 166–188). New York: Cambridge.
    McGee, R., Feehan, M., Williams, S., & Anderson, J.(1992).DSM-III disorders from age 11 to age 15 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 50–59.
    McGee, R. A., Wolfe, D. A., & Wilson, S. K.(1997).Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: Adolescents' perspectives. Development & Psychopathology, 9, 131–150.
    McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G.(1994).Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    McLanahan, S. S.(1997).Parent absence or poverty: Which matters more? In G. J.Duncan & J.Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 35–48). New York: Russell Sage.
    McLoyd, V. C.(1990).The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346.
    McLoyd, V. C.(1997).Children in poverty: Development, public policy, and practice. In W.Damon, I. E.Siegel, & K. A.Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.): Child psychology in practice (pp. 135–208). New York: Wiley.
    McLoyd, V. C., Jayaratne, T. E., Ceballo, R., & Borquez, J.(1994).Unemployment and work interruption among African-American single mothers: Effects on parenting and adolescent socioemotional functioning. Child Development, 65, 562–589.
    McLoyd, V. C., & Wilson, L.(1990).Maternal behavior, social support, and economic conditions as predictors of distress in children. In V. C.McLoyd & C. A.Flanagan (Eds.), New directions for child development (Vol. 46) Economic stress: Effects on family life and child development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
    McLoyd, V. C., & Wilson, L.(1994).The strain of living poor: Parenting, social support, and child mental health. In A. C.Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty (pp. 105–135). New York: Cambridge.
    Merton, R. K.(1968).Social theory and social structure (enlarged ed.). New York: Free Press.
    Miringoff, M. L., Miringoff, M., & Opdycke, S.(1996).Monitoring the nation's social performance: The index of social health. In E. F.Zigler, S. L.Kagan, & N. W.Hall (Eds.), Children, families, and government: Preparing for the 21st century (pp. 10–30). New York: Cambridge.
    Moffitt, T. E.(1993a).Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.
    Moffitt, T. E.(1993b).Neuropsychology of conduct disorder. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 135–151.
    Mowry, J.(1992).Way past cool. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Murphy, J. M., Jellinek, M., Quinn, D., Smith, G., Poitrast, F. G., & Goshko, M.(1991).Substance abuse and serious child mistreatment: Prevalence, risk, and outcome in a court sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 15, 197–211.
    National Adolescent Health Resource Center(1996).Voice of Connecticut Youth: A statewide survey of adolescent health. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.
    National Center for Children in Poverty(1996).One in four: America's youngest poor. New York: Columbia School of Public Health.
    National Research Council. (1993).Losing generations: Adolescents in high-risk settings. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Natriello, G., McDill, E. L., & Pallas, A. M.(1990).Schooling disadvantaged children: Racing against catastrophe. New York: Teachers College Press
    Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (Eds.) (1996).Mental health in black America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Nitz, K., Ketterlinus, R. D., & Brandt, L. J.(1995).The role of stress, social support, and family environment in adolescent mothers' parenting. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 358–382.
    O'Connor, T. G., & Rutter, M.(1996).Risk mechanisms in development: Some conceptual and methodological considerations. Developmental Psychology, 32, 787–195.
    Offord, D., Boyle, M., & Racine, Y.(1991).Ontario child health study: Children at risk. Ontario, Canada: Queen's Printer for Ontario.
    Ogbu, J. U.(1988).A cultural ecology of competence among inner-city blacks. In M.Spencer, G.Brookins, & W.Allen (Eds.), Beginnings: The social and affective development of black children (pp. 45–66). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Ogbu, J. U.(1991).Minority coping responses and school experience. Journal of Psychohistory, 18, 433–456.
    Osborn, A. F.(1990).Resilient children: A longitudinal study of high achieving socially disadvantaged children. Early Child Development and Care, 62, 23–47.
    Osofsky, J. D.(1995).The effects of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist, 50, 782–788.
    Peterson, P. L., Hawkins, J. D., Abbott, R. D., & Catalano, R. F.(1994).Disentangling the effects of parental drinking, family management, and parental alcohol norms on current drinking by black and white adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 203–227.
    Phinney, J. S.(1990).Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.
    Pianta, R. & Egeland, B.(1990).Life stress and parenting outcomes in a disadvantaged sample: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction project. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 329–336.
    Pianta, R. C., & Egeland, B.(1994).Relation between depressive symptoms and stressful life events in a sample of disadvantaged mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1229–1234.
    Pianta, R. C., Egeland, B. & Sroufe, L. A.(1990).Maternal stress and children's development: prediction of school outcomes and identification of protective factors. In J.Rolf, A. S.Masten, D.Cicchetti, K. H.Nuechterlein, & S.Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 215–235). New York: Cambridge.
    Plomin, R. D.(1994).Genetics and experience: The interplay between nature and nurture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Plomin, R.(1995).Genetics and children's experiences in the family. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 33–68.
    Posner, J. K., & Vandell, D. L.(1994).Low-income children's after-school care: Are there beneficial effects of after-school programs?Child Development, 65, 440–456.
    Prinz, R. J., & Miller, G. E.(1991).Issues in understanding and treating childhood conduct problems in disadvantaged populations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 379–385.
    Quay, H. C.(1993).The psychobiology of undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder: A theoretical perspective. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 165–180.
    Quinton, D., Rutter, M., & Gulliver, L.(1990).Continuities in psychiatric disorders from childhood to adulthood in the children of psychiatric patients. In L.Robins & M.Rutter (Eds.), Straight and devious pathways from childhood to adulthood (pp. 259–278). New York: Cambridge.
    Rende, R., & Plomin, R.(1993).Families at risk for psychopathology: Who becomes affected and why?Development & Psychopathology, 5, 529–540.
    Reis, J., Barbera-Stein, L., & Bennett, S.(1986).Ecological determinants of parenting. Family Relations, 35, 547–554.
    Reynolds, A. J.(1998).Resilience among black urban youth: Prevalence, intervention effects, and mechanisms of influence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 84–100.
    Richters, J. E., & Cicchetti, D.(1993).Mark Twain meets DSM-IIIR: Conduct disorders, development, and the concept of harmful dysfunction. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 5–29.
    Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E.(1993).Violent communities, family choices, and children's chances: An algorithm for improving the odds. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 609–627.
    Ripple, C., & Luthar, S. S.(1998).Long-term predictors of academic adjustment and high school dropout among inner-city adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Rogler, L. H.(1996).Editorial: Increasing socioeconomic inequalities and the mental health of the poor. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 719–722.
    Rowe, D. C., & Rodgers, J. L.(1998).Poverty and behavior: Are environmental measures nature and nurture?Developmental Review, 17, 358–375.
    Rowe, D. C., Vazsonyi, A. T., Flannery, D. J.(1994).No more than skin deep: Ethnic and racial similarity in developmental process. Psychological Review, 101, 396–413.
    Rutter, M.(1979).Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W.Kent, & J. E.Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention in psychopathology (pp. 49–74). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
    Rutter, M.(1989a).Temperament: Conceptual issues and clinical implications. In G. A.Kohnstamm, J. E.Bates, & M. K.Rothbart (Eds.), Temperament in childhood (pp. 463–479). New York: Wiley.
    Rutter, M.(1989b).Isle of Wight revisited: Twenty-five years of child psychiatric epidemiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 633–653.
    Rutter, M.(1990).Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J.Rolf, A. S.Masten, D.Cicchetti, K. H.Nuechterlein, & S.Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181–214). New York: Cambridge.
    Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J.(1975).Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D.Horowitz, M.Hetherington, S.Scarr-Salapatek, & G.Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 43, pp. 187–244). Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Zax, M., & Barocas, R.(1987).Early indicators of developmental risk: The Rochester Longitudinal Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 383–393.
    Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Bartko, W. T.(1997).Environmental perspectives on adaptation during childhood and adolescence. In S. S.Luthar, J. A.Burack, D.Cicchetti, & J. R.Weisz, (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 507–526). New York: Cambridge.
    Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H.(1994).Urban poverty and the family context of delinquency: A new look at structure and process in a classic study. Child Development, 65, 523–540.
    Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F.(1997).Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.
    Sanders-Phillips, K., Moisan, P. A., Wadlington, S., Morgan, S., English, K.(1995).Ethnic difference in psychological functioning among black and latino sexually abused girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 691–706.
    Schnitzer, P. K.(1996).“They don't come in!” Stories told, lessons taught about poor families in therapy. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 572–582.
    Schwab-Stone, M. E., Ayers, T. S., Kasprow, W., Voyce, C., Barone, C., Shriver, T., Weissberg, R. P.(1995).No safe haven: A study of violence exposure in an urban community. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1343–1352.
    Schweinhart, L. J., Barnes, H. V., & Weikart, D. P. (Eds.) (1993).Significant benefits: The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 27. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope.
    Seidman, E., Allen, L., Aber, J. L., Mitchell, C., & Feinman, J.(1994).The impact of school transitions in early adolescence on the self-system and perceived social context of poor urban youth. Child Development, 65, 507–522.
    Seitz, V. (In press). Effective interventions for adolescent mothers. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice
    Seitz, V., & Apfel, N. H.(1997, April).Gender of the firstborn child affects life outcomes for urban teenage mothers. Poster presented at the biennial conference of the Society for Research on Child Development, Washington DC.
    Shaw, D. S., Owens, E. B., Vondra, J. I., & Keenan, K., & Winslow, E. B.(1996).Early risk factors and pathways in the development of early disruptive behavior problems. Development & Psychopathology, 8, 679–699.
    Shaw, D. S., Vondra, J. I., Hommerding, K. D., Keenan, K., & Dunn, M.(1994).Chronic family adversity and early child behavior problems: A longitudinal study of low income families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1109–1122.
    Simon, D., & Burns, E.(1997).The corner: A year in the life of an inner-city neighborhood. New York: Broadway Books.
    Singer, M. I., Anglin, T. M., Song, L. Y., & Lunghofer, L.(1995).Adolescents' exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 477–482.
    Slaughter-Defoe, D. T., Nakagawa, K., Takanishi, R., & Johnson, D. J.(1990).Toward cultural/ecological perspectives on schooling and achievement in African- and Asian-American children. Child Development, 61, 363–383.
    Smith, J., & Prior, M.(1995).Temperament and stress resilience in school-age children: A within-families study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 168–179.
    Sontag, D.(1997, August 11).U.S. deports felons but can't keep them out. New York Timesp. A8.
    Spencer, M.B.(1988).Self-concept development. In D. T.Slaughter (Ed.), Black children and poverty: A developmental perspective. New Directions for Child Development 42, pp. 59–72. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Spencer, M. B.(1995).Old issues and new theorizing about African-American Youth: A phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory. In R. L.Taylor (Ed.), Black youth: Perspectives on their status in the United States (pp. 37–69). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Spencer, M. B., Cole, S. P., DuPree, D., Glymph, A., & Pierre, P.(1993).Self-efficacy among urban African American early adolescents: Exploring issues of risk, vulnerability, and resilience. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 719–739.
    Spencer, M.B., & Markstom-Adams, C.(1990).Identity processes among racial and ethnic minority children in America. Child Development, 61, 290–310.
    Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Kreutzer, T.(1990).The fate of early experience following developmental change: Longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood. Child Development, 61, 1363–1373.
    Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M.(1984).The domain of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17–29.
    Stattin, H., & Magnusson, D.(1996).Antisocial development: A holistic approach. Development & Psychopathology, 8, 617–646.
    Steinberg, L.(1987, April 25).Why Japan's students outdo ours. New York Timesp. A15.
    Steinberg, L. L., Darling, N. E., Fletcher, A. C., Brown, B. B, & Dornbusch, S. M.(1995).Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment: An ecological journey. In P.Moen, G. H.Elder, & K.Luscher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 423–466). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Steele, C. M.(1997).A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629.
    Stevens, J. H.(1988).Social support, locus of control, and parenting in three low-income groups of mothers: black teenagers, black adults, and white adults. Child Development, 59, 635–642.
    Stipek, D.(1997).Success in school: for a head start in life. In S. S.Luthar, J.Burack, D.Cicchetti, and J.Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 75–92). New York: Cambridge.
    Sullivan, M. L.(1996).Developmental transitions in poor youth: Delinquency and crime. In J. A.Graber, J.Brooks-Gunn, and A. C.Petersen (Eds.), Transitions through adolescence: Interpersonal domains and context (pp. 141–164). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Tarter, R. E., & Vanyukov, M. (in press). Re-visiting the validity of the construct of resilience. In M.Glantz, Z.Sloboda, and L. C.Huffman, (Eds.), Resiliency and development: Positive life adaptations. New York: Plenum.
    Taylor, R. D.(1996).Adolescents' perceptions of kinship support and family management practices: Associations with adolescent adjustment in African-American families. Developmental Psychology, 32, 687–695.
    Taylor, R. D., Casten, R., & Flickinger, S.(1993).The influence of kinship social support on the parenting experiences and psychosocial adjustment of African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29, 382–388.
    Tolan, P. T.(1996).How resilient is the concept of resilience?The Community Psychologist, 29, 12–15.
    Trickett, P. K., Aber, J. L., Carlson, V., & Cicchetti, D.(1991).Relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and developmental sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 27, 148–158
    Verhulst, F. C., & Koot, H. M.(1992).Child psychiatric epidemiology: Concepts, methods, and findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wakschlag, L. S., Chase-Lansdale, P. L., Brooks-Gunn, J.(1996).Not just “Ghost in the nursery”: Contemporaneous intergenerational relationships and parenting in young African-American families. Child Development, 67, 2131–2147.
    Wall, J. E., & Holden, E. W.(1994).Aggressive, assertive, and submissive behaviors in disadvantaged, inner-city preschool children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 382–390.
    Wasserman, G. A., Rauh, V. A., Brunelli, S. A., Garcia-Castro, M., & Necos, B.(1990).Psychosocial attributes and life experiences of disadvantaged minority mothers: age and ethnic variations. Child Development, 61, 566–580.
    Weist, M. D., Freedman, A. H., Paskewitz, D. A., Proescher, E. J., & Flaherty, L. T.(1995).Urban youth under stress: Empirical identification of protective factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 705–721.
    Weisz, J., McCarty, C. A., Eastman, K. L., Chaiyasit, W., & Suwanlert, S.(1997).Developmental psychopathology and culture: Ten lessons from Thailand. In S. S.Luthar, J.Burack, D.Cicchetti, and J.Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 568–592). New York: Cambridge.
    Wentzel, K. R., & Asher, S. R.(1995).The academic lives of neglected, rejected, popular, and controversial children. Child Development, 66, 754–763.
    Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S.(1992).Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., Kiely, K., Bredin, E., & Spencer, T. J.(1995).Pilot study of behavioral and emotional disturbances in the high-risk children of parents with opioid dependence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 779–785.
    Wills, T., Vaccaro, D., & McNamara, G.(1992).The role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: A test of vulnerability and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 349–374.
    Wilson, M. N.(1984).Mothers' and grandmothers' perceptions of parental behavior in three-generational black families. Child Development, 55, 1333–1339.
    Wilson, W. J.(1987).The truly disadvantaged: The inner-city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Wilson, W. J.(1991).Studying inner-city social dislocations: The challenge of public agenda research. American Sociological Review, 56, 1–14.
    Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Kerley, J. H.(1993).The role of children's future expectations in self-system functioning and adjustment to life-stress: A prospective study of urban at risk children. Development & Psychopathology, 5, 649–661.
    Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Parker, G. R.(1991).Developmental and family milieu interview correlates of resilience in urban children who have experienced major life-stress. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 405–426.
    Yoshikawa, H.(1994).Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 28–54.
    Yoshikawa, H., & Knitzer, J.(1997).Lessons from the field: Head Start mental health strategies to meet changing needs. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty.
    Zaslow, M. J., & Takanishi, R.(1993).Priorities for research in adolescent development. American Psychologist, 48, 185–192.
    Zigler, E.(1993).Communicating effectively before members of congress. In K.McCartney & D.Phillips (Eds.), An insider's guide to providing expert testimony before Congress (pp. 11–15). Chicago: Society for Research in Child Development.
    Zigler, E. F., & Gilman, E.(1996).Not just any care: Shaping a coherent child care policy. In E. F.Zigler, S. L.Kagan, & N. W.Hall (Eds.), Children, families, and government: Preparing for the 21st century (pp. 94–116). New York: Cambridge.
    Zigler, E. F., Kagan, S. L., & Hall, N. W. (Eds.). (1996).Children, families, and government: Preparing for the 21st century. New York: Cambridge.
    Zigler, E. F., & Styfco, S.(1996).Head Start and early childhood intervention: The changing course of social science and social policy. In E. F.Zigler, S. L.Kagan, & N. W.Hall (Eds.), Children, families, and government: Preparing for the 21st century (pp. 132–155). New York: Cambridge.
    Zima, B. T., Wells, K. B., Benjamin, B., Duan, N.(1996).Mental health problems among homeless mothers: Relationship to service use and child mental health problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 332–338.
    Zimmerman, M. A., Salem, D. A., & Maton, K. I.(1995).Family structure and psychosocial correlates among urban African-American adolescent males. Child Development, 66, 1598–1613.
    Zuckerman, B.(1994).Effects on parents and children. In D. J.Besharov (Ed.), When drug addicts have children: Reorienting child welfare's response (pp. 49–64). Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.

    Author Index

    • Abbott, R. D., 35
    • Aber, J. L., 11, 17, 20, 35, 46, 49
    • Aber, M. S., 48
    • Adelman, A., 70, 71
    • Adler, N. E., 4
    • Ageton, S. S., 71
    • Alexander, K. L., 11
    • Allen, J. P., 20
    • Allen, L., 35, 46
    • Allen, P. J., 17
    • Allison, D., 24
    • Allison, K. W., 25
    • Alpern, L., 41
    • Amato, P. R., 31, 60
    • Anderson, E. A., 66
    • Anderson, J., 12
    • Andrews, D. W., 64
    • Anglin, T. M., 71
    • Angold, A., 35
    • Apfel, N., 10, 26, 28, 47, 60, 61
    • Apfel, N. H., 34
    • Arroyo, C. G., 32, 64
    • Asher, S. R., 65
    • Astone, N. M., 84
    • Attar, B. K., 46, 68
    • Azuma, S. D., 43
    • Baldwin, A. L., 29, 36, 47, 61
    • Baldwin, C., 47
    • Barbera-Stein, L., 25
    • Barnes, H. V., 89
    • Barnett, W. S., 89
    • Barocas, R., 53
    • Bassuk, S. S., 45
    • Bates, J. E., 8, 13
    • Bauger, E., 30
    • Baumrind, D., 29, 78
    • Beaty, A. L., 66, 67
    • Belluck, P., 1
    • Belsky, J., 44, 49, 60
    • Benjamin, B., 66
    • Bennett, S., 25
    • Bergman, L., 84
    • Berman, S. L., 60, 70, 71
    • Berrueta-Clement, J. R., 89
    • Best, K. M., 3
    • Bettes, B. A., 33
    • Biederman, J., 43
    • Billingsley, A., 46, 66
    • Block, J., 16
    • Block, J. H., 16
    • Blount, W. R., 68
    • Bolger, K. E., 8, 23(n4), 52
    • Bornstein, M. H., 42, 43
    • Borquez, J., 8
    • Botvin, G. J., 33
    • Bowman, P. J., 10, 34
    • Boxili, N. A., 66, 67
    • Brandt, L. J., 28
    • Brathwaite, J., 11
    • Bredin, E., 43
    • Brillon, L., 28
    • Brody, G. H., 51, 52, 61, 79, 87
    • Broman, C. L., 36
    • Bronfenbrenner, U., xi, 75, 83
    • Brooks-Gunn, J., 10, 12, 13, 23(n4), 25, 26, 44, 69, 83
    • Brown, B. B., 83
    • Browne, A., 45
    • Brunelli, S. A., 25
    • Brunswick, A., 20
    • Bryant, D. M., 27
    • Burack, J. A., 65, 80
    • Burchinal, M. R., 27, 60
    • Burgos, W., 68
    • Burns, B. J., 35
    • Burns, E., 47, 78
    • Burton, L., 25, 28, 77, 78, 79
    • Cadenhead, C., 50
    • Cameron, R. P., 41
    • Canino, I., 33
    • Cantwell, D., 82
    • Carlson, E., 2
    • Carlson, V., 49
    • Caspi, A., 8
    • Casten, R., 60
    • Catalano, R. F., 35
    • Cauce, A. M., 29, 47, 48, 63, 64
    • Ceballo, R., 8
    • Chaffin, M., 43, 50
    • Chaiyasit, W., 3
    • Chandler, M. J., 75
    • Chase-Lansdale, P. L., 10, 25, 27, 28, 32, 44, 68
    • Chasnoff, I. J., 43
    • Chavez, E. L., 31
    • Chow, J., 69
    • Christoffel, K. K., 34
    • Chute, C., 40
    • Cicchetti, D., 16, 18, 41, 49, 50, 51, 64, 71, 75, 78
    • Clark-Lempers, D., 13
    • Clifford, E., 9
    • Cohler, B. J., 3, 78, 79, 92
    • Coie, J. D., 63, 64, 65, 71
    • Cole, R. E., 47
    • Cole, S. P., 16
    • Comer, J. P., 62, 89, 90
    • Conger, K. J., 9
    • Conger, R. D., 9, 51, 53
    • Connell, D., 44
    • Connell, J. P., 9, 11, 16, 19, 27, 48
    • Costa, F. M., 8
    • Costello, E. J., 2, 35, 84
    • Coulton, C. J., 69
    • Cowen, E. L., 14, 16, 17, 44, 48, 52, 75, 87
    • Crichlow, W., 9
    • Crittenden, P. M., 15, 50
    • Crosby, L., 64
    • Cross, C. E., 15
    • Crum, R. M., 43
    • Cummings, E. M., 41
    • Cushing, G., 20, 27, 36
    • Danziger, S., 4
    • Darling, N. E., 83
    • Davies, P. T., 41
    • Davis, P. W., 68
    • de Vries, M.W., 15
    • deCubas, M. M., 43
    • Dembo, R., 68
    • Denner, J., 46
    • DeRosier, M. E., 68
    • Dialdin, D., 62
    • DiBiase, R., 67
    • Dishion, T., 64, 83
    • Disney, E. R., 43
    • Dodge, K. A., 8, 13, 35, 51, 52, 63, 72
    • Dornbusch, S. M., 83
    • Drake, M., 62
    • Duan, N., 66
    • DuBois, D. L., 8, 46, 48, 62
    • Dubow, E. F., 64
    • Dubrow, N., 71
    • Dumas, J. E., 42
    • Duncan, G. J., 12, 13, 23(n4), 30, 68, 83
    • Dunn, L. M., 45
    • Dunn, M., 8
    • DuPree, D., 16
    • DuRant, R. H., 50, 71
    • Dusenbury, L., 33
    • Earls, F., 70
    • Eastman, K. L., 3
    • Eckenrode, J., 11, 49, 69
    • Edwards, S., 64
    • Egami, Y., 43, 49
    • Egeland, B., 2, 15, 19, 23(n4), 44, 46, 50
    • Elder, G., 8, 51, 52
    • Elder, G. H., 2, 9, 15, 51, 76
    • Elliott, D. S., 71
    • Emans, S. J., 50
    • English, K., 33
    • Ensminger, M. E., 11, 12, 27, 67, 68
    • Entwisle, D. R., 11, 84
    • Epstein, A. S., 89
    • Erkanli, A., 35
    • Fabrega, H., 36
    • Fantuzzo, J., 76
    • Farber, E. A., 15
    • Farmer, M. Z., 35
    • Feehan, M., 12
    • Feinman, J., 35
    • Feiner, R. D., 8, 48, 51, 52, 62, 84
    • Felsman, J. K., 19
    • Fergusson, D. M., 14, 54, 57n, 85
    • Field, T., 43
    • Finn, J. D., 19
    • Fitzpatrick, K. M., 12, 70
    • Flaherty, L. T., 15
    • Flanagan, C. A., 9
    • Flannery, D. J., 29
    • Fletcher, A. C., 83
    • Flickinger, S., 60
    • Flor, D., 61
    • Florsheim, P., 33
    • Follmer, A., 27
    • Ford, D. E., 43
    • Ford, D. Y., 62, 63
    • Fordham, S., 32
    • Fowler, C. M., 74
    • Freedman, A. H., 15
    • Freeman, L. N., 71
    • Friedman, R., 47
    • Fritz, J., 28, 66
    • Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., 10, 26, 49
    • Garbarino, J., 69, 70, 71
    • Garcia-Castro, M., 25
    • Garcia Coll, C., 2, 25, 28, 33, 55, 75, 76
    • Garcia Coll, C. T., 3, 26, 61
    • Garmezy, N., 2, 3
    • Gaudin, J. M., 60
    • Ge, X., 51
    • Geronimus, A. T., 25
    • Getts, A., 50
    • Gilman, E., 88
    • Ginsburg, H. P., 31
    • Giovannoni, J., 46, 66
    • Glueck, E., 52
    • Glueck, S., 52
    • Glymph, A., 16
    • Gonzales, N., 29, 47
    • Goodman, R., 45
    • Gordon, R. A., 32, 68
    • Gorman-Smith, D., 33
    • Gould, M., 33
    • Graham, S., 17, 18, 76, 77, 85, 91
    • Greenfield, S. F., 43
    • Griesler, P. C., 68
    • Grove, K., 29
    • Grunebaum, H. U., 44
    • Guerra, N. G., 46
    • Gulliver, L., 85
    • Haapasalo, J., 47
    • Hall, N. W., 75
    • HalpernFelsher, B. L., 9
    • Hammen, C., 66, 67
    • Hammond, W. R., 34, 64
    • Harnish, J. D., 52
    • Harris, J. J., III, 62, 63
    • Harris, K. M., 49
    • Harwood, R. L., 29, 78, 79
    • Hashima, P. Y., 31, 60
    • Hauser, R. M., 84
    • Hausman, B., 66, 67
    • Hawkins, J. D., 35, 71
    • Hawley, T. L., 43
    • Haynes, N. M., 89, 90
    • Hellner, I., 17
    • Herrnstein, R. A., 31
    • Hetherington, M. E., 10, 26, 35
    • Hiraga, Y., 29
    • Hobfoll, S. E., 41, 85
    • Hoehn, S., 17, 77
    • Holden, E. W., 8
    • Hollenberg, J., 43
    • Holt, K. D., 16
    • Hommerding, K. D., 8
    • Hook, M. P. V., 9
    • Horwood, L. J., 57n
    • Hubbs-Tait, L., 42
    • Hudley, C., 17, 18, 77
    • Huizinga, D., 71
    • Hulsizer, M. R., 41
    • Huston, A. C., 2, 39(n2), 53, 55, 65, 66, 75, 92
    • Hyman, C., 65
    • Ippolito, M. F., 64
    • Jackson, J. S., 36
    • Jacobs, M. R., 64, 71
    • Jacobson, N., 11
    • James-Ortiz, S., 33
    • Jarrett, R. L., 47, 52, 79, 80, 92
    • Jayaratne, T. E., 8
    • Jessor, R., 8, 13, 33, 54
    • Johnson, D. J., 76
    • Juarez, S. C., 8, 48
    • Kagan, J., 18
    • Kagan, S. L., 75
    • Kazdin, A. E., 8, 82, 91
    • Keenan, K., 8, 48
    • Kellam, S. G., 27, 81
    • Kelleher, K., 43
    • Kelley, M. L., 25, 30, 61
    • Kendler, K., 55
    • Kerley, J. H., 16
    • Kerner, J., 33
    • Kessler, R. C., 30, 35, 39(n4)
    • Ketterlinus, R. D., 28
    • Kiely, K., 43
    • Kilpatrick, A. C., 60
    • Klebanov, P. K., 23(n4)
    • Klerman, L. V., 42
    • Knitzer, J., 75, 87, 88, 91, 92
    • Koblinsky, S. A., 66, 67
    • Koot, H. M., 81
    • Korbin, J. E., 69
    • Korenman, S., 25
    • Kostelny, K., 71
    • Kreutzer, J. C., 28
    • Kreutzer, T., 19
    • Krier, M., 8
    • Kupersmidt, J. B., 8, 68
    • Laird, M., 11
    • Lamison-White, L., 30
    • Lamkin, R. P., 11
    • Laub, J. H., 51, 52
    • Lavin, J., 41
    • Leadbeater, B. J., 17, 20, 42, 48, 49
    • LeCompte, M. D., 79
    • Lempers, J. D., 13, 51, 52
    • Lenox, K., 65
    • Lepper, M. R., 62
    • Lerman, R. L., 38(nl)
    • Lewis, C., 20
    • Lewis, O., 53
    • Liker, J. K., 15
    • Lipman, E. L., 4
    • Lochman, J., 64, 65
    • Loeber, R., 36, 83
    • Lorenz, F. O., 51
    • Lunghofer, L., 71
    • Luster, T., 19, 27, 44, 45, 47, 53
    • Luthar, S. S., 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 27, 31, 33, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 64, 65, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 91
    • Lynam, D., 12, 32
    • Lynch, M., 16, 49, 50, 51
    • Lynskey, M. T., 14, 54, 57n, 85
    • Lyons-Ruth, K., 41, 44
    • MacPhee, D., 28, 66
    • Magnusson, D., 84, 85
    • Marans, S., 70, 71, 75
    • Markstron-Adams, C., 76, 81
    • Martinez, P., 70, 71, 72
    • Mason, C. A., 29, 47, 68
    • Masten, A. S., 3, 5, 14, 61, 67
    • Maton, K. I., 27
    • Mayer, S. E., 83
    • Mayes, L. C., 42, 43
    • McAdoo, H., 19, 27, 44, 45, 47, 53
    • McCarty, C. A., 3
    • McDill, E. L., 88
    • McGee, R., 8, 12
    • McLanahan, S., 25, 26
    • McLoyd, V. C., 2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 28, 30, 47, 51, 53, 55, 60, 61, 66, 75, 76
    • McMahon, T., 27, 64, 81
    • McNamara, G., 64
    • Meares, G., 8
    • Merikangas, K., 36
    • Merton, R. K., 76
    • Messeri, P., 20
    • Meyer, E. C., 28
    • Miller, G. E., 80
    • Miller-Heyl, J., 66
    • Miringoff, M., 2
    • Miringoff, M. L., 2
    • Mitchell, C., 35
    • Moffitt, T., 12
    • Moffitt, T. E., 13, 18, 65, 82
    • Moisan, P. A., 33
    • Morgan, K. M., 66
    • Morgan, S., 33
    • Mo wry, J., 7
    • Murphy, J. M., 42
    • Murray, C., 31
    • Musick, J. S., 3, 92
    • Nakagawa, K., 76
    • Natriello, G., 88
    • Necos, B., 25
    • Neighbors, H. W., 30, 36
    • Nguyen, T., 8
    • Nitz, K., 28
    • Obeidallah, D., 25
    • O'Connor, T. G., 81, 82, 83
    • Oetting, E. R., 31
    • Offord, D. R., 4
    • Ogbu, J. U., 21, 28, 32
    • Olson, L. S., 11
    • Ooms, T. J., 38(nl)
    • Opdycke, S., 2
    • Osborn, A. F., 26, 48
    • Osofsky, J. D., 70, 72
    • Owens, E. B., 48
    • Pallas, A. M., 88
    • Parker, G. R., 14
    • Paskewitz, D. A., 15
    • Patterson, C. J., 8, 68
    • Peterson, P. L., 35, 47
    • Pettit, G. S., 8, 13, 63
    • Phinney, J. S., 81
    • Pianta, R., 44, 46, 47
    • Pierre, P., 16
    • Plomin, R., 18, 54, 55, 58n, 83
    • Polansky, N. A., 60
    • Posner, J. K., 62
    • Power, T. G., 25, 30
    • Preissle, J., 79
    • Price, J. M., 63
    • Primavera, J., 48
    • Prinz, R. J., 80
    • Prior, M., 14, 15, 46, 47
    • Proescher, E. J., 15
    • Prupis, S., 33
    • Quay, H. C., 18
    • Quinton, D., 85
    • Raden, A., 48
    • Raudenbush, S. W., 70
    • Rauh, V. A., 25
    • Reis, J., 25, 41
    • Rende, R., 55
    • Reynolds, A. J., 19, 86
    • Richards, M. H., 8
    • Richters, J. E., 64, 70, 71, 72
    • Ripple, C., 11, 12, 13, 19, 31, 33
    • Ritter, C., 41
    • Rock, D. A., 19
    • Rodgers, J. L., 55
    • Rogler, L. H., 2, 84
    • Rogosch, F. A., 16
    • Rounsaville, B. J., 36
    • Rowe, D. C., 29, 30, 55
    • Rowe, E., 11
    • Rutter, M., 3, 8, 15, 18, 19, 53, 62, 66, 75, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85
    • Salem, D. A., 27
    • Sameroff, A. J., 53, 75
    • Sampson, R. J., 51, 52, 70
    • Sandefur, G., 25
    • Sanders-Phillips, K., 33
    • Schmeidler, J., 68
    • Schnitzer, P. K., 92
    • Schoelmerich, A., 29
    • Schulze, P. A., 29
    • Schwab-Stone, M. E., 70, 71
    • Schweinhart, L. J., 89
    • Seidman, E., 35, 46, 64
    • Seifer, R., 53
    • Seitz, V., 10, 26, 28, 34, 47, 60, 61, 75, 87
    • Sethi, S., 62
    • Shafer, D., 33
    • Shaw, D. S., 8, 48, 54
    • Sherman, D., 69
    • Shilton, P., 60
    • Simon, D., 47, 78
    • Simonoff, E., 45
    • Simons, R. L., 13, 51
    • Singer, M. I., 71
    • Slaughter-Defoe, D. T., 76
    • Smith, J., 14, 15, 46, 47
    • Smith, R. S., 2, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 47, 61, 62, 63
    • Song, L. Y., 71
    • Sontag, D., 59
    • Spencer, M. B., 11, 16, 32, 34, 75, 76, 81, 91
    • Spencer, T. J., 43
    • Sroufe, A., 50
    • Sroufe, L. A., 2, 18, 19, 44, 75, 78
    • Stattin, H., 85
    • Steele, C. M., 11, 31, 32, 36
    • Steinberg, L., 65, 83
    • Stevens, J. H., 44, 60
    • Stevenson, J., 45
    • Stipek, D., 62
    • Stoneman, Z., 61
    • Stott, F. M., 3, 92
    • Stouthamer-Loeber, M., 12
    • Styfco, S., 94(n3)
    • Su, M., 69
    • Suchman, N. E., 42, 43, 44, 87
    • Sullivan, M. L., 32
    • Suwanlert, S., 3
    • Swaim, R. C., 31
    • Sweeney, M. M., 84
    • Takanishi, R., 76
    • Tarter, R. E., 17
    • Taylor, R. D., 60, 61
    • Terry, R., 63, 64, 65
    • Thompson, W. W., 8
    • Tolan, P. H., 33, 46
    • Tolan, P. T., 17
    • Toth, S. L., 18, 41, 75
    • Tremblay, R. E., 47
    • Trickett, P. K., 49
    • Tubin, M. S., 8
    • Turner, R. J., 27
    • Ulrich, R., 36
    • Usinger, P., 9
    • Vaccaro, D., 64
    • Vaillant, G. E., 19
    • Valente, E., 52
    • Van Den Bos, J., 8
    • Vandell, D. L., 62
    • Vanderryn, J., 8
    • Vanyukov, M., 17
    • Vasquez Garcia, H. A., 3, 26, 33, 61
    • Vazsonyi, A. T., 29
    • Ventura-Cook, E., 29
    • Verhulst, F. C., 81
    • Viega, B., 8
    • Vondra, J. I., 8, 48
    • Waddell, S., 67
    • Wadlington, S., 33
    • Wakschlag, L. S., 44
    • Wall, J. E., 8
    • Wasserman, G. A., 25, 33, 41
    • Way, N., 48
    • Weikart, D. P., 89
    • Weis, J. G., 71
    • Weist, M. D., 15, 48
    • Weisz, J., 3, 36
    • Wekerle, C., 42
    • Wells, K. B., 66
    • Wentzel, K. R., 65
    • Werner, E. E., 2, 5, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 47, 61, 62, 63
    • Wilens, T. E., 43
    • Williams, S., 12
    • Wills, T., 64
    • Wilson, L., 9, 12, 13, 61, 66
    • Wilson, M. N., 27, 60
    • Wilson, S. K., 9
    • Wilson, S. P., 29
    • Wilson, W. J., 12, 32, 69
    • Wimbush, D. D., 25, 30
    • Winslow, E. B., 48
    • Wolfe, D. A., 9
    • Woods, E. R., 50
    • Woolston, J. W., 82
    • Work, W. C., 14, 16, 17
    • Wright, V., 63
    • Wyman, P. A., 14, 16, 17, 46
    • Yoshikawa, H., 46, 75, 87
    • Yung, B., 34, 64
    • Zakriski, A., 64
    • Zamsky, E. S., 25
    • Zaslow, M. J., 76
    • Zax, M., 53
    • Zigler, E., xi, 5, 14, 32, 64
    • Zigler, E. F., 75, 88, 92, 94(n3)
    • Zima, B. T., 66, 67
    • Zimmerman, M. A., 27, 49
    • Zoll, D., 44
    • Zuckerman, B., 43

    About the Author

    Suniya S. Luthar is Associate Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, and Director of Child & Family Research at the APT Foundation, New Haven. She received a Masters degree in Child Development from Delhi University, India, and a PhD in Developmental/Clinical Psychology from Yale University. Her interests are in developmental psychopathology and current studies involve adjustment processes among inner-city and suburban youth; vulnerability and resilience among substance abusers' children; and group psychotherapy for at-risk mothers. Professional honors include a dissertation award from the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and a Boyd McCandless Young Scientist Award from APA's Division 7.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website