Post-Conflict Reconstruction: From Extremism to Peaceful Co-Existence is a comprehensive presentation on the root causes of state fragility, which provides an enabling environment for violent religious extremism. It addresses various security, political, socio-economic and external factors that contribute to state fragility, which is further enhanced in a conflict environment. The book deals closely with the use of violence due to ideological, religious and political reasons. By analyzing the situations in the post-conflict states of Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria and Libya, the book establishes the co-relationship between state fragility and religious extremism in post-conflict settings. The book emphasizes the need to address the grievances of marginalized sections in all countries with fragile state structures that usually take to violence to make their voices heard. It also highlights the imperative for swift rehabilitation of poor people—who typically bear the brunt of conflicts and are often displaced forcefully—for restoring peace and security, and averting future disturbance.
Post-Conflict Fragility and Road to Extremism in Libya
After remaining a colony of Italy for decades, Libya finally got independence in 1951. Its post-independence ruler, Shah Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi, was oriented towards the West. Under his reign, Libya enjoyed good relations with both the UK and the USA and allowed both the countries to set up military bases in Libya. This led to resentment from Arab nationalists in the region, as well as from within the country. Idris was finally overthrown by Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi in a bloodless coup d’état in 1969 and established the ‘Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Arabic for State of the masses), premised on his own philosophy of governance’.1 Gaddafi was ...