Post-Conflict Reconstruction: From Extremism to Peaceful Co-Existence is a comprehensive presentation on the root causes of state fragility, which provides an enabling environment for violent religious extremism. It addresses various security, political, socio-economic and external factors that contribute to state fragility, which is further enhanced in a conflict environment. The book deals closely with the use of violence due to ideological, religious and political reasons. By analyzing the situations in the post-conflict states of Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria and Libya, the book establishes the co-relationship between state fragility and religious extremism in post-conflict settings. The book emphasizes the need to address the grievances of marginalized sections in all countries with fragile state structures that usually take to violence to make their voices heard. It also highlights the imperative for swift rehabilitation of poor people—who typically bear the brunt of conflicts and are often displaced forcefully—for restoring peace and security, and averting future disturbance.

Introduction
Introduction

The world's persistent drift into extremism is a worrisome trend. In the past 18 years, the international community has lost both men and material in the fight against this menace. The USA alone has spent between US$2.8 and US$5.9 trillion between 2001 and 2019 on the war on terrorism (WoT), which has so far claimed 60,000 lives, either killed or injured.1 Although persistent and unrelenting efforts by the international community have done incredible damage to various Islamist terror outfits and greatly reduced the number of terrorist attacks to an unprecedented level, religious extremism still remains a lethal threat to the international peace and security. The Global Terrorism Index 2019 compiled by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism recorded:

The ...

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