Political Economy of Caste in India presents the caste mode of production as an important analytical tool to understand the socio-economic and political dynamics of India. The book looks at caste from the economic base and also links it with the superstructure that includes judiciary, untouchability practices, caste atrocities against Dalits, social exclusion and so on. It presents empirical studies to show that the social habits of discrimination and crimes against the marginalized communities prevail even in the 21st century to physically alienate them from mainstream opportunities and ensure involuntary supply of labour at lower wages. It articulates that the economic intensity of caste can be discerned through the caste mode of production. The study brings out the limitations of some of the Marxists’ understanding of caste. It also presents a distinct approach for comprehending caste and suggests that the human rights perspective is one of the ways to combat it.