Short chapter-opening cases followed by basic facts, key developments related to the chapter's theme, and related theoretical approaches help students understand key content. Insightful coverage on how the various approaches work together shows students how theories can be applied in a range of contexts. Discussion of empirical studies outside the Western cultural tradition and across a wide range of countries contributes to students’ understanding of cross-cultural influences. A separate chapter on gender discusses traditional and evolving views of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. An entire chapter on the clinical domain covers mental health, personality disorders, treatments, and applications relevant to students. Check and Apply Your Knowledge boxes include critical thinking questions that ask students to apply relevant theories to their everyday experiences. Self-reflection boxes ask students to think critically about their own lives, activities, accomplishments, and setbacks–all in the context of chapter content. Chapter-ending Visual Reviews help students understand each chapter’s key concepts.

The Cognitive Tradition
Chapter 8 the cognitive tradition

“Love is a striking example of how little reality means to us.”

—Marcel Proust (1871–1922), French novelist
Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Identify the main principles and historical contexts of the cognitive tradition
  • Describe the three fields of cognitive science and their impact on personality psychology
  • Explain how attitude is studied in order to assess personality
  • Discuss the personal-constructs approach to personality
  • Identify cultural aspects associated with the self
  • Explain how literature and the inner world are relevant to personality psychology

Abby and Brittany Hensel are conjoined twins: They have two arms and two legs total, but they have two separate heads, their own hearts, two stomachs, and two spinal cords. They learned from a young age to move and ...

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