Short chapter-opening cases followed by basic facts, key developments related to the chapter's theme, and related theoretical approaches help students understand key content. Insightful coverage on how the various approaches work together shows students how theories can be applied in a range of contexts. Discussion of empirical studies outside the Western cultural tradition and across a wide range of countries contributes to students’ understanding of cross-cultural influences. A separate chapter on gender discusses traditional and evolving views of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. An entire chapter on the clinical domain covers mental health, personality disorders, treatments, and applications relevant to students. Check and Apply Your Knowledge boxes include critical thinking questions that ask students to apply relevant theories to their everyday experiences. Self-reflection boxes ask students to think critically about their own lives, activities, accomplishments, and setbacks–all in the context of chapter content. Chapter-ending Visual Reviews help students understand each chapter’s key concepts.

The Behavioral Learning Tradition
Chapter 6 the behavioral learning tradition

“What is love except another name for the use of positive reinforcement?”

—B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), American psychologist
Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Identify the main principles and historical contexts of the behavioral learning tradition
  • Explain why early comparative psychologists linked animal and human behavior
  • Discuss the principles of reflexology and conditioned reflexes
  • Identify Watson’s three founding principles of behaviorism
  • Discuss Holt’s and Tolman’s findings on molar responses and purposive or operational behaviorism
  • Discuss Skinner’s principles of operant conditioning
  • Discuss Rotter’s and Bandura’s social learning theories
  • Identify ways to apply the principles of the behavioral learning tradition to individual experience and behavior

A few hours on the plane, a short bus trip through the mountains—and finally I had a chance ...

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