Short chapter-opening cases followed by basic facts, key developments related to the chapter's theme, and related theoretical approaches help students understand key content. Insightful coverage on how the various approaches work together shows students how theories can be applied in a range of contexts. Discussion of empirical studies outside the Western cultural tradition and across a wide range of countries contributes to students’ understanding of cross-cultural influences. A separate chapter on gender discusses traditional and evolving views of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. An entire chapter on the clinical domain covers mental health, personality disorders, treatments, and applications relevant to students. Check and Apply Your Knowledge boxes include critical thinking questions that ask students to apply relevant theories to their everyday experiences. Self-reflection boxes ask students to think critically about their own lives, activities, accomplishments, and setbacks–all in the context of chapter content. Chapter-ending Visual Reviews help students understand each chapter’s key concepts.

The Psychoanalytic Tradition

Chapter 4 the psychoanalytic tradition

“Your vision will become clear only when you can look into your own heart. Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.”

—Carl Jung (1875–1961)

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Identify the founders and historical contexts of the psychoanalytic tradition
  • Summarize the key theories of Freud, Adler, and Jung
  • Identify ways to apply the key principles of the psychoanalytic tradition to individual experience and behavior

Some years ago, journalist Stephen Glass wrote false stories for more than 40 articles for the New Republic, Rolling Stone, and other popular magazines in the United States. He didn’t just add a few creative details to those stories: He simply fabricated them. He made up his interviewees and created fake business ...

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