Short chapter-opening cases followed by basic facts, key developments related to the chapter's theme, and related theoretical approaches help students understand key content. Insightful coverage on how the various approaches work together shows students how theories can be applied in a range of contexts. Discussion of empirical studies outside the Western cultural tradition and across a wide range of countries contributes to students’ understanding of cross-cultural influences. A separate chapter on gender discusses traditional and evolving views of sex, gender, and sexual orientation. An entire chapter on the clinical domain covers mental health, personality disorders, treatments, and applications relevant to students. Check and Apply Your Knowledge boxes include critical thinking questions that ask students to apply relevant theories to their everyday experiences. Self-reflection boxes ask students to think critically about their own lives, activities, accomplishments, and setbacks–all in the context of chapter content. Chapter-ending Visual Reviews help students understand each chapter’s key concepts.

Scientific Foundations

Chapter 2 scientific foundations

“There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.”

—Socrates (469–399 BCE), Greek philosopher

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Explain the role of the scientific method in studying personality
  • Summarize the major influences of the sciences, social sciences, and the humanities on the study of personality
  • Identify ways to apply scientific knowledge about personality to self, to others, and to the world

What would you prefer to receive as a gift: a 2012, preowned car right now or a brand new car in 2 years? Consider another choice: a $500 prize today or a $3,000 one the year after your graduation? Are you a person who usually waits? Or do you habitually follow your immediate impulses?

The phenomenon known ...

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