Person-Centred Therapy with Children and Young People


David Smyth

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Author

    David Smyth undertook his professional training as a person-centred therapist at the University of East Anglia under its director Professor Brian Thorne. This represented a significant career change that followed thirty years working in the UK's National Health Service and as a bursar at a Cambridge college. He decided to develop his interest in working with children and young people and undertook further training in the Republic of Ireland over the ensuing five years.

    Resident in Suffolk, David established an independent practice that has steadily grown to become a full time commitment. His varied practice includes children, young people, adults and couples, undertaking occasional legal work and providing a psychotherapy service to an independent school.

    David is married with two grown up children. Away from his professional work, he enjoys coastline walks and exploring the woods and heathland in his locality together with his wife and his English Setter, Hugo.

    Foreword by Michael Behr

    This is a book not only about working as but also about becoming a child and adolescent psychotherapist. In this, it is a unique work. David Smyth discloses his personal journey into his profession. As the reader, I witness his journey from being externally driven, feeling and doing what others subtly convey, towards becoming a therapist who gives himself as a congruent person into an authentic relationship. I was fascinated to read how his experiential mode of being lends an outstanding quality to the therapeutic processes he thus facilitates today. I envy his young clients and their parents/caregivers in how lucky they are to experience a therapist who has gone through so many of the personal distresses of everyday life which they now face – and who is so very aware of this. Childhood, adolescence, being adult: how life issues transfer through development and turn into constructive changes. There is a saying that the really great psychotherapists are unpretentious and humble people who are very much conscious of their personal limits. David Smyth's work is a great support for this claim, and his book offers a kaleidoscope view of how clients may feel deeply understood out of such a position, and distinctively facilitated in their development.

    As the book proceeds, it deals further with scholarly and very practical questions within child and adolescent psychotherapy, and the counselling of parents/caregivers. In this David Smyth proves to be a thorough reader and thinker who has taken a wide field of literature into account but also finds personal solutions to the issues in question. Again, this makes the book a very practical one: the reader can find valuable consideration of a huge range of issues that are of basic interest in therapeutic practice. These include: intake procedure, toys, playing, media, refreshments, motivation for change, parental divorce and separation, different disorders and problems, record keeping, supervision, boundaries, confidentiality, parents, legislative matters, gender, end of therapy, resilience, transference, non-directivity and many more.

    I was especially fascinated with the large number of practical examples offered; here is a therapist who first and foremost draws into his work what the young clients are teaching him. These examples let the text shift towards an even higher level of meaningfulness; they convey how David Smyth relates personally to his practice and his understanding of its processes. In addition, questions for reflection are inserted throughout the text. They often stop the flow of reading in an evocative way and encourage the reader to go the author's way: switching into an experiential mode and considering what previous messages mean for personal thinking and feeling.

    David Smyth feels himself rooted within a classical approach of person-centred work. He revisits the conditions model and offers an interpretation written from a child-centred perspective that remains true to the core principles. He conveys scepticism wherever multimodal orientations question the non-directive paradigm of Rogerian therapy. In this, he advocates the young people's non-manipulated growth, a growth that evolves out of a relationship and an experientially aware therapist, and not out of exercises, behavioural learning, training or tricky cognitive operations. It is a book very much about being in a therapy session rather than doing therapy. It may demystify the apparent complexity which scholarly papers sometimes convey. Within person-centred sub-orientations, working with children and adolescents will obtain an equal position and be valued equally to other fields of person-centred work.

    So – do not read this book if you think the being and feeling of the therapist should be separated from the process of therapy. Do not read it if you think your own personal history should be left aside when becoming a therapist. Read it if you may join David Smyth when passionately advocating for a non-manipulated growth of children, a non-intrusive fostering development and a sense of being young people that allows them wide space and choices within a secure attachment. Read it if you yourself would only choose a therapist who is clearly open and proficient to deeply experiencing him or herself.

    If you are not sure, read it too. The book will help you to decide either way.

    Michael BehrSchwäbisch Gmünd, GermanyMarch 2012


    I would like to acknowledge the many people who have helped me with this work: Alice Oven at Sage Publishing, who has been the most remarkable person, providing encouragement when I most needed it and for her unswerving belief; Kate Wharton and Rachel Burrows at Sage, for their advice and guidance on many different editorial matters; Michael Behr for his gentle kindness and support; and my professional supervisor, Louise Young, a thoughtful, patient and resourceful colleague who has seen in me things I am yet to see in myself. I am indebted to the Headmaster of Ipswich School and the Head of Ipswich Preparatory School, together with staff and pupils, for their support in providing illustrations completed during pupils' PHSE and Art lessons. Their kindness and encouragement has been greatly appreciated. Marjoke Henrichs has prepared some wonderful illustrations with amazing enthusiasm and interest. She has responded to my needs thoughtfully and with considerable patience. Her drawing of the Madonna statue in Parma Cathedral has been reproduced with the kind permission of the Marquis Pallavicini.

    I want to give special mention to Eileen Prendiville, founder of the Children's Therapy Centre in Ireland, a key inspiration in my child psychotherapy and play therapy training whose wisdom and experience finds its place in this book, and Brian Thorne who got me going in person-centred therapy in the first place. I want to thank all the children and young people who have allowed me to work with them – they are the stars of this book – and to the grounding afforded by my family in this venture – including my dear wife Gail, without whom I would be lost. I am worried I have left somebody out and I hope they can forgive me: it is not intentional but rather overwhelming.

    Author's Note

    I recognise that, while the term ‘person-centred’ approach is universally recognisable, ‘play therapy’ is open to interpretation, depending upon the reader's existing knowledge and viewpoint. Until I came to finalise the manuscript, I had not appreciated that my meaning of the term was anything other than universal. I therefore want to clarify my use of the word ‘play’ as conveyed in this book.

    My core practice is philosophically founded upon the conditions of person-centred therapy. It seems to me that, by past convention, this has been used to describe a form of therapy rooted in the principles developed by Carl Rogers as an approach to working with adults. These principles have not tended to relate to therapeutic work with children and young people. Axline (1947) wrote about play therapy as a way of working with children. She was a student then colleague of Rogers who, according to Cochran et al. was ‘the “mother” of the non-directive or client-centered approach to play therapy’ (2010: 71). The ensuing decades have seen a development of play therapy utilising a variety of therapeutic models. It is evident that some now regard play therapy almost as an autonomous approach. Moreover, West potentially adds to the terminology confusion with her book Child-Centred Play Therapy (1996). In quoting other authors I have therefore diminished the term play therapy where it appears, to therapy. I hope these authors will understand.

    I want to describe the context within which this book has been written: it is absolutely about the person-centred approach but for children and young people. I call this child-centred if only to define its relationship to people up to 18 years of age. Since, as I explain, play is often the preferred therapeutic means of communication of children of a certain age group, I now recognise that to describe this as play therapy could be misleading. This book is not about the person-centred approach and play therapy – implying two different therapeutic approaches. It is, as the title states: Person-Centred Therapy for Children and Young People in which the human individual grows and develops along a continuum of life experience travelling through childhood to adulthood.

    The case examples described in this book illustrate the concepts and aspects of my professional practice. Pseudonyms are used throughout and the gender changed where I felt this to be appropriate.


    When I first contemplated this book, I had little idea of the many twists and turns this process would entail. After all, I had not attempted anything like this before and I was therefore blissfully naïve as to the true extent of the endeavour. To say this has been a personal learning experience for me would be a significant understatement. While describing face-to-face client work as my primary purpose, I am acutely aware that I feel most grounded when I am professionally in relationship with a young person. This relationship enables me to express my feelings fluidly within the context of my client's being.

    To prepare this script was therefore a huge personal paradigm shift. A concept explored by Thomas Kuhn – a philosopher of science who wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolution (1962) – who argued that scientific advancement is not evolutionary but rather a ‘series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions’. Mine is not a work of science, nor am I an academic in the accepted sense. Therefore ‘battling’ through the jungle that is my mind, towards a predetermined clearing at its furthest extent, has at times been intellectually violent and testing for me – almost physically so. In this context, arriving at my destination, where clarity becomes possible for others not just for myself, has been a monumental experience. Time will tell if I have been able to achieve this in any small measure.

    When initially invited to write a book on working with children and young people, I wanted it to be both readable and encourage readers to apply their own ‘stamp’. What do I mean by this? We possess a uniqueness that is ours: if we acknowledge this for our clients, it is also true for us as students or practitioners irrespective of our professional background. I communicate with clients in a manner that is personal to them irrespective of their age. Equally, I choose to communicate the person I am rather than someone who for many years focused on his perceived acceptability (or lack thereof) to others. There are occasions when I will challenge traditional boundaries that purport to be child-centred when their authenticity seems to me to be a superficial and abstract concept.

    As if to underline this, Chapter 13 describes aspects of the current law in relation to children that has been of central relevance to my developing therapeutic practice. The administration of the law can significantly bear upon the emotional well being of affected children. It reaches well beyond what some might regard as ‘welfare’ issues that, by convention, could be considered to lie beyond the scope of therapeutic practice. I recognise that I have elected to develop my child-centred practice in this particular way and that it is a path that may not be chosen by others. I consider the person-centred approach to be inherently holistic: I therefore believe it is reasonable to conclude that legal decisions directly affecting the emotional development or well-being of children and young people represents a legitimate area for the child-centred practitioner's practice.

    My book is not prescriptive: that individuals find a path or way of being that has meaning for them within a safe and effective therapeutic practice is central to person-centred values. The practitioner is a therapist who relies not upon tools and techniques with which to direct the client, but who intuitively believes that offering appropriate conditions for emotional growth within the experience of the therapeutic relationship will enable clients to find a way that has meaning for them as individuals.

    Psychotherapy texts addressing the needs of children and young people invariably draw a distinction between these two age groups. Policies and practices tend to support this approach by, for instance, separating the needs of children in primary school education from those engaged in secondary education. I have elected to write about children as a single group for two reasons. First, they are holistic beings who, while possessing broadly recognisable stages of emotional growth through which they may pass, are, within the definition described in this book, children until they reach 18 years of age. Secondly, they experience a series of transitions that may or may not follow a ‘normal’ sequence as defined by others. I appreciate I could have perhaps simplified matters for myself had I followed the broadly accepted pattern, but this would not have permitted me to describe, for example, the child of 9 years of age who uses speech as his or her preferred method of communication or the young person aged 14 who has a preference for any kind of communication so long as it does not involve talking.

    In time, I hope it may be possible for adult-based courses to introduce students to working with children since many adults seeking counselling therapy embody experiences from their childhood and adolescence that shape their lives and can directly influence their decision to seek therapy. My experience leads me to believe that children who encounter significant events during their major emotional development period (see Chapter 3) will find these ‘grow’ (albeit not exclusively) with them into adulthood, in proportion to the impact encountered as that child. Adult clients may often express surprise that an event occurring in their childhood can still influence them, preferring instead to believe that, with time, the recollections had (or should have) faded or contextualised within their adult frame of reference. They may not appreciate that the intensity of their childhood experience can at times be as if they were now that child.

    This book is for students of counselling and qualified practitioners in other helping professions wanting to extend their training and thereby contribute to their ongoing development. It is my hope that this volume will find its way to trainees and professionals in other fields, such as medicine, nursing and other allied health professions. Student teachers, trainee social workers, law officers (such as those working in the family courts) and others may find something here to enhance their professional and personal approach.

    Readers may use this text as a tool to assist them find or develop their personal child-centred approach to children and young people within their professional field. The book defines ‘child-centred’ within the person-centred context: however, space constraints have limited me to providing a broad description of the model developed by Carl Rogers. Those who would like to learn more about the person-centred modality regarding the overall approach will find reference to some helpful texts in this book.

    Those wanting to enhance their child-centred practice will find affirmation if they feel the need for it, but I trust readers will also be open to self-scrutiny and use this opportunity to ‘audit’ existing practices and methods of working as I continue to do.

  • Bibliography

    Adler A. (1938). Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind. London: Faber & Faber. (Originally published in 1933.)
    Agee M. N. (2003). Ethical issues in counselling for teachers. in Hornby G., Hall C., and Hall E. (eds), Counselling Pupils in Schools: Skills and Strategies for Teachers (pp. 16574). London: Routledge Falmer.
    Ainsworth M. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant Care and the Growth of Love. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Ariès P. (1986). Centuries of Childhood. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Ater M. K. (2001). Play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 11929). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Axline V. M. (1947). Play Therapy. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Babiker G., and Arnold L. (1997). The Language of Injury: Comprehending Self-Mutilation. Leicester: BPS books.
    Baginsky M. (2004). School Counselling in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: A Review. Newcastle-under-Lyme: Keele University/NSPCC.
    Baker E., and Newnes C. (2005). The discourse of responsibility. in Newnes C., and Radcliffe N. (eds), Making and Breaking Children's Lives (pp. 309). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Barker R. (ed.) (2009). Making Sense of Every Child Matters: Multi-Professional Guidance. Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Barrett-Lennard G. T. (2007). Origins and unfolding of the Person-Centred Innovation. in Cooper M., O'Hara M., Schmid P. F., and Wyatt G. (eds), The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling (pp. 1929). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Baumeister R. F., Twenge J. M., and Nuss C. K. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4): 81727.
    Behr M., and Cornelius-White J. H. D. (2008). Relationship and development. in Behr M., and Cornelius-White J. H. D. (eds), Facilitating Young People's Development: International Perspectives on Person-Centred Theory and Practice (pp. 124). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Berry J. (1971). Helping children directly. British Journal of Social Work, 1(3): 31532.
    Bond T., and Sandhu A. (2005). Therapists in Court: Providing Evidence and Supporting Witnesses. London: Sage.
    Bor R., Ebner-Landy J., Gill S., and Brace C. (2002). Counselling in Schools. London: Sage.
    Bowlby J. (1940). The influence of early environment in the development of neurosis and neurotic character. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, XXI: 125.
    Bowlby J. (1949). The study and reduction of group tensions in the family. Human Relations, 2: 1238.
    Bowlby J. (1951). Maternal care and mental health. World Health Organization Monograph (Serial No. 2).
    Bowlby J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, XXXIX: 123.
    Bowlby J. (1959). Separation anxiety. International Journal of Psycho-Analysts, XLI: 125.
    Bowlby J. (1960). Grief and mourning in infancy and early childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, VX: 339.
    Bowlby J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
    Bowlby J. (1973). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.
    Bowlby J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 3. Loss, Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books.
    Bowlby J. (2005). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
    Bozarth J. D. (2001). Congruence: a special way of being. in Wyatt G. (ed.), Congruence (pp. 18499). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    British Association for Adoption and Fostering (2006). Attachment Disorders: Their Assessment and Intervention/Treatment. BAAF Position Statement 4. London: BAAF.
    British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy with The Welsh Assembly Government (2008). School-Based Counselling: Operating Toolkit. Lutterworth: BACP with WAG.
    Brodley B. T. (2002). Observations of empathic understanding in two client-centered therapists. in Watson J. C., Goldman R. N., and Warner M. S. (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 182203). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Bronfenbrenner U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bronstein C., and Flanders S. (1998). The development of a therapeutic space in a first contact with adolescents. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 24(1): 535.
    Brown C. D. (2007). Facilitating therapeutic expression and communication through play. Medical Principles and Practice, 16(suppl. 1): 2732.
    Brownrigg A. (2009). Child and adolescent mental health services and Every Child Matters. in Barker R. (ed.), Making Sense of Every Child Matters: Multi-Professional Guidance (pp. 16985). Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Bühler C. (1933). The child and its activity with practical material. British Journal of Educational Psychology, III, Pt. I., February: 2741.
    Burgess A. (2007). The costs and benefits of active fatherhood: evidence and insights to inform the development of policy and practice. Paper prepared by Fathers Direct to inform the Department for Education and Skills/HM Treasury Joint Policy Review on Children and Young People.
    Burstow B. (1987). Humanistic psychotherapy and the issue of equality. Journal of Humanistic Psychotherapy, 27: 925.
    Cabinet Office (2005). Improving the Life Chances of Disabled People. A joint report with Department for Work and Pensions, Department of Health, Department for Education and Skills and Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. London: Cabinet Office (UK).
    Cain D. (1989). The paradox of nondirectiveness in the person-centered approach. Person-Centred Review, 4(2): 12231. Reprinted in Cain D. (ed.) (2002) Classics in the Person-Centered Approach (pp. 365–70). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Carkhuff R. R. (1969). Helping and Human Relations: A Primer for Lay and Professional Leaders. Vol. 1. Selection and Training. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Cattanach A. (1992). Play Therapy with Abused Children. London and Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Chamberlain D. B. (2003). Twelve prenatal senses, not five: communicating with the mind of a prenate. Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology, 18(2): 99100.
    Cheminais R. (2009). Effective Multi-Agency Partnerships: Putting Every Child Matters into Practice. London: Sage.
    Cochran N. H., Nordling J. W., and Cochran J. L. (2010). Child-Centered Play Therapy. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Colver A. (2008). Measuring quality of life in studies of disabled children. Paediatrics and Child Health, 18(9): 4236.
    Cooper M. (2004). Existential approaches to therapy. in Sanders P. (ed.), The Tribes of the Person-Centred Nation (pp. 95124). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Cooper M. (2009). Counselling in UK secondary schools: a comprehensive review of audit and valuation data. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 9(3): 13750.
    Cooper M., Watson J., and Höldampf D. (2010). Person-Centred and Experiential Therapies: A Review of the Research on Counselling, Psychotherapy and Related Practices. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Covell K., and Abramovitch R. (1987). Understanding emotion in the family: children's and parents' attributions of happiness, sadness and anger. Child Development, 58: 4048.
    Crane J. (2001). The parents' part in the play therapy process. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 8395). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Creighton S. J. (2002). Physical Abuse. London: NSPCC.
    Cromarty K., and Richards K. (2009). How do secondary school counsellors work with other professionals? Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 9(3): 1826.
    Crompton M. (1980). Respecting Children: Social Work with Young People. London: Edward Arnold.
    Cummings E. M., Zahn-Waxler C., and Radke-Yarrow M. (1981). Young children's responses to expressions of anger and affection by others in the family. Child Development, 52: 127482.
    Cummings N. A. (1995). Impact of managed care on employment and training: a primer for survival. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 26(1): 1015.
    Minefield Custody (2010). Family Law: Relocation – The Case for Reform. Document prepared by The Custody Minefield in cooperation with Families Need Fathers, (site accessed 17.10.2011).
    Davis E. P., and Sandman C. A. (2010). The timing of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress is associated with human infant cognitive development. Child Development, 81(1): 13148.
    DCSF and DoH (Department for Children, Schools and Families and Department of Health) (2009). Healthy Lives, Brighter Futures: The Strategy for Children and Young People's Health. London: DCSF and DoH.
    DCSF (Department for Children, Schools and Families) (2008a). Joint Birth Registration: Recording Responsibility. London: DCSF.
    DCSF (Department for Children, Schools and Families) (2008b). Targeted Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing Services in Schools, (site accessed 20.10.2011).
    DCSF (Department for Children, Schools and Families) (2010). Working Together to Safeguard Children: A Guide to Inter-Agency Working to Safeguard and Promote the Welfare of Children (pdf). Nottingham: DCSF.
    Deklerck J. (2005). Verbondenheid: kans tot existentieel leren in onderwijs en jeugdhulpverlening. [Connectedness: a chance for existential learning in education with youth assistance]. in Lacombe L., Loosveldt R., and Van der Vorst L. (eds), Grenzen: Begripvolle grenzen – Grenzen aan begrip [Limits: Caring Limits – Limits to Understanding] (pp. 16581). Kortrijk: Ipsoc-Bijscholing.
    DelPo E. G., and Frick S. (1988). Directed and non-directed play as therapeutic modalities. Children's Health Care, 16(4): 2617.
    De Mause L. (1974). The History of Childhood. London: Souvenir Press.
    Department for Education (2011a). Support and Aspiration: A New Approach to Special Educational Needs and Disability. London: Department for Education.
    Department for Education (2011b). Adoption Statutory Guidance: The Adoption and Children Act 2002 (1st revision). London: Department for Education.
    Department for Education (2011c). Me and My School: Findings from the National Evaluation of Targeted Mental Health in Schools 2008–2011. London: Department for Education.
    Department for Education (2012). Adoption Statutory Guidance (Amendment No. 2). London: Department for Education.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2001). Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. London: DfES.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2003). Every Child Matters (Green Paper). London: DfES.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2004a). Every Child Matters: Next Steps. London: DfES.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2004b). Every Child Matters: Change for Children. London: DfES.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2005). Children's Workforce Strategy: A Strategy to Build a World-Class Workforce for Children and Young People. London: DfES.
    DfES (Department for Education and Skills) (2005). Adoption Support Services Regulations [SI 2005 No. 691]. London: DfES.
    Dispenser S. (2011). What is Supervision? Information Sheet S2. Lutterworth: British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy.
    Döring E. (2008). What happens in child-centred play therapy? in Behr M., and Cornelius-White J. H. D. (eds), Facilitating Young People's Development: International Perspectives on Person-Centred Theory and Practice (pp. 4051). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Doyle C. (1990). Working with Abused Children. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Education.
    Dreikurs R. (1965). Conflict in the classroom: the education of emotionally disturbed children. in Long N. J., Morse W. C., and Newman R. G. (eds), Conflict in the Classroom (pp. 199202). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Erikson E. H. (1963). Childhood and Society (revised 2nd edition). New York: W. W. Norton.
    Erikson E. H. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Erikson E. H. (1977). Toys and Reason. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Fabricius W. V. (2003). Listening to children of divorce: new findings that diverge from Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 52(4): 38596.
    Family Law Week (2010). International relocation of children – Part 1. Family Law Week, (site accessed 17.10.2011).
    Findling J. H., Bratton S. C., and Henson R. K. (2006). Development of the Trauma Play Scale: an observation-based assessment of the impact of trauma on the play therapy behaviors of young children. International Journal of Play Therapy, 15: 736.
    Fisher K., McCulloch A., and Gershuny J. (1999). British Fathers and Children. Working Paper. University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    Flouri E., and Buchanan A. (2003). The role of father involvement in children's later mental health. Journal of Adolescence, 26: 6378.
    Fredrickson B. L., Tugade M. M., Waugh C. E., and Larkin G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2): 36576.
    French J. (2007). Multi-agency working: the historical background. in Siraj-Blatchford I., Clarke K., and Needham M. (eds), The Team around the Child (pp. 4766). Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Freud A. (1927/1928). Introduction to the Technic of Child Analysis. Translated by L. Clark. New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company. (Originally published in 1927.)
    Froebel F. (1895). Pedagogics of the Kindergarten. Translated by Josephine Jarvis. London: Appleton.
    Froebel F. (1912). Chief Writings on Education. Translated by S. S. F. Fletcher and J. Welton. London: Arnold.
    Fröhlich-Gildhoff K. (2008). Person-centred interventions with violent children and adolescents. in Behr M., and Cornelius-White J. H. D. (eds), Facilitating Young People's Development: International Perspectives on Person-Centred Theory and Practice (pp. 96107). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Garbarino J., Guttman E., and Seeley J. W. (1986). The Psychologically Battered Child: Strategies for Identification, Assessment and Intervention. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Available at: (site accessed 12.11.2011).
    Gaylin N. L. (2001). Family, Self and Psychotherapy: A Person-Centred Perspective. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Geldard K., and Geldard D. (2008). Counselling Children. London: Sage.
    Gendlin E. T. (2005). Bringing focusing into political context. Staying in Focus: The Focusing Institute Newsletter, 5(1): 14.
    Gerber M. (2002). Dear Parent: Caring for Infants with Respect. Los Angeles: Resources for Infant Educarers.
    Gil E., and Johnson T. (1993). Sexualized Children: Assessment and Treatment of Sexualized Children and Children Who Molest. Rockville, MD: Launch Press.
    Glover G. J. (2001). Cultural considerations in play therapy. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 3141). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Goetze H. (2002). Handbuch der personenzentrierten Spieltherapie [Manual of Person-Centred Play Therapy]. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
    Gopnik A., Meltzoff A. N., and Kuhl P. K. (2001). The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us about the Mind. New York: HarperCollins.
    Graham P., and Machin A. I. (2009). Interprofessional working and the children's workforce. in Barker R. (ed.), Making Sense of Every Child Matters: Multi-Professional Guidance (pp. 2943). Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Grant B. (1990). Principled and instrumental nondirectiveness in person-centered and client-centered therapy. Person-Centered Review, 5(1). Reprinted in Cain D. (ed.) (2002) Classics in the Person-Centered Approach. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Green H., McGinnity A., Maltzer H., Ford T., and Goodman R. (2005). Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain, 2004. London: Office for National Statistics.
    Grossman K., Grossman K. E., Fremmer-Bombik E., Kindler H., Scheurer-Englisch H., and Zimmerman P. (2002). The uniqueness of the child–father attachment relationship: fathers' sensitive and challenging play as a pivotal variable in a 16-year-long study. Social Development, 11: 30731.
    Gumaer J. (1984). Counseling and Therapy for Children. New York: Free Press.
    Harris B. (2009). ‘Extra appendage’ or integrated service? School counsellors' reflections on their professional identity in an era of education reform. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 9(3): 17481.
    Harris T. E., and Landreth G. L. (2001). Essential personality characteristics. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 83–95). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Hart J. T. (1970). The development of client-centered therapy. in Hart J. T., and Tomlinson T. M. (eds), New Directions in Client-Centered Therapy (pp. 122). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Hawkins S. (2008). Working at relational depth with adolescents in schools. in Keys S., and Walshaw T. (eds), Person-Centred Work with Children and Young People: UK Practitioner Perspectives (pp. 4757). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Hawton K., Rodham K., Evans E., and Weatherall R. (2002). Deliberate self-harm in adolescents: self-report survey in schools in England. British Medical Journal, 325: 1207.
    Heinicke C., and Westheimer I. (1966). Brief Separations. New York: International Universities Press/London: Longmans.
    Hendrick H. (1997). Constructions and reconstructions of British childhood: an interpretative survey, 1800 to the present. in James A., and Prout A. (eds), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood (pp. 3360). London: Falmer Press.
    Hendricks M. N. (2001). Focusing oriented/experiential psychotherapy. in Cain D. J., and Seeman J. (eds), Humanistic Psychotherapies: Handbook of Research and Practice (pp. 22152), Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Hendrix D. (1991). Ethics and intrafamily confidentiality in counseling with children. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 13(3): 32333.
    Hirsh-Pasek K., and Golinkoff R. M. (2003). Einstein Never Used Flash Cards: How Our Children Really Learn – And Why they Need to Play More and Memorize Less. Emmaus, PA: Rodale.
    Hoare C. H. (1991). Psychosocial identity development and cultural others. Journal of Counseling and Development, 40(1): 4553.
    Home Office, Department for Health and Crown Prosecution Service (2001). Provision of Therapy for Child Witnesses Prior to a Criminal Trial. London: Home Office.
    Homeyer L. (1994). Play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.
    Honig A. S. (2002). Secure Relationships: Nurturing Infant/Toddler Attachment in Early Care Settings. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
    Honoré C. (2004) In Praise of Slow. London: Orion Books.
    Hornby G. (2003). Teachers and counselling. in Hornby G., Hall C., and Hall E. (eds), Counselling Pupils in School: Skills and Strategies for Teachers (pp. 111). London: Routledge Falmer.
    Horowitz F. D. (1987). Exploring Developmental Theories: Toward a Structural Behavioural Model of Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Howe D., Brandon M., Hinings D., and Schofield G. (1999). Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment and Family Support: A Practice and Assessment Model. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Hoyle D. (2008). Problematizing Every Child Matters. In The Encyclopaedia of Informal Education. (site accessed 19.10.2012).
    Humphries S., Mack J., and Perks R. (1988). A Century of Childhood. London: Sidgewick & Jackson.
    Hutchby I., and Moran-Ellis J. (eds) (2001). Children, Technology and Culture: The Impacts of Technologies in Children's Everyday Lives. London: Routledge Falmer.
    Huxham C. (ed.) (1996). Creating Collaborative Advantage. London: Sage.
    Irwin E. C. (1983). The diagnostic and therapeutic use of pretend play. in Schaefer C. E., and O'Connor K. J. (eds), Handbook of Play Therapy (15964). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    James A., and Prout A. (1990). Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: Falmer Press.
    Janov A. (1977). The Feeling Child. London: Abacus.
    Jennings S. (1999). Introduction to Developmental Playtherapy. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Johnson S. P. (2001). Short-term play therapy. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 11929). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Johnson S. P., and Clark P. (2001). Play therapy with aggressive acting-out children. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 23155). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Johnstone L. (1997). Self injury and the psychiatric response. Feminism and Psychology, 7: 4216.
    Jones D. P. H. (1986). Individual psychotherapy for the sexually abused child. Child Abuse and Neglect, 10: 37785.
    Kairys S. W., and Johnson C. F. (2002). The psychological maltreatment of children – technical report. Pediatrics, 109(4): e68.
    Kalff D. M. (1980). Sandplay: A Psychotherapeutic Approach to the Psyche. Santa Monica, CA: Sigo Press.
    Kelly C. (2008). Adoption and the person-centred approach: working for the child. in Keys S., and Walshaw T. (eds), Person-Centred Work with Children and Young People: UK Practitioner Perspectives (pp. 8193). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Kelly M. (1995). Play therapy with sexually traumatized children: factors that promote healing. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 4(3): 19.
    Kruger E. (2001). Music therapy: A message of hope. Die Gereformeerde vroueblad, (November).
    Kruk E. (2008). Child custody, access and parental responsibility: the search for a just and equitable standard. (Commissioned by the Father Involvement Research Alliance based at the University of Guelph.) Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia.
    Kuhn T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Lacher D., Nichols T., and May J. C. (2005). Connecting with Kids through Stories. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Lamont A. M. (2001). Infants' preferences for familiar and unfamiliar music: a socio-cultural study. Paper read at the Society for Music Perception and Cognition, 9 August, Kingston, Ontario.
    Landreth G. (1991). Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship. Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development Press.
    Landreth G. L. (2001). Facilitative dimensions of play in the play therapy process. in Landreth G. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 8395). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Landreth G. (2002). Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Landreth G., and Sweeney D. S. (1997). Child-centered play therapy. in O'Connor K., and Braverman L. (eds), Play Therapy: Theory and Practice (pp. 1745). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Landreth G., and Sweeney D. S. (2001). Child-centered group play therapy. in Landreth G. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 8395). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Lane J. (1996). Counselling issues in mainstream schools. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 1(2): 4651.
    Lanyado M. (1999). Brief psychotherapy and therapeutic consultations: how much therapy is ‘good-enough’? in Lanyado M., and Horne A. (eds), The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy (pp. 23346). London: Routledge.
    Larner G. (1999). Derrida and the deconstruction of power as context and topic in therapy. in Parker I. (ed.), Deconstructing Psychotherapy (pp. 3953). London: Sage.
    Layard R., and Dunn J. (2009). A Good Childhood: Searching for Values in a Competitive Age. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Lazarus R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology, 44: 121.
    Levitin D. J. (2006). This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. New York: Dutton.
    Levy D. (1936). Hostility patterns in sibling rivalry experiments. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 6(April): 193257.
    Lewis C., and Lamb M. (2006). Fatherhood: Connecting the Strands of Diversity across Time and Space. Report to the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Lietaer G. (2001). Being genuine as a therapist. in Wyatt G. (ed.), Congruence (pp. 3654). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Lines D. (2006) Brief Counselling in Schools: Working with young people from 11 to 18 (2nd edition). London: Sage.
    Lowenfeld M. (1969). Play in Childhood. Portway, Bath: Cedric Chivers Ltd.
    Lush D. (1977). The child guidance clinic. in Boston M., and Daws D. (eds), The Child Psychotherapist and Problems of Young People (pp. 6385). London: Wildwood House.
    McBride B. A., Schoppe-Sullivan S. J., and Ho M. H. (2005). The mediating role of fathers' school involvement on students' achievement. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26: 20116.
    Meads G., and Ashcroft J. (2005). The Case for Interprofessional Collaboration. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    Mearns D. (2003). Developing Person-Centred Counselling (2nd edition). London: Sage.
    Mearns D. (2008). How Much Supervision Should You Have? Information Sheet S1: Lutterworth: British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy.
    Mearns D., and Thorne B. (1988). Person-Centred Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Mearns D., and Thorne B. (1999). Person-Centred Counselling in Action (2nd edition). London: Sage.
    Mearns D., and Thorne B. (2000). Person-Centred Therapy Today: New Frontiers in Theory and Practice. London: Sage.
    Meltzoff A. N., and Moore M. K. (1983). Newborn infants imitate adult facial gestures. Child Development, 54: 7029.
    Merry T. (2002). Learning and Being in Person-Centred Counselling and Psychotherapy (2nd edition). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Merry T. (2004). Classical client-centred therapy. in Sanders P. (ed.), The Tribes of the Person-Centred Nation (pp. 2144). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Ministry of Justice (2011). Family Justice Review Interim Report. Published on behalf of the Family Justice Review Panel. London: Ministry of Justice and others.
    Mitchels B.with James, H. (2009). Care and Protection: Law and Practice. London: Wildy, Simmonds and Hill Publishing.
    Montessori M. (1966). The Secret of Childhood. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Moon K. (2002). Non-directive client-centered with children. in Watson J. C., Goldman R. N., and Warner M. S. (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the 21st Century: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 48592). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Mooney C. G. (2010). Theories of Attachment. St Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.
    Moreno J. J. (1985). Music play therapy: an integrated approach. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 12: 1723.
    Mosley J. (1993). Is there a place for counselling in schools? Counselling, 4(2): 1045.
    Moshman D. S., Glover J. A., and Bruning R. H. (1987). Developmental Psychology: Atopical Approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Moustakas C. E. (1959). Psychotherapy with Children: The Living Relationship. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Munro E. (2011). The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final Report – A Child-Centred System (Cm 8062). London: Department for Education.
    NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) (2007) Worried about a child? How you can protect children from abuse. (site accessed 14.10.2012).
    NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) (2012) (site accessed 14.10.2012).
    Neumann E. (1971). The Elements of Play. New York: MSS Information Corporation.
    NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) (2008). Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing in Primary Education. Public Health Guidance PH12. London: NICE.
    Nordling W., and Guerney L. (1999). Typical stages in the child-centered play therapy process. The Journal for the Professional Counselor, 14: 1723.
    Oaklander V. (1988). Windows to Our Children. New York: The Gestalt Journal Press.
    O'Leary C. (1999). Couple and Family Counseling: A Person-Centered Approach. London: Sage.
    ONS (Office for National Statistics) (2005). Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain. London: HMSO.
    Pescosolido B. A. (2007). Culture, children and mental health treatment: special section on the National Stigma Study – children. Psychiatric Services: A Journal of the American Psychiatric Association, 58(5): 61112.
    Pincus A., and Minahan A. (1973). Social Work Practice: Model and Method. Itasca, IL: Peacock Publishers.
    Pleck J. H., and Masciadrelli B. P. (2004). Paternal involvement by US residential fathers: levels, sources and consequences. in Lamb M. E. (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (4th edition, pp. 22271). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
    Pollock L. A. (1983). Forgotten Children: Parent–Child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Proctor G. (2002). The Dynamics of Power in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Ethics, Politics and Practice. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Prouty G. (1976). Pre-therapy: a method of treating pre-expressive psychotic and retarded patients. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 13: 2904.
    Prouty G. (1990). Pre-therapy: a theoretical evolution in the person-centred experiential psychotherapy of schizophrenia and retardation. in Lietaer G., Rombauts J., and Van Balen R. (eds), Client-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties (pp. 64558). Leuven: Leuven University Press.
    Prouty G. (1998). Pre-therapy and the pre-expressive self. Person-Centred Practice, 6(2): 808. Reprinted in Merry T. (ed.) (2000). Person-Centred Practice: The BAPCA Reader (pp. 68–76). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Purton C. (2004a). Focusing-oriented therapy. in Sanders P. (ed.), The Tribes of the Person-Centred Nation (pp. 4565). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Purton C. (2004b). Person-Centred Therapy: The Focusing-Oriented Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Quinney A. (2006). Collaborative Social Work Practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Reisman J. M. (1973). Principles of Psychotherapy with Children. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Riley A. (2004). Evidence that school-age children can self-report on their health. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 4: 3716.
    Rogers C. R. (1931). Measuring personality adjustment in children nine to thirteen years of age: a thesis. University of Columbia, New York.
    Rogers C. R. (1939). Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Rogers C. R. (1951). Client-Centred Therapy. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Rogers C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95103.
    Rogers C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. in Koch S. (ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 3: Formulation of the Person and the Social Context (pp. 184256). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Rogers C. R. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's View of Psychotherapy. London: Constable.
    Rogers C. R. (1963). The actualizing tendency in relation to ‘motives’ and to consciousness. in Jones M. (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 124). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Rogers C. R. (1974). Remarks on the future of client-centred therapy. in Wexles D. A., and Rice L. N. (eds), Innovations in Client-Centred Therapy (pp. 713). New York: Wiley.
    Rogers C. R. (1978). The formative tendency. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 18(1): 236.
    Rogers C. R. (1980). A Way of Being. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Rogers C. R. (1990). The Carl Rogers Reader. Edited by Kirschenbaum H., and Henderson V. L. London: Constable.
    Rogers C. R., and Sanford R. C. (1984). Client-centered psychotherapy. in Kaplan H. I., and Sadock B. J. (eds), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (Vol. IV) (pp. 137488). Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
    Rogers C. R., and Stevens B. (1967). Person to Person: The Problem of Being Human. New York: Real People Press.
    Rogers N. (1993). The Creative Connection: Expressive Arts as Healing. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books. (Published in the UK in 2000 by PCCS Books, Ross-on-Wye.)
    Rubin K., and Howe N. (1985). Toys and play behaviors: an overview. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 5: 110.
    Sagar C. (1990). Working with cases of child sexual abuse. in Case C., and Dalley T. (eds), Working with Children in Art Therapy (pp. 89114). New York: Tavistock/Routledge.
    Sanders P. (ed.) (2004). The Tribes of the Person-Centred Nation. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Sanders P. (2007). The ‘family’ of person-centred and experiential therapies. in Cooper M., O'Hara M., Schmid P. F., and Wyatt G. (eds), The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling (pp. 10722). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Sarkadi A., Kristiansson, R., Oberklaid F., and Brembert S. (2008). Fathers' involvement and children's developmental outcomes: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Acta Paediatrica, 97(2): 1538.
    Sayal K. (2007). Epidemiology of ADHD in the Community. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 68: 3525.
    Schachter H., Pham B., King J., Langford S., and Moher D. (2001). How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 165.
    Schaefer C. (1994). Play therapy for psychic trauma in children. in O'Connor K., and Schaefer C. (eds), Handbook of Play Therapy. Vol. 2: Advances and Innovations (pp. 297318). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Schaffer H. R. (1958). Objective observations of personality development in early infancy. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 31: 17483.
    Scheidlinger S. (1992). Therapist gender in child-adolescent treatment groups. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 2(2): 1058.
    Schmid P. F. (2003). The characteristics of a person-centered approach to therapy and counseling: criteria for identity and coherence. Person Centered and Experiential Therapies, 5(4): 24254.
    Siegel D. J., and Hartzell M. (2003). Parenting from the Inside Out: How a Deeper Self-understanding Can Help You Raise Children Who Thrive. New York: Tarcher Putnam.
    Silverstone L. (1997). Art Therapy: The Person-Centred Way. Art and the Development of the Person. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Simon C. A., and Ward S. (2010). Does Every Child Matter? London: Routledge.
    Smith K., and Leon L. (2001). Turned Upside Down: Developing Community-Based Crisis Services for 16–25 Year Olds Experiencing a Mental Health Crisis. London: Mental Health Foundation.
    Smuts J. C. (1926). Holism and Evolution. London: Macmillan.
    Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) (2005). Deliberate Self-Harm among Children and Adolescents: Who is at Risk and how is it Recognised? London: SCIE.
    Sommerbeck L. (2003). The Client-Centred Therapist in Psychiatric Contexts: A Therapists' Guide to the Psychiatric Landscape and its Inhabitants. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Stanley F. (2007). Investigating the practical challenges of integrated multi-agency work. in Siraj-Blatchford I., Clarke K., and Needham M. (eds), The Team Around the Child (pp. 12133). Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.
    Stapert M., and Verliefde E. (2008). Focusing with Children: The Art of Communicating with Children at School and at Home. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Stevens J. O. (1971). Awareness: Exploring, Experimenting, Experiencing. Moab, UT: Real People Press.
    Stumm G. (2002). The person-centered approach and self psychology. in Watson J. C., Goldman R. N., and Warner M. S. (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the 21st Century: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 10826). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Sweeney D. S. (2001). Legal and ethical issues in play therapy. in Landreth G. L. (ed.), Innovations in Play Therapy: Issues, Processes, and Special Populations (pp. 6581). New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Terr L. (1990). Too Scared to Cry: Psychic Trauma in Childhood. New York: Basic Books.
    Thorne B. (1991). Person-Centred Counselling: Therapeutic and Spiritual Dimensions. London: Whurr.
    Thorne B. (1998). Person-Centred Counselling and Christian Spirituality: The Secular and the Holy. London: Whurr.
    Thorne B. (2002). The Mystical Power of Person-Centred Therapy: Hope Beyond Despair. London: Whurr.
    Timimi S., and Radcliffe N. (2005). The rise and rise of ADHD. in Newnes C., and Radcliffe N. (eds), Making and Breaking Children's Lives (pp. 6370). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Tolan J. (2003). Skills in Person-Centred Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.
    Tugade M. M., and Fredrickson B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2): 32033.
    UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) (1996). Our Creative Diversity. Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development – Summary Version. Paris: UNESCO.
    UN General Assembly (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November, United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1577, p. 3. Available at: (site accessed 15.07.2012).
    Van de Putte S. (1995). A paradigm for working with child survivors of sexual abuse who exhibit sexualized behaviors during play therapy. International Journal of Play Therapy, 4(1): 2749.
    Van Heeswyk P. (1997). Analysing Adolescence. London: Sheldon Press.
    Van Werde D., and Prouty G. (2007). Pre-therapy. in Cooper M., O'Hara M., Schmid P. F., and Wyatt G. (eds), The Handbook of Person-Centred Psychotherapy and Counselling (pp. 23750). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Vinturella L., and James R. (1987). Sand play: a therapeutic medium with children. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 21: 22938.
    Vlerick E. (2008). Focusing training for adolescents with low self-confidence and a negative self-image. in Behr M., and Cornelius-White J. H. D. (eds), Facilitating Young People's Development: International Perspectives on Person-Centred Theory and Practice (pp. 8095). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Warner M. (2000). Person-centred psychotherapy: one nation many tribes. Person Centered Journal, 7(1): 2839.
    Warner M. (2002a). Psychological contact, meaningful process and human nature: a reformulation of person-centred theory. in Wyatt G., and Sanders P. (eds), Rogers' Therapeutic Series: Evolution, Theory and Practice. Vol. 4: Contact and Perception (pp. 7695). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Warner M. (2002b). Luke's dilemmas: a client-centered/experiential model of processing with a schizophrenic thought disorder. in Watson J. C., Goldman R. N., and Warner M. S. (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the 21st Century: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 45972). Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Webb N. (1991). Play therapy crisis intervention with children. in Webb N. (ed.), Play Therapy with Children in Crisis: Individual Group and Family Treatment (pp. 2642). New York: Guilford Press.
    West J. (1996). Child-Centred Play Therapy (2nd edition). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Wilson P. (1999). Delinquency. in Lanyado M., and Horne A. (eds), The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy (pp. 31127). London: Routledge.
    Winnicott D. W. (1971). Playing and Reality. New York: Basic Books.
    Wolpert M., Fuggle P., Cottrell D., Fonargy P., Philips J., Pilling S., Stein S., and Target M. (2006). Drawing on Evidence: Advice for Mental Health Professionals Working with Children and Adolescents (2nd edition). London: CAMHS Publications.
    Wyatt G. (2001). Rogers' Therapeutic Conditions. Vol. 1: Congruence. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Yalom I. D. (1995). Introduction. In Rogers C. R., A Way of Being. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.
    Zito J. M., Safer D. J., Dosreis S., Gardner J. F., Boles J., and Lynch F. (2000). Trends in prescribing of psychotropic medication in pre-schoolers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283: 102530.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website