Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace studies, provides a wide-ranging panorama of the ideas, theories and assumptions on which the study of peace is based. The book is organized in four parts, each examining the one of the four major theoretical approaches to peace. The first part covers peace theory, exploring the epistemological assumptions of peace. In Part Two conflict theory is examined with an exploration of nonviolent and creative handling of conflict. Developmental theory is discussed in Part Three, exploring structural violence, particularly in the economic field, together with a consideration of the ways of overcoming that violence. The fourth part is devoted to civilization theory.
Chapter 2: Peace Studies: Some Basic Paradigms
Deep Culture, Time Cosmology, and Social Cosmology
We have a conflict formation, we are looking for a conflict transformation: in between lies conflict dynamics, the life-cycle of a conflict. The term itself directs attention to such figures of thought as birth/genesis, maturation/dynamics, death/(re-, dissolution. But, as will be shown below, these terms may also be highly misleading, or at least culturally biased.
The deep culture or cosmology of a civilization1 obviously conditions not only the perception of conflict life-cycles, but also the actual behavior in conflict, with a major bearing on conflict transformation. The level of knowledge of this factor, by participants or outsiders, will also affect the outcome. That level is not necessarily higher among insiders than outsiders to the civilization, since cosmology ...