Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace studies, provides a wide-ranging panorama of the ideas, theories and assumptions on which the study of peace is based. The book is organized in four parts, each examining the one of the four major theoretical approaches to peace. The first part covers peace theory, exploring the epistemological assumptions of peace. In Part Two conflict theory is examined with an exploration of nonviolent and creative handling of conflict. Developmental theory is discussed in Part Three, exploring structural violence, particularly in the economic field, together with a consideration of the ways of overcoming that violence. The fourth part is devoted to civilization theory.
Chapter 3: Woman : Man = Peace : Violence?
Woman : Man = Peace : Violence?
Patriarchy as Direct, Structural, and Cultural Violence
In this section we explore the relation between gender and direct violence, and more specifically between male sexuality and male aggressiveness. The reasoning will be partly biological, but not biologistic, meaning a discourse with independent variables chosen from one discipline only, in casu biology. To account for peace/violence as dependent variable we shall use the four-factor independent variable discourse based on body, mind, structure, culture. ‘Body’ will be discussed here as female-male; ‘mind’ as high-low empathy; ‘structure’ as horizontal-vertical (‘hierarchical’) and ‘culture’ as centripetal-centrifugal (‘expansionist’). Female-high empathy-horizontal-centripetal disposes for peace; male-low empathy-vertical-centrifugal for violence: that is our basic hypothesis.
Of course, things are not quite that simple ...