• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace studies, provides a wide-ranging panorama of the ideas, theories and assumptions on which the study of peace is based. The book is organized in four parts, each examining the one of the four major theoretical approaches to peace. The first part covers peace theory, exploring the epistemological assumptions of peace. In Part Two conflict theory is examined with an exploration of nonviolent and creative handling of conflict. Developmental theory is discussed in Part Three, exploring structural violence, particularly in the economic field, together with a consideration of the ways of overcoming that violence. The fourth part is devoted to civilization theory.

Cultural Violence
Cultural violence

By ‘cultural violence’ we mean those aspects of culture, the symbolic sphere of our existence – exemplified by religion and ideology, language and art, empirical science and formal science (logic, mathematics) – that can be used to justify or legitimize direct or structural violence.1 Stars, crosses, and crescents; flags, anthems, and military parades; the ubiquitous portrait of the Leader; inflammatory speeches and posters – all these come to mind. However, let us postpone the examples until section 4 and start with analysis. The features mentioned above are ‘aspects of culture’, not entire cultures. A person encouraging a potential killer, shouting ‘Killing is self-realization!’, may prove that the English language is capable of expressing such thoughts, but not that the English language as such ...

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