• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace studies, provides a wide-ranging panorama of the ideas, theories and assumptions on which the study of peace is based. The book is organized in four parts, each examining the one of the four major theoretical approaches to peace. The first part covers peace theory, exploring the epistemological assumptions of peace. In Part Two conflict theory is examined with an exploration of nonviolent and creative handling of conflict. Developmental theory is discussed in Part Three, exploring structural violence, particularly in the economic field, together with a consideration of the ways of overcoming that violence. The fourth part is devoted to civilization theory.

The Externalities
The externalities
Defining Externalities

This chapter is devoted to the externalities, the side-effects,1 and side-causes, of economic activity2. What we are aiming at is an inventory of externalities3. To what extent these externalities apply to a concrete case is an empirical problem. The inventory serves as a checklist of hypotheses; the basic hypothesis not being that they will all apply in all cases. Moreover, between the general formulation ‘economic activity’ and a specific ‘economic cycle’, our unit of analysis, there is the level of ‘economic schools’ or ‘economic systems’ of the preceding chapter; with each one of them in principle generating some types of economic activities rather than others. But that means that the externalities affected will vary from system to system, with some overlaps; ...

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