Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace studies, provides a wide-ranging panorama of the ideas, theories and assumptions on which the study of peace is based. The book is organized in four parts, each examining the one of the four major theoretical approaches to peace. The first part covers peace theory, exploring the epistemological assumptions of peace. In Part Two conflict theory is examined with an exploration of nonviolent and creative handling of conflict. Developmental theory is discussed in Part Three, exploring structural violence, particularly in the economic field, together with a consideration of the ways of overcoming that violence. The fourth part is devoted to civilization theory.
Chapter 2: Peace Studies: Some Basic Paradigms
Six Economic Schools
Regardless of skepticism where mainstream economics is concerned, there is no denial that the economy, the organization of nature-production-consumption cycles, plays a major role in any society. On the other hand, the same can also be said about the polity, the organization of power; about culture, because culture plays a major role defining what to produce and consume, and how; and the military, the organization of coercive power.
The basic thesis of this chapter is that economies around the world are organized with a certain logic, according to economic schools. To explore those schools we need discourses, angles under which the schools can be viewed and their basic characteristics better understood. Here we shall make use of the economic cycle, ...