This book will be written to address the Texas certification exam (TExES) for English as a Second Language (ESL) educators. Regardless of degree, grade point average, or experience, a person cannot receive ESL certification without passing a TExES examination, thus there is intense pressure on the student to pass. There are actually three ESL TExES Exams. These are #193 (Generalist EC – 6), #120 (Generalist 4 – 8), and #154 (ESL Supplemental). This book will cover them all, which makes it marketable on a larger scale. The author has years of experience in TExES test development and in providing popular, successful, and inspiring TExES preparation seminars at multiple universities and training sites around the state. The student developmental concepts upon which TExES is constructed will be written in a down-to-earth manner utilizing real life stories for practical application and will allow the reader to connect theory with actual practice.

First and Second Language Acquisition and the Interrelatedness of L1 and L2 Learners

First and second language acquisition and the interrelatedness of l1 and l2 learners

DOMAIN I: Language Concepts and Language Acquisition

DOMAIN KEY CONCEPTS: Language Concepts, Language Acquisition, and Interrelatedness of L1 and L2 Development


The ESL teacher understands the processes of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) acquisition and the interrelatedness of L1 and L2 development.

As an English as a Second Language (ESL) teacher it is critical that you understand the students’ first language as well as their second language, in our instance that is English, must be integrated and taught hand in hand. They cannot be taught in isolation. Use the native language to scaffold to the second language, that is, English. ...

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