Organizing and Managing in the Era of Globalization


Edited by: Pritam Singh & Subir Verma

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Tables

    • 3.1 Reliabilities and Descriptive Statistics of the Constructs 78
    • 3.2 Descriminant Validity between Civil, Justice-related and Participation-related Dimensions 80
    • 3.3 Descriptive Statistics and Inter-correlations of Freedom-related Practices 82
    • 3.4 Correlations of Antecedent Variables with Freedom-related Practices and Aggregate Variables 88
    • 3.5 Regression of Freedom on Its Antecedent Variables 90
    • 3.6 Stepwise Regression of Freedom on Its Antecedent Variables 98
    • 4.1 Why India? 123
    • 5.1 Business Process Outsourcing/Offshoring Options 162
    • 6.1 Typology of the Different Conceptualizations of Ambidexterity and Its Organizational Implications 177
    • 7.1 Key Collaboration Attributes of the Case Studies 204
    • 8.1 Top Ten Pharmaceutical Companies in India from 1970 to 2003 216
    • 8.2 Firms under Study 219
    • 8.3 R&D Performance of Selected Firms 220
    • 9.1 Sensex Companies (Based on 2006 Data) 235
    • 9.2 Age Profiles of Indian Elites (Based on 2006 Data) 250
    • 9.3 Youngest Directors on the Board of SENSEX Companies (Based on 2006 Data) 251
    • 9.4 Women Directors on the Board of SENSEX Companies (Based on 2006 Data) 252
    • 9.5 Highest Qualification Attained by SENSEX Directors (Based on 2006 Data) 253
    • 9.6 Universities Attended by SENSEX Directors (Based on 2006 Data) 254
    • 10.1 Dimensions on Which Organizations in Developed and Developing Countries Differ 260
    • 10.2 Some Common American Management Terminology and Practices 262
    • 11.1 Training Provided to Managerial Staff in 2006 282
    • 15.1 Indicators of Flourishing for BRIC Countries, the USA and Norway 356
    • 15.2 Institutions at Macro, Mezzo and Micro Levels Relevant for Sourcing and Manufacturing 363
    • 18.1 Mean Analysis of Top Rated 26 Items from the SOAL-Q 421
    • 18.2 Summary of Factors, Number of Items, Reliability, Eigen Values and Percentage of Variance 423
    • 18.3 Means, Standard Deviations and Inter-Correlations among the Subscales and their Reliabilities 424
    • 18.4 Details of Factors and Item Loadings which Emerged from the Factor Analysis 425
    • 18.5 T-test between Privately- and Publicly-owned Organizations 428

    List of Figures

    • 2.1 Global Flows, Systems and Effects 25
    • 4.1 Growth in Employment in Indian BPO 112
    • 4.2 Comparison of Service in UK and Indian Call Centers 115
    • 4.3 Comparison of Call Center Services 116
    • 6.1 Process-based Approach to Ambidexterity 182
    • 7.1 A Typology of Collaborative Networks 194
    • 8.1 Turnover and Export Growth in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry (1980–2003) 215
    • 8.2 Response of Indian Firms to Twin Challenges 218
    • 12.1 Some Examples of the Four Quadrants 292
    • 13.1 Ownership of Consumer Items 310
    • 13.2 Attitude towards Various Products 311
    • 13.3 Rating the Quality of International and Domestic Brands 312
    • 13.4 Language Used in Daily Life 313
    • 13.5 Attitudes on Dating and Marriage 315
    • 13.6 Attitudes to Sex Before Marriage and Homosexual Sex 316
    • 13.7 Importance of Different Aspects of Life Ranked 318
    • 13.8 Attitude to Globalization 319
    • 13.9 Willingness to Work Abroad/Give up Indian Citizenship for American 320
    • 17.1 HRM Strategic Integration Instrument (HRMSi) Framework 398
    • 17.2 HRM Strategic Integration Matrix 400
    • 17.3 Cluster Plotting 402


    This book is not on globalization. Instead it is on organizing and managing in the context of globalization. In doing so, it unravels and provides insights and perspectives on the realities in organizations embedded in and shaped by the forces and the phenomena of globalization. This is a collection of papers first presented in the 12th colloquium of APROS (Asia-Pacific Researchers in Organization Studies) held in Gurgaon (National Capital Region) in December 2007.


    APROS (Asia-Pacific Researchers in Organization Studies) is a virtual organization where academics and practitioners in organization studies, particularly those from the Asia-Pacific region, convene every two years to present ideas and proposals and engage in dialogues that can open up new vistas in both theory and practice in organizations. For India, APROS became real when Management Development Institute, Gurgaon hosted its 12th colloquium in December 2007. The three-day colloquium, organized around 10 tracks, on the theme of Organizing and Managing in the Global World, saw more than 110 domestic and 90 international participants who presented more than 250 research papers. We thankfully acknowledge the trust reposed on us by the Academic Committee of APROS led by Professors Stewart Clegg and Michael Muetzelfeldt.

    The discussion in the colloquium was enriched by the keynote addresses of Prof. Stewart Clegg, the moving spirit behind APROS, and a galaxy of speakers constituting a veritable who's who of Indian government, industry and the academia. Indeed Mr B.K. Chaturvedi, Member of Planning Commission, Government of India; Mr M.K. Damodaran, Chairman, SEBI; Mr R.V. Shahi, former Secretary, Ministry of Power; Mr A.K. Rath, Secretary (Education), Ministry of Human Resource Development; Mr O.P. Bhatt, CMD, State Bank of India; Mr Manoj Kohli, CEO, Bharti Airtel; Mr Yogi Sriram, Vice Chairman, Corporate HR, Larsen & Toubro; Ms Pramila Kalive, Global Head, HR, Zensar Technologies; Mr Satish Pradhan, Head, HR, Tata Sons; Mr Acquil Busrai, Executive Director, HR, IBM India; Mr S.Y. Siddiqui, Director, HR, Maruti Udyog Ltd; Prof. Pritam Singh, former Director, IIM Lucknow and MDI; and Prof. Pradip Khandwalla, management consultant and former Director, IIM, Ahmedabad were all instrumental in setting the tone for an extremely rich and vibrant dialogue in the colloquium. The 12th APROS colloquium owes its success in great measure to them.

    The colloquium was supported by MDI (Management Development Institute) and we wish to thank the management, the then Director Dr Sujit Basu, faculty members and the staff for their generous assistance. In particular the conference would not have been a reality without the tremendous support of Professors Asha Bhandarker, Jyotsna Bhatnagar and Shailendra Rai and the painstaking efforts of a team of 32 students ably led by Ms Anita Ollapally and Ms Manvi Sushil. We would also like to acknowledge the financial assistance provided by the AICTE, ONGC, Union Bank of India and Sage Publications.

    This book would not have seen the light of the day without Sugata Ghosh and Reema Singhal of Sage who were continuously driven to exasperation and helplessness in the face of our other and equally pressing administrative preoccupations and demands.

    Finally, we owe this book to our respective families who have cheerfully borne with missing much in their personal lives because of our academic pursuits and myriad institutional commitments.

    PritamSingh, SubirVerma
  • About the Editors and Contributors


    Pritam Singh, Professor of Eminence, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon is a management guru who has devoted his life to the development of management education. He was conferred the ‘Padma Shri’ by the President of India in 2003. He has also been the recipient of numerous awards for his contributions to institution building, knowledge building, thought leadership and as an outstanding management educator. He has been on the Board of over 50 institutions of the country, and has actively initiated and enabled the transformation process in the corporate and academic world. As a consultant, Dr Singh has worked with 200 CEOs in India and abroad. He has also been responsible to initiate the change process in numerous Indian organizations across public and private sectors as well as multinational corporations. He has also been at the helm of policy issues that surround both management education and corporate management. An MCom (BHU), MBA (USA), PhD (BHU), Honoris Causa D Litt by U.P. Technical University, Lucknow, and Fellow of the Indian Society for Technical Education, Dr Singh is the author of seven books, three of which are award winning. He has also published over 50 research papers in various national and international journals.

    Subir Verma is currently an Associate Professor in Human Behaviour and Organization Development at Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon. Prof. Verma is MA (Gold Medalist) and M. Phil in Political Science from Delhi University and Fellow (PhD) of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. With more than 19 years of teaching experience in Delhi University and MDI, he has been visiting faculty at ESCP-Europe and IIM, Indore; Chairman of the MBA program; Alumni Affairs; and Corporate Relations and Placements Committee at MDI. He has consulted with top MNCs and reputed private and public sector organizations in India.

    Prof. Verma's research interests are in organizational democracy, management of innovation, management styles and indigenous leadership models. He has presented his research at IHRM, EGOS, and APROS conferences and ISA-World Congress of Sociology. He has edited two books and published several papers. His forthcoming book M.K. Gandhi: An Epitome of Leadership is slated to be published early next year. Presently he carries out research on “Identification and Benchmarking of Best Practices in Organizing and Managing in Corporate India”.

    Prof. Verma is recipient of numerous awards and honours such as Dr Karan Singh Gold Medal, Prof. C.J. Chacko Prize, UGC-NET and Junior Research Fellowship, UGC Senior Research Fellowship, Club Internationale (Paris) Fellowship, and AICTE National Research Grant.


    Eve Anderson is currently working in the Australian Public Service in research and industrial relations. Earlier she was a lecturer in the fields of industrial relations, human resource management and conflict management at Monash University. She has undertaken research in public sector management, trade unions and occupational health and safety, the findings from which have been published in several academic journals and other academic collections. Previous to this Ms Anderson had extensive experience working in the field of industrial relations.

    Ilan Avrichir is Professor of Organizational Theory at Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing-ESPM, Sao Paulo, Brazil. His major research interests are international competitiveness of Brazilian industries, offshoring and cross-cultural management. Two of his papers that have been published by Brazilian journals are: Molson versus Kaiser: A Case of Unsuccessful Acquisition (2008) and Brazil's Embraer and Porter's National Competitive Theory: A Critical Case Test of the Diamond Model's Validity in Latin America (2005). He has done consulting work for several Brazilian companies and has been active in establishing linkages between ESPM and European and North American academic institutions. Prof. Avrichir holds master and doctoral degrees in management from Fundação Getúlio Vargas, one of the few AACSB accredited management schools in Latin America.

    Feza Tabassum Azmi is currently Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Studies and Research, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Her areas of interest include strategic human resource and organizational learning. Her papers and case analyzes have been published in various international and national journals including European Business Review, International Journal of Commerce and Management, Singapore Management Review and Vikalpa among others. She has also presented papers in several conferences and seminars.

    Ronald C. Beckett currently manages a consultancy network, and is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Western Sydney. He is an industry practitioner with more than 25 years of experience in the aerospace industry as a manager and change agent and nearly 10 years' experience as a consultant in strategic innovation practices. For about 15 years he has been working with university business schools seeking to better understand things that make sense in industry and searching for new ideas that industry might utilize. He has used action research and case study methods in this interaction. Mr Beckett has published more than sixty conference papers, journal articles or book chapters on related subjects, including knowledge management, multi-partner collaboration, and understanding innovation as a business process. He is a Fellow of Engineers, Australia and a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Management.

    Patrick Besson, an MA in Economics and a PhD in Management from the University of Lyon, France, HDR, is currently a Professor of Strategic Management at ESCP Europe. His research focuses on the study of top management teams and the way they fabricate strategy. He is currently leading two major research projects on ‘Strategizing at the top—the mediating role of ambidexterity in transformational situation’ and ‘How does management consulting create value for companies?’ In parallel with his academic career, Dr Besson has been a consultant for 20 years. He heads his own consulting company, and has developed extensive business experience with many companies from different sectors, including automotive, steel, transport, IT, consulting services, banking, telecommunications and aviation. Over the last 10 years he has specialized in coaching senior executives and top management teams in charge of designing and leading strategic changes, such as reengineering, postmerger integration and new business model development. Dr Besson is Editor of Vital Roux Collection on Entrepreneurship and has been publishing actively in academic and professional reviews.

    Asha Bhandarker is currently the Hero Honda Chair Professor for Leadership Studies at MDI, Gurgaon, India. She is a psychologist by training with a PhD in Business Management. She has worked full time in consulting as also in teaching and research. She has extensive cross-national experience having lived and worked in different parts of the world. She has been visiting Professor at the Darden School of Business, UVA, USA; the School of Public Policy, GMU, USA and at the ICBT, Sri Lanka and Visiting Fellow at The London Business School, London, UK. Dr Bhandarker is the author of Corporate Success and Transformational Leadership; IAS Profile: Myths and Realities; Winning the Corporate Olympiad: The Renaissance Paradigm; and Shaping Business Leaders: What B-Schools Don't Do. She has also published 20 research papers on Leadership and related areas and also developed case studies in leadership and organization building. Dr Bhandarker's current research and teaching interests include Leadership and Strategic Thinking for Corporate Transformation, Emotional Intelligence and Personality Assessment for Potential Identification.

    Arif Nazir Butt is Associate Professor of Management in the Suleman Dawood School of Business at the Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, where he teaches Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management. Dr Butt has published papers in international journals including the Journal of Organizational Behavior, Human Performance Journal, Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings 2006, 2007 and Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal. He has published cases in the Asian Case Research Journal and the Asian Journal of Management Cases. He has presented a number of papers at several conferences including the Academy of Management, International Association of Conflict Management, Administrative Science Association of Canada, North American Case Research Association, International Conference on Work Values and Behavior and Frontiers of Entrepreneurship. Dr Butt's research interests are in Negotiations, Team Building and Leadership, Cross-Cultural Management and Human Resource Management.

    Ashok Chanda, an MBA, Master in Labour Welfare and a Law graduate, has 20 years of professional experience in human resource management and general management in many Indian and multinational corporations. Currently, he is a doctoral fellow with University of South Australia. Prior to joining UNISA, he has worked with large Indian and multinational corporations as HR chief. He has co-authored two books titled Strategic HR Technologies (2000) and Human Resource Strategy: Architecture for Change (2007).

    Robert Chia is currently Professor of Management at the University of Strathclyde Business School. He has a PhD from Lancaster University. He publishes regularly in the leading international journals in organization and management studies. He is the author/editor of three books and a significant number of international journal articles as well as book chapters in a variety of management sub-fields. Professor Chia has held full chair appointments at the universities of Essex, Exeter, St Andrews and Aberdeen. Prior to entering academia 19 years ago, he worked for 16 years in Aircraft Engineering, Manufacturing Management and Human Resource Management. He has consulted extensively with well-known international organizations and institutions. His research interests revolve around the issues of strategic leadership and foresight, complexity and creative thinking, contrasting East-West metaphysical mindsets and critical cultural studies. His overall research focus has been on the enhancement of life chances through the systematic analysis and understanding of the guiding principles underlying the general economy of effort involved in wealth creation.

    Stewart Roger Clegg is currently Research Professor and Director of the Centre for Management and Organization Studies Research at the University of Technology, Sydney. He is also a Visiting Professor at Copenhagen Business School and EM-Lyon. A prolific publisher in leading academic journals in social science, management and organization theory, he is also the author and editor of many books, including the following Sage volumes: Handbook of Power (2009, with Mark Haugaard), Handbook of Macro-organization Behaviour (2009, with Cary Cooper), and Handbook of Organization Studies (2006, with Cynthia Hardy, Walter Nord and Tom Lawrence).

    Paul Kenneth Couchman is currently Professor of Management and Head of the School of Management and Marketing at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. He was previously Professor of Management and Acting Director of the Tourism Sport and Service Innovation Research Centre at Griffith University, and prior to that was Director of Postgraduate Programs in the Faculty of Commerce at Wollongong University. Prof. Couchman has had a diverse career in both the public and private sectors, encompassing the natural and social sciences, and has been both a researcher and a research manager. Most of his research had had an applied focus, and he has worked with a wide range of companies and other organizations in Australia and New Zealand. His current research interests center on the management of innovation, encompassing government policies which seek to foster localized innovation, the practice of risk management in innovation projects, and the development of innovation capabilities within Small to Medium Sized Enterprises. He has a particular research interest in how organizations collaborate to pursue technological innovation (through joint ventures, strategic alliances, and R&D consortia), and in this area has recently completed a major study on cross-sector R&D collaboration within Australia's Cooperative Research Centre Programme.

    Andreas W. Falkenberg, a PhD from the University of Oregon, is currently Professor of International Marketing at the University of Agder in Kristiansand, Norway. He is also the Director of the Doctoral Program in International Management at the University of Agder and section editor for the Journal of Macromarketing in the area of competition and markets. He has previously taught at Michigan State University and the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of Washington and Texas Tech University and lectured in China, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Turkey and Vietnam. His main research interests are in cultural and ethical issues in multinational organizations/markets as well as in macromarketing.

    Joyce Falkenberg, a PhD from the University of Oregon, USA, is currently Professor of Strategy at the University of Agder in Kristiansand, Norway. She has a joint appointment with the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration in Bergen, Norway. Dr Falkenberg's research interests have been in the area of strategy, particularly issues of change. She has recently begun to focus this research toward the particular issues of emerging markets. She has been a visiting scholar and conducted seminars in Russia, Latvia, Switzerland, China, Japan, Turkey, South Africa, as well as the US. She has served on the board of Leroy Seafood Group, an international company located in Norway. She has carried out several research projects for major Norwegian and US companies. Dr Falkenberg has served on the executive committee for the Business Policy and Strategy division of the Academy of Management, and on the editorial board for the Academy of Management Review and Journal of Business Strategies. She presently serves on the editorial boards for Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and Journal of Change Management.

    Mehdi Farashahi, a PhD from Concordia University, is an Associate Professor of Management at John Molson School of Business, Concordia University, Montreal. He has been teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in the areas of strategy and international management at the Department of Management for the last ten years. His research interests focus on understanding organizations and their management practices in the global business environment, specifically in emerging and developing contexts. In his research he combines institutional theory, organizations' forms and strategies, and global/local issues. Dr Farashahi is also interested in aggregate analysis as a type of meta-analytical approach in synthesizing research. He has systematically reviewed the last twenty years of research on the new institutional theory, management theories in developing countries, organizational identity and institutional entrepreneurship. He has published in journals such as Organization Studies, Management International Review, International Journal of Management Reviews and International Journal of Commerce and Management. He has presented his works at different international conferences such as Academy of Management, Academy of International Business, British Academy of Management, Administrative Sciences Association of Canada and many other Asian conferences.

    H.S. Gill is presently the chief economist at the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO). An expert in urban development and housing, he has varied experience in various national and international forums. Dr Gill has numerous papers, chapters in books and policy reports to his credit.

    Taieb Hafsi is Walter J. Somers Professor of International Strategic Management at HEC Montreal, the business school of the University of Montreal. His articles have been published In such major journals as Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, International Studies in Management and Organizations, Interfaces, Government Policy, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, Long Range Planning, International Management, Revue Française de Gestion, Harvard L'Expansion and Gestion Internationale. He has written or edited 26 books/monographs, dealing with strategic management and change in situations of complexity. He is the founder of International Management and has been the editor of the journal until 2004. He has received many awards and distinctions. In particular, in 2000 he received a life time recognition in teaching excellence, and in 2007 the ASPA's William E. Mosher and Frederic C. Mosher award for best paper in PAR (written with Luc Bernier). He has consulted for many North American organizations, and several governments. He holds a Master's of science degree in management, from the Sloan School of Management, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, and a Doctorate in business administration, from the Harvard Business School.

    Charles Harvey is Professor of Business History and Management and Pro-Vice-Chancellor for the Humanities and Social Sciences at Newcastle University. He has earlier served as Dean of the Strathclyde Business School, Dean of the Bristol Business School, and Director of the Royal Holloway School of Management, University of London. He holds a BSc in economics and PhD in international business history from the University of Bristol. His research interests span the fields of business history, strategy, corporate governance, management, and organization studies. His recent books include Breakout Strategy (2007) written jointly with Sydney Finkelstein and Thomas Lawton and Business Elites and Corporate Governance in France and the UK (2006) written jointly with Mairi Maclean and Jon Press. He is the author of eight books, and editor of five. Recent publications include contributions to the Journal of Management Studies, Organization Studies, Human Relations and the Sociological Review. He has served as joint editor of Business History between 1988 and 2007.

    Alfred Jaeger is Professor in Organizational Behavior at Desautels Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Comparative management techniques, management in developing countries, globalization of managerial values and comparative negotiation are his major research interests. His work emphasizes a cross-cultural approach. His publications include ‘Organization Development and National Culture: Where's the Fit?’, Academy of Management Review (1986); Management in Developing Countries (1990) with R. Kanungo, eds; ‘National Entrepreneurial Potential: The Role of Culture, Economic Development and Political History’ (2002) with S. Mueller and A. Thomas, Advances in International Management; ‘The Effects of Self-Emotion, Counterpart Emotion, and Counterpart Behavior on Negotiator Behavior: A Comparison of Individual-Level and Dyad-Level Dynamics (2005) with A. Butt and J.N. Choi, Journal of Organizational Behavior and ‘Getting to Yes in China: Exploring Individual Differences in Chinese Negotiation Styles’ (2005) with Z. Ma, Group Decision and Negotiation. Prof. Jaeger was awarded the 1987 ‘Prix d'Excellence’ for Best Article in Gestion for his work on organizational culture. He has published in various reputed journals and has presented at numerous conferences and colloquia worldwide.

    Ajay K. Jain, a PhD from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, is currently Associate Professor in Organizational Behaviour at the Management Development Institute (MDI), Gurgaon. He launched his career with Indian School of Business, Hyderabad as a postdoctoral fellow. He is a visiting faculty at the University of Free State, South Africa, IIM Lucknow and All India Management Association, New Delhi. He has been visiting Lancaster University, UK, as a researcher. Prof. Jain has more than five years' of teaching and consulting experience. He is a keen researcher and has published widely in national and international journals. He has presented his papers in American Psychological Association, European Association of Industrial and Organizational Psychology and British Academy of Management Conferences. He has successfully trained more than 500 managers, among others, in different areas of organizational Research and Organizational Behavior. He is doing international training assignment in the field of HRM. Recently, he has conducted training of HR heads of top Indian public sector organizations. He has recently finished a consulting project with UCO Bank on HR Policy Formulation.

    Dinar Kale is currently working as a Research Fellow with ESRC Innogen Centre at Development Policy and Practice Department in The Open University. His main research interests include organizational learning, knowledge development and management of innovation specifically focused on life sciences industries. His work has been published in the Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, Industry and Innovation and are under review for premier journals such as Industrial and Corporate Change and Technovation.

    David Knights is Professor of Organizational Analysis at the Bristol Business School, UK, Guest Professor at Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and Law, Sweden and Emeritus Professor in the School of Management at Keele University, UK. His research interests include Diversity and Gender Studies, Power and Subjectivity, Financial Services Consumption, Education and Regulation Information Communication Technology, Organizational Change and Innovation and Ethics, Epistemology and Methodology. Dr Knights' recent publications include ‘Passing the Time in Pastimes, Professionalism and Politics’, Time and Society, 15(3), 2006; ‘Customer Relationship Management in Call Centers: The Uneasy Process of Re(form)ing the Subject through the “People-by-Numbers Approach”, Information and Organization, 18(1), 2008, pp. 29–50 (with C. Alferoff) and ‘Myopic Rhetorics: Reflecting Epistemologically and Ethically on the Demand for Relevance in Organizational and Management Research’, Academy of Management Learning and Education, 7(4), December 2008.

    Stephen Edgar Little is a member of the Centre for Innovation, Knowledge and Enterprise within the Open University Business School, UK and a member of the inter-faculty Centre for Innovation, Knowledge and Development. He is also a visiting scholar in the Department of Management of Technology and Innovation, Rotterdam School of Management and a Visiting Professor in Business Logistics, Innovation and Systems at the University of Bolton, UK. He is a member of APROS, Chairman of the Asia Pacific Technology Network (APTN), and a member of the council of the Design Research Society. He has held full-time positions at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK, the University of Wollongong, NSW and Griffith University, Queensland, Australia. His current research interests include the role of the migration of skilled labor in regional development and the contribution of landmark events and the creative economy to European cities and regions. As a member of the MODE collaboration he is examining the mechanisms of technology transfer from the ATLAS experiment at CERN to member organizations and stakeholders.

    Mairi Maclean is currently Professor of International Business and Director of Research Degrees in the Department of Strategy at Bristol Business School. She was previously a Reader in International Business at Royal Holloway, University of London and before that a Lecturer at the University of Aston in Birmingham. She holds an MA and a PhD from the University of St Andrews, and an MBA from the University of Bath. Her research interests include international business elites, business transformation, business history and comparative organization studies, and center on France and the UK, as well as Central and Eastern Europe and India, especially from a corporate governance perspective. Her recent books include Business Elites and Corporate Governance in France and the UK (2006), written jointly with Charles Harvey and Jon Press. Recent publications include contributions to Human Relations, Business History and the Sociological Review.

    Susan Mate is currently completing a doctoral degree by research at Victoria University in the area of Human Resource Development (HRD). Over the past 15 years she has pursued studies in Management, Education and Social Science. Her practical experience has been in the field of Management Education and Consulting in the field of HRD and Diversity Management. She has worked in a broad cross-section of sectors including universities, financial services, local government, telecommunications and research.

    Jonathan Murphy divides his time between India and Wales, where he teaches international management at Cardiff Business School. He holds a doctorate from Judge Business School, Cambridge University. His research interests focus on global sociology, and he has published articles in various academic journals and book chapters on transnational elites, international financial management and managerialism, including his 2008 monograph, The World Bank and Global Managerialism. His initial work on India's new middle classes was part of the Konrad Adenaeur Foundation/Centre for the Study of Developing Societies major research initiative on Youth in India. In 2009 Prof. Murphy is a visiting research scholar at Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, and at the Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. In addition to his academic pursuits, Prof. Murphy has 25 years' consulting and management experience in the field of democratic development in 20 countries on four continents.

    Ajit Nayak is a Lecturer in Strategy at the School of Management, University of Bath, UK. His research interests are in relational and process-wise approaches to strategy, entrepreneurship, organization and self-identity. He is currently working on a study of Indian business elites. He has previously published in Organization Studies, Organization and Long Range Planning.

    Abhoy K. Ojha is a Professor (Organization Theory) at the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. He obtained his PhD degree in Organizational Analysis from the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. His other educational qualifications include a BTech in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and a PG Diploma in Administrative Management from Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (Bombay University), Mumbai. His current areas of research interests include (a) impact of institutions on organizational structures, systems and processes, (b) business process improvement and its implication for organizational effectiveness performance, (c) development of new forms of information technology supported global organizations and (d) organizational demography. He has several papers to his credit in journals and conference proceedings. He has also presented papers at several conferences. Dr Ojha is a member of the Academy of Management, USA. He was also an active member of Administrative Sciences Association of Canada and the Western Academy of Management. He is a founder member of the Asia Academy of Management. He was on the editorial boards of Human Resource Development International and IIMB Management Review.

    Soma Pillay is currently attached to the Faculty of Business and Enterprise, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorne, Australia. She teaches in the area of HRM and organizational studies and her research interests include public administration in developing countries and cross-cultural management.

    Jie Shen is currently Associate Professor in International Human Resource Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, Australia. He is Guest Professor at Southwest Jiao Tong Univeristy, Shanghai University and Fujian Normal Univeristy. His main research interests are International Human Resource Management (IHRM) and HR and industrial relations (IR) in China. He is the author of International Human Resource Management in Chinese Multinational Enterprises, Labour Disputes and Their Resolution in China and Strategic Human Resource Management—Keys for Managing People.

    Marion Soulerot is a research professor at the Ecole Supérieure du Commerce Extérieur (ESCE), Paris, where she teaches management accounting and management control. She has a PhD from the Paris Dauphine University where she has been member of the accounting department (DRM-CREFIGE) since six years. Her research expertise covers strategy implications on management and accounting, with particular emphasis on ambidexterity and the way managers solve the dilemma of exploiting efficiently resources while exploring new opportunities. Her research interests also include performance improvement programs as well as strategic planning processes in a context of firms in a global environment. Prof. Soulerot is also member of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management and actively participates in international conferences.

    Sumati Varma is Associate Professor at the Department of Commerce at Sri Aurobindo College (Evening), University of Delhi. She is associated with teaching at the Masters of International Business, Department of Commerce, Delhi University and for the external students program of the London School of Economics and Political Science, London University. Her teaching and research interests are in the areas of globalization and international business. She has several papers to her credit in reputed national and international journals and conferences. Her current engagements include research in the international venturing of the IT industry in collaboration at UPPSALA University, Sweden. Dr Varma is a consultant in higher education at the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and in e-learning at the Institute for Lifelong Learning, Delhi University.

    Anne Ngoc Vo is currently a lecturer at the Faculty of Commerce, University of Wollongong, Australia. Before joining the University, she gained first hand industrial experience working for a multinational company operating in Vietnam. She also worked at the University of Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Currently, Dr Vo researches and publishes in the areas of international and comparative HRM, focusing on Asian countries in particular, the transfer of multinational companies' HRM policies and practices, headquarters-subsidiary relationships, transformation of HRM systems in Vietnam and gender equity issues in the context of a transforming society. Earlier she obtained a Bachelor of Commerce in International Business from the Foreign Trade University, Vietnam; a Master of Business Administration from the University of Newcastle, Australia and a doctoral degree in Human Resource Management (HRM) from the De Montfort University, UK. Her PhD thesis was on the transfer of HRM and industry relations, policies and practices across borders.

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