Organizations Evolving


Howard E. Aldrich & Martin Ruef

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Tables and Figures

    1.1 Size of firms by industry: United States, 2000 9

    1.2 European Union: employment share by member state and employment size, 2003, selected nations 10

    2.1 Evolutionary processes 17

    3.1 Six perspectives on organizations: relation to evolutionary theory 36

    4.1 Four competing interpretations of the term ‘entrepreneurship’ 63

    4.2 Modes of organizational memory and knowledge 77

    4.3 Employment size of firms started in 1992 84

    4.4 Starting capital requirements by size of firm, 1992 85

    4.5 Sources of borrowed capital by sex of owner, 1992 87

    5.1 The Janus principle: two models of organizational coherence 94

    5.2 Ideal-types of organizational membership models 107

    5.3 Bases on which job rewards can be given: two dimensions 109

    6.1 Theoretical approaches to defining organizational forms 115

    6.2 Organizational knowledge and member schemata 119

    6.3 Organizational culture: three threads of interpretation 123

    7.1 Organizational transformation: three dimensions 134

    7.2 Transformations: evolutionary explanations at the organizational level 139

    7.3 Case studies of transformation processes 143

    8.1 Historical models of organizational change 161

    8.2 Three components of an evolutionary-historical framework for understanding organizational change 164

    9.1 Strategies facilitating the growth of new populations 185

    9.2 Examples of new populations that encountered collective action and legitimacy problems 205

    10.1 Population dynamics: basic definitions 212

    10.2 Political processes and events affecting population reproduction 232

    11.1 Eight possible relations between organizational populations 244

    11.2 The commercial community of biotechnology 256

    A.1 Research designs employed in research illustrations 268

    A.2 Strengths and weaknesses of design features 269


    4.1 Organizational emergence: from conception to adolescence 66

    8.1 History and organizational transformation: age, period, and cohort 165

    10.1 Growth pattern of a population of organizations, assuming fixed organizational size and limited resources 213

    10.2 Carroll's model of resource partitioning between generalist and specialist forms 224

    11.1 Two hypothetical patterns of ecological nestedness 257

    Preface to the Second Edition

    The first edition of this book had one author; now, there are two of us. When Sage asked Howard to consider updating the first edition of this book, he realized that so much had happened in the intervening five years that he could no longer tackle this task alone. Fortunately, he needed to look no further than around the corner of his office to find another scholar who had deep interest in evolutionary theory and organizational analysis. Martin joined the faculty at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1999, the year the first edition was published. He had just completed his Ph.D. in sociology at Stanford University, an institution that some see as the crucible for many of the perspectives we discuss in this book. Working with Dick Scott gave him a deep appreciation of the institutional approach, while doing a post-doctoral fellowship in the Stanford Graduate School of Business fostered his interest in ecological analysis. Collaboration on the book was complicated by Martin's move back to Stanford's Graduate School of Business in 2002 and his subsequent move to Princeton University. Being back on the East Coast, in the same time zone, and in a Department of Sociology seemed to speed things up a bit. Whatever the cause, we have found that this has been a remarkably agreeable and productive project.

    Why a second edition? First, young organizational researchers continue to produce robust empirical generalizations that strengthen the case for an evolutionary approach. We felt enough new material had accumulated that we could justify discarding some of the material in the first edition and replacing it with work published in the last five years. Second, sympathy for the evolutionary approach has grown, as evidenced in dynamic research designs that have generated insights into change processes. Reviews of the book's first edition were remarkably positive, and many reviewers commented on the ability of an evolutionary understanding to bring unity to the growing field of organization studies. The book was well received in both the sociology and management research communities, as it won the Max Weber award for Best Book from the American Sociological Association's Section on Organizations, Occupations and Work in 2000, and the George R. Terry Award from the Academy of Management for the best management book published in 1999. Third, we have seen signs of an emerging synthesis of the ecological and institutional perspectives, as well as a decidedly historical turn in many empirical projects. As we argue in the book, period and place are now central features of any sophisticated organizational analysis.

    What is new in this edition? First, in addition to providing citations to the most recent work in the field, we have added new sections on organizational forms, community evolution, and methods for studying organizations at multiple levels. We added a short methodological appendix that reviews research methods in terms of units of analysis, mode of data collection, and observation plan. Second, we found that the book is used as a text in many upper division undergraduate classes as well as graduate seminars, and so we have added review questions and exercises at the end of each chapter. Third, in many chapters, we have added a lengthy research case, illustrating the chapter's concepts. The rich descriptions add life to the concepts and principles and show how they can be applied to real historical examples.

    As in the first edition, the book contains about 1,000 references. Their publication dates reveal something about our own intellectual predilections, as well as the “evolution” of the evolutionary approach to organizational analysis. In many respects, the 1970s and 1980s were watershed years for the development of organizational theory, in general, and the evolutionary approach, in particular. Articles, chapters, and monographs from these decades represent roughly 30 percent of our references. The 1990s were a period of fervent empirical refinement of many organizational perspectives and this is paralleled in our References, which devotes nearly half of its listings to this decade. The years since the publication of the first edition have involved further empirical refinement of many organizational perspectives, as well as increased attention to processes that are central to an evolutionary perspective, such as entrepreneurship and organizational emergence. We cannot aspire to a complete survey of the recent literature because it would involve nearly every article from specialized journals such Administrative Science Quarterly and every third or fourth from general-purpose journals, such as the American Journal of Sociology and American Sociological Review. Even a selective approach to this recent literature yields over 150 references to publications from 2000 through 2005, as reflected in our References section.


    Our task was made immeasurably easier because of the friends and colleagues who helped us with advice. Many of the same people who were involved with the first edition helped, in numerous ways, with the second edition. Because we already thanked them in the preface to the first edition, which follows this preface, here we will single out only those people who truly served double duty for us. Two people who read the first edition from cover to cover did the same for this edition: Ted Baker and Linda Renzulli. Steve Lippmann celebrated the completion of his dissertation at the University of North Carolina by also reading the entire book draft. Perhaps having Howard and Martin on his dissertation committee added urgency to his task! Valery Yakubovich also read the entire draft and provided comments. Phil Kim's work with Howard and Martin on entrepreneurial teams contributed insights to Chapter 4, and Linda Putnam and Joel Iverson read Chapters 5 and 6 and provided extensive comments as well as new references for us. Geoffrey Hodgson and Thorbjørn Knudsen have kept us apprised of the latest developments in evolutionary economics. Klye Longest updated all the domestic and international statistics, proofed the references, and suggested new interpretations of data and concepts.

    In the preface to the first edition, Howard noted that he had not been cooped up, hermit-like, as he was writing. His good fortune continued as he worked on this edition. In addition to visiting many of the same institutes and universities as before – AILUN in Sardinia, the Aarhus School of Business, and the University of British Columbia in beautiful Vancouver, among others – his Scandinavian connection strengthened when the Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research (FSF) gave him an ‘entrepreneurship researcher of the year’ award in 2000, allowing him to return repeatedly to Denmark, Norway, and Sweden over the past five years. When he became chairman of the sociology department in 2003, his travel slowed a bit, but his colleagues have always been understanding about receiving emails from places with alien keyboards that add strange symbols to his messages. In the first edition, Howard commented on the contributions his family had made. Now that he has been made a grandfather, three times over, he hopes that Gavriel Tzvi, Jackson, and Yaakov will carry on the family's love of travel. (All three already have their own passports and two have their own frequent flyer cards.)

    Martin has benefited from the collective knowledge of colleagues and students at the University of North Carolina, Stanford, and Princeton University. His approach to organization studies has benefited in particular from the example set by Dick Scott, a generous mentor and one of the most prolific scholars in the field. A number of ideas in this second edition were ‘trial’ tested on Martin's students in both advanced undergraduate and graduate courses and we thank them for their honest and constructive feedback. Finally, Martin would like to thank his family for their support during the writing of this book (and beyond). In 2003, he returned to North Carolina to marry Jennifer, a social worker and true-blue Tarheel. As work on this book was nearing completion in 2005, Jennifer gave birth to their first child, Edison. He has yet to learn about formal organizations, but already has a great deal to teach about life.

    Preface to the First Edition

    In 1979, in the preface to my book, Organizations and Environments, I wrote:

    In trying to write a book on organizational sociology for both students and colleagues, I decided there was no point in either reviewing all of the ‘perspectives’ advanced by theorists in the past two decades, or in re-creating the seemingly endless debates over measurement and method that have plagued the field. Rather, I have attempted to present a perspective that integrates concepts and research findings from all social science disciplines studying organizations, while retaining the gains made by historically and politically sensitive investigators in the United States and abroad. With a slight shift of emphasis from an original investigator's intentions, I found that a great deal of the literature in economic history, industrial economics, the social-psychology of organizations, organizational sociology, and political sociology could be integrated into an encompassing framework.

    Twenty years later, in 1999, my intentions remain the same: I seek an overarching framework that organizes an inquiry into the issues surrounding organizational change. As I will explain in Chapters 1 and 2, I use an evolutionary approach because it is a generic framework for understanding social change. The approach is applicable at multiple levels of analysis and directs our attention to the processes of variation, selection, retention, and struggle that jointly produce patterned change in evolving systems. I first use the evolutionary approach to explain how new organizations are constructed, and in later chapters I explore the historical context in which populations and communities emerge.

    How to Use This Book

    This book was written to be read in chapter order. Concepts are defined when they first appear and arguments in subsequent chapters build on those that have come before. However, I have provided an extensive index for people who wish to skip around. I have tried to make it easy for users to see other applications of a concept, and so I have listed most of the relevant pages on which the concept appears. The index also indicates where to find international examples, as I have noted the pages on which examples from nations other than the United States are mentioned.

    Given the substantial changes in the field over the past two decades, there is very little overlap with the literature reviewed in my 1979 book. Of the roughly 1,000 references, a little more than 50 percent are from the 1990s and about one-third are from the 1980s. The Administrative Science Quarterly is the most cited reference, with about 7 percent of the citations. Together the two Academy of Management journals received about 6 percent of the citations, and the three major American sociology journals account for another 10 percent. The remaining 77 percent of the references are selected from a wide range of journals and books, representing a variety of disciplines and approaches.

    I maintain a Web page for the book on my Web site at The page shows examples of course syllabi that use the book and also provides space for comments and discussion. Please visit the site.

    Intellectual Origins

    In the past, I have used a number of different terms to describe my perspective, but I now prefer the label ‘evolutionary.’ I admit to a certain inconsistency over the last several decades in labeling the research stream to which I was contributing. In the early 1970s, I argued that an ‘organization-environment’ perspective would correct a common problem with traditional approaches which were ‘using single organizations instead of populations of organizations as the frame of reference’ (Aldrich, 1971: 280). I argued that organizational properties had been ‘investigated without regard to their contributions to fitness in varying or diverse organizational environments’ (Aldrich, 1971: 281–282). Then, in 1975, building on Pfeffer's (1972) several papers on ‘organizational interdependence,’ and Yuchtman and Seashore's (1967) ‘system resource approach,’ I used the terms ‘resource dependence’ and ‘resource dependence perspective’ (Aldrich, 1976a, 1976b; Mindlin and Aldrich, 1975: 382). However, in retrospect, I probably should have built more explicitly on my earlier observations regarding the need to study populations.

    Then, given the opportunity to collaborate with Pfeffer on a review article concerning ‘environments of organizations,’ I chose the term ‘natural selection model’ to contrast my way of thinking with Pfeffer's, which we labeled the ‘resource dependence model’ (Aldrich and Pfeffer, 1976). Many of the themes I developed with Pfeffer in that review article were elaborated upon in my 1979 book, where I referred to the approach as ‘population ecology’ interchangeably with ‘natural selection model.’ Bill McKelvey convinced me that the term ‘population ecology’ was too narrow for what we were doing, and so in 1983 we chose the phrase ‘population perspective’ (McKelvey and Aldrich, 1983).

    Now, I am convinced that it is best to use the terms ‘evolutionary perspective,’ ‘evolutionary approach,’ or ‘evolutionary theory,’ because evolutionary thinking in the social sciences has matured and shed some of its earlier unwarranted connotations. For further discussion of this issue, see my discussion of the excess baggage carried by the term ‘evolution’ (Aldrich, 1979: 51–54). Baum and Singh (1994a), for example, managed to recruit a large group of scholars to a conference expressly focused on using evolutionary theory to study organizations, a feat unimaginable back in the 1970s. Subsequently, Baum and McKelvey (1999) had no difficulty finding scholars willing to contribute to a conference explicitly focusing on evolutionary issues. I hope my book encourages others to begin thinking in evolutionary terms.


    I enjoyed writing this book, although it took years longer than I expected. When Sue Jones and I had a celebratory signing dinner in Las Vegas in 1992, she thought I would be delivering a manuscript to Sage Publications in a few years. When she turned over the editorship to Rosemary Nixon in 1996, we realized that ‘book years’ rather than ‘book months’ had become the metric of choice. Sue provided wonderful encouragement in the early years, and Rosemary never wavered in supporting the project, no matter how many self-imposed deadlines I missed.

    Along the way, many friends and colleagues became implicated in my efforts, and to prevent them from disclaiming any responsibility for the results, I've decided to give them due credit. First, many of the book's ideas were initially developed in collaborative writing with my doctoral students and other colleagues. Udo Staber initially worked with me at Cornell University on a study of trade associations and subsequently on studies of social networks. Jane Salk joined that effort while a doctoral student at North Carolina, along with Jack Beggs. Ellen Auster also worked with me at Cornell and went on to conduct research on interorganizational strategies. At the University of North Carolina, Amanda Brickman Elam, Pat Ray Reese, Linda Renzulli, and Cathy Zimmer were involved in research on entrepreneurship and social networks, with Paola Dubini collaborating on an Italian replication of that work. Arent Greve and Bengt Johanisson carried out the Scandinavian part of that research. Ted Baker opened my eyes to strategic human resource issues involved in entrepreneurial activities and has been an invaluable co-author on numerous projects. Also at the University of North Carolina, Courtney Sheldon Hunt sparked my curiosity about the possibility of empirical research on electronic commerce, and Amy Kenworthy showed me that Don Campbell still had much to teach me. Jane Weiss's influence lives on to the extent that an historical and comparative flavor informs my writing. Her vibrant presence is sorely missed.

    Bill McKelvey and I, as fellow admirers of Donald Campbell's contributions, made a pilgrimage to visit Don in Syracuse. We subsequently wrote a series of papers together. Marlene Fiol rekindled my passion for the social psychology of organizations, reminding me of the lessons Dan Katz and others at Michigan had taught me but which I had suppressed. Mary Ann Von Glinow stirred my interest in human resource issues confronting new firms, and Gabriele Wiedenmayer co-authored several papers with me on the ecological analysis of organizational foundings. Peter Marsden not only recruited me to Chapel Hill but also joined me in several efforts to review the state of the art in organizational sociology. Nancy Langton and Jennifer Cliff gave me a Canadian perspective on human resource management in small and medium sized enterprises. In Japan, Toshihiro Sasaki worked with me on a study of research and development consortia, Tomoaki Sakano and I studied entrepreneurial networks, and Tamiki Kishida tried to persuade me of contingency theory's value.

    Second, many people read at least part of the book and made written comments on it. At the top of the list are five truly self-sacrificing souls who read the entire book at least twice, not only providing critical comments but also proposing new text that substantially improved my arguments: Ted Baker, Heather Haveman, Anne Miner, Linda Renzulli, and Pat Thornton. Their advice and encouragement reaffirmed for me the value of strong ties and the joy of supportive colleagues. Others read specific chapters or passages and provided incredibly helpful criticism: Kristina Ahlen, Linda Argote, Joel Baum, Nicole Biggart, Bill Gartner, Mary Ann Glynn, Lisa Keister, Jonathan Levie, Benyamin Lichtenstein, Leann Mischel, Mark Mizruchi, Jim Moody, Donnie Parker, Jeremy Reynolds, Paul Reynolds, Huggy Rao, Soodi Sharifi, Toby Stuart, Mark Suchman, Jim Wade, and Theresa Welbourne.

    Third, undergraduate and graduate students in my organizational sociology and entrepreneurship courses at the University of North Carolina patiently endured multiple drafts of the book and provided constructive feedback. There are too many of them to list, but their contributions live on in the concrete examples and valuable references they contributed. Fourth, my colleagues in Chapel Hill provided a supportive environment in which to discuss not only organizational theory but also my other great passion, the teaching of sociology. In particular, I want to thank Arne Kalleberg, Rachel Rosenfeld, Glen Elder, Lisa Keister, Sherryl Kleinman, and Judith Blau. My office staff did a superb job in putting the book together. Deborah Tilley began the effort, Erica Dawson and Leslie Whitley kept it going, and Jennifer Carpenter masterfully put the final pieces together.

    Over the past decade, while this book was taking shape, I did not sit cooped up in a dark garret or seaside cabin, as so many other authors seem to claim. Instead, I enjoyed the hospitality of many institutes and universities around the world. Several times, I spent the late spring and early summer months teaching at SDA-Bocconi, in Milan, and at Keio Business School, in Yokohama. Because of the generosity of the University of British Columbia's College of Commerce and Administration, my wife and I spent several summers in Vancouver. I have enjoyed yearly visits to Vienna, teaching in Josef Mugler's Institute for Small and Medium Enterprises at the University of Economics, and also to Sardinia, teaching in Giulio Bolacchi's AILUN program. Mike Useem introduced me to Professor Bolacchi, and Woody Powell and Paul Hirsch have joined me in sustaining an American sociological spirit in AILUN. My ‘Scandinavian connection’ has proved particularly fruitful, with frequent seminars in Uppsala, Stockholm, Linköping, Jönkoping, Bergen, and a current part-time visiting appointment at the Norwegian School of Business in Oslo. In particular, I thank Maja Arnestad, Magnus Aronsson, Gunn Birkelund, Per Davidsson, Arent Greve, Sølvi Lillejord, Leif Melin, Torger Reve, and Olav Spilling. Many other overseas colleagues have welcomed me for short visits that have broadened my outlook and showed me alternative ‘ways of seeing.’

    Traditionally, authors conclude their acknowledgments with a painful reference to the sacrifices of their families and an apology for lost time. Those who know my family, however, would not find that claim credible. Our two sons matured magnificently during the 1990s, in part due to study as Morehead Scholars at the University of North Carolina. Steven gave up a career in physics for several years in investment banking and then returned to college for his MBA at Stanford. After graduation, he married Allison and founded an Internet commerce firm. Daniel pursued his interest in Japan with study overseas and an MA in Asian Studies at Berkeley. After marrying Yael and spending a year in Israel, he entered a Ph.D. program in Political Science at Harvard. My wife's inclination for adventure, noted in my 1979 book, continued. Penny spent time swimming with Dolphins in Mexico, teaching on a Navajo reservation in Arizona, snorkeling with the Manatee in Florida, following Orcas off the coast of Vancouver Island, and reading stacks of books in the off-season. Even though my involvement in many of my family's pursuits probably doubled the time it took to finish this book, I could not have asked for a better and more selective environment.

  • Appendix: Research Design and Evolutionary Analysis

    Overview of Research Illustrations

    We purposefully chose the case studies in this book to illustrate the diversity of research designs employed in organizational analysis. In Table A.1, we characterize this diversity along three dimensions: (1) unit of analysis; (2) mode of data collection; and (3) observation plan. Although the research designs are clearly not exhaustive – for instance, laboratory experiments are noticeably absent – they do include many of the most common approaches. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each.

    As we argued in Chapter 2, scholars take different positions on the appropriate unit of analysis in evolutionary organizational studies. In many respects, organizations as a whole constitute a natural choice, insofar as they are boundary-maintaining entities with activities directed toward their own perpetuation. However, when scholarly interest centers on the emergence of new organizations or variation within existing ones, researchers must disaggregate the units further. Social groups in organizations (e.g. work groups, departments, divisions) and social routines represent two viable alternatives, as illustrated in the studies by Ruef and colleagues (2003) and Pentland (1992; Pentland and Rueter, 1994), respectively. Methodological individualists argue for further disaggregation, focusing on individual persons as carriers of routines, competencies, and status characteristics. This emphasis is especially useful when evolutionary processes affect the life histories of individuals, as noted in Li and Walder's (2001) study of institutional change in Maoist and post-Maoist China.

    For other studies of organizational evolution, the timescale of variation, selection, and retention processes may transcend the lifespan of individuals and organizations. Studies at this scale benefit from a focus on organizational populations or even communities as units of analysis (e.g. Ingram and Rao, 2004). For this purpose, researchers commonly use the single population census, which emphasizes complete historical coverage of an organizational population, the observation of all major vital events (such as foundings and disbandings), and careful measurement of institutional and material context (Carroll and Hannan, 2000). Given growing interest in the evolution of organizational communities, some scholars have also deployed a multi-population census, which tracks a number of interdependent populations simultaneously. Resource limitations may require limited temporal coverage and less precise measurement of vital events (Ruef, 2000).

    Table A.1 Research designs employed in research illustrations

    The mode of data collection is largely orthogonal to the unit of analysis. In circumstances with limited direct access to the participants involved in an evolutionary process, analysts tend to rely on archival databases, such as those represented in directories, newspaper accounts, organizational records, diaries, and the like. For example, historical analyses of organizations usually rely on data archives. When direct access to participants can only be arranged for a limited period, researchers often employ interviews or mailed surveys. For units of analysis beyond the individual or small group, researchers may apply these instruments to multiple respondents within an organization or population, raising the question of inter-respondent reliability (Marsden, 2005). Finally, if researchers desire prolonged access to participants, they can use ethnographic methods to track evolutionary processes through field observation and varying levels of personal participation.

    The type of observation plan, the third dimension of the research designs reviewed in Table A.1, addresses whether data are collected only at one time point (cross-sectionally) or at multiple time points (longitudinally). It also considers whether data will be collected after an evolutionary process has occurred (retrospectively) or while it is occurring (prospectively). As seen in the Table, we have omitted the first distinction since all research designs intended to address evolutionary processes entail some longitudinal component. Researchers tend to collect such data retrospectively when their interest centers on an extended period or process of historical interest. They are more apt to use prospective designs when their interest centers on activities that may be completed over a brief period.

    Table A.2 Strengths and weaknesses of design features

    Strengths and Weaknesses of Non-Experimental Research Designs

    As we summarize in Table A.2, all research designs confront analysts with a mix of strengths and weaknesses. With respect to choosing a unit of analysis, for instance, studies of small units (examining individuals, social groups, or routines) afford investigators unique opportunities to observe organizational processes at a fine-grained level, often with some insight into the subjective dispositions of entrepreneurs or organizational members. This subjective dimension sometimes gets lost or reified in designs studying larger units, as investigators address structural and cultural characteristics in a more holistic fashion. Conversely, investigators who emphasize organizations, populations, and communities as their units of analysis are better positioned to observe emergent properties that may be missed in research designs for smaller units.

    The strengths and weaknesses of different modes of data collection follow directly from the degree of access to informants they require. In archival research, investigators need not have any access to informants, but the measures collected will be limited to those present in existing archives. Typically, information in official archives has been collected for administrative purposes, making it very difficult to use for research purposes. Interviews or surveys allow investigators to tailor their measures to their specific evolutionary perspective. However, with the exception of respondent-driven instruments and open-ended questions, investigators must specify in advance both the sampling frame of informants and the operationalization of measures. Direct observation requires the most extensive access to participants in an evolutionary process, while allowing informants and measures to ‘emerge’ during the study period, along the lines advocated by proponents of grounded theory (Golden-Biddle and Locke, 1997; Strauss, 1978). Nevertheless, such observations must still be structured afterwards for the sake of interpretation.

    The problem of success bias, noted in Chapter 2, is intimately tied to the choice of retrospective versus prospective research designs in evolutionary analysis. Retrospective designs suffer the greatest risk of success bias, because they often sample from units that have survived until analysts have collected data from them. Even in the absence of such obvious instances of success bias, the problem may appear in more subtle ways. The retrospective reliance on archival data in organizational ecology, for instance, is predicated on the assumption that such archives exist and, consequently, that organizational populations have attained some level of success that makes them amenable to analysis. Similarly, retrospective interviews with successful and unsuccessful managers are subject to different recall biases, as these informants try to make sense of past experiences (Weick, 1995). Prospective research designs not only mitigate these concerns, but also impose considerable demands on the time of investigators. Moreover, attrition – the loss of cases from prospective designs over time due to non-response or selection mechanisms – can whittle away even large samples, leaving investigators with limited ability to draw inferences.


    Abbott, Andrew. 1992. ‘From Causes to Events: Notes on Narrative Positivism.’Sociological Methods & Research, 20, 4 (May): 428–455.
    Abernathy, William and KimB. Clark. 1985. ‘Innovation: Mapping the Winds of Creative Destruction.’Research Policy, 14: 3–22.
    Abrahamson, Eric. 1991. ‘Managerial Fads and Fashions: The Diffusion and Rejection of Innovations.’Academy of Management Review, 16, 3 (July): 586–612.
    Abrahamson, Eric and LoriRosenkopf. 1993. ‘Institutional and Competitive Bandwagons: Using Mathematical Modeling as a Tool to Explore Innovation Diffusion.’Academy of Management Review, 18, 3 (July): 487–517.
    Acker, Joan. 1990. ‘Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations.’Gender and Society, 4, 2 (June): 139–158.
    Ahrne, Göran. 1994. Social Organizations: Interaction Inside, Outside, and Between Organizations. London: Sage.
    Ahuja, Gautam. 2000. ‘Collaboration Networks, Structural Holes, and Innovation: A Longitudinal Study.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 3 (September): 425–455.
    Akard, Patrick J.1992. ‘Corporate Mobilization and U.S. Economic Policy in the 1970s.’American Sociological Review, 57, 5 (October): 597–615.
    Albach, Horst. 1983. Zur Versorgung der Deutschen Wirtschaft mit Risikokapital. IFM-Materialien Nr. 9. Bonn, Germany: Institut für Mittelstandsforschung.
    Albert, Stuart and DavidA. Whetten. 1985. ‘Organizational Identity.’ pp. 263–295 in L.Cummings and B.Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Alchian, Armen A. and HaroldDemsetz. 1972. ‘Production, Information Costs, and Economic Organization.’American Economic Review, 62, 5 (December): 777–795.
    Alchian, Armen A. and S.Woodward. 1988. ‘The Firm is Dead: Long Live the Firm: A Review of Oliver E. Williamson'sThe Economic Institutions of Capitalism.’ Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 4 (December): 65–79.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1971. ‘Organizational Boundaries and Interorganizational Conflicts.’Human Relations, 24 (August): 279–287.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1972. ‘Sociability in Mensa: Characteristics of Interaction Among Strangers.’Urban Life and Culture, 1 (July): 167–186.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1975. ‘Tight Versus Loose Coupling: Some Arguments and a Model.’ Paper presented at a Conference on Design of Inter-organizational Relations in the Public Sector, International Institute of Management, West Berlin, June.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1976a. ‘Resource Dependence and Interorganizational Relations Between Local Employment Service Offices and Social Services Sector Organizations.’Administration and Society, 7, 1 (February): 419–454.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1976b. ‘An Interorganizational Dependency Perspective on Relations Between the Employment Service and Its Organization Set,’ pp. 233–266 in R.Killman et al. (eds), The Management of Organization Design. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1979. Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Aldrich, Howard E.1988. ‘Paradigm Wars: Donaldson Versus the Critics of Organization Theory.’Organization Studies, 9, 1 (January): 19–25.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and EllenR. Auster. 1986. ‘Even Dwarfs Started Small.’ pp. 165–198 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 8. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Aldrich, Howard E., JohnCater, TrevorJones, and DaveMcEvoy. 1983. ‘From Periphery to Peripheral: The South Asian Petite Bourgeoisie in England.’ pp. 1–32 in Ida HarperSimpson and RichardSimpson (eds), Research in the Sociology of Work, Vol. 2. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Aldrich, Howard E., AmandaElam, and Pat RayReese. 1996. ‘Strong Ties, Weak Ties, and Strangers: Do Women Business Owners Differ from Men in Their Use of Networking to Obtain Assistance?’ pp. 1–25 in SueBirley and IanMacMillan (eds), Entrepreneurship in a Global Context. London: Routledge.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and MarleneC. Fiol. 1994. ‘Fools Rush In? The Institutional Context of Industry Creation.’Academy of Management Review, 19, 4 (October): 645–670.
    Aldrich, Howard E., Arne L.Kalleberg, Peter V.Marsden, and JamesCassell. 1989. ‘In Pursuit of Evidence: Strategies for Locating New Businesses.’Journal of Business Venturing, 4, 6 (November): 367–386.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and AmyKenworthy. 1999. ‘The Accidental Entrepreneur: Campbellian Antinomies and Organizational Foundings.’ pp. 19–33 in Joel A. C.Baum and BillMcKelvey (eds), Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and NancyLangton. 1998. ‘Human Resource Management Practices and Organizational Life Cycles.’ pp. 349–357 in PaulReynolds et al. (eds), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 1997. Babson Park, MA: Babson College, Center for Entrepreneurial Studies.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and JeffreyPfeffer. 1976. ‘Environments of Organizations.’ pp. 79–105 in Annual Review of Sociology, 2. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Aldrich, Howard E., Pat RayReese, and PaolaDubini. 1989. ‘Women on the Verge of a Breakthrough?: Networking Among Entrepreneurs in the United States and Italy.’Journal of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 1, 4: 339–356.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and Albert J.Reiss, Jr. 1976. ‘Continuities in the Study of Ecological Succession: Changes in the Race Composition of Neighborhoods and Their Businesses.’American Journal of Sociology, 81, 4 (January): 846–866.
    Aldrich, Howard E., LindaRenzulli, and NancyLangton. 1998. ‘Passing on Privilege: Resources Provided by Self-employed Parents to their Self-employed Children.’ pp. 291–317 in KevinLeicht (ed.), Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and TomoakiSakano. 1998. ‘Unbroken Ties: How the Personal Networks of Japanese Business Owners Compare to Those in Other Nations.’ pp. 32–52 in MarkFruin (ed.), Networks and Markets: Pacific Rim Investigations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    AldrichHoward E., and ToshihiroSasaki. 1995. ‘R & D Consortia in the United States and Japan.’Research Policy, 24, 2 (March): 301–316.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and UdoH. Staber. 1988. ‘Organizing Business Interests: Patterns of Trade Association Foundings, Transformations, and Deaths.’ pp. 111–126 in Glenn R.Carroll (ed.), Ecological Models of Organization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and RogerWaldinger. 1990. ‘Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship.’ pp. 111–135 in Annual Review of Sociology16. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and DavidWhetten. 1981. ‘Making the Most of Simplicity: Organization Sets, Action Sets, and Networks.’ pp. 385–408 in P.Nystrom and William H.Starbuck (eds), Handbook of Organizational Design. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Aldrich, Howard E. and GabrieleWiedenmayer. 1993. ‘From Traits to Rates: An Ecological Perspective on Organizational Foundings.’ pp. 145–195 in JeromeKatz and Robert H.Brockhaus (eds), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence, and Growth, Vol. 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Aldrich, Howard E., CatherineZimmer, Udo H.Staber, and JohnJ. Beggs. 1990. ‘Trade Association Foundings in the 20th Century.’ Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.
    Aldrich, Howard E., Catherine R.Zimmer, Udo H.Staber, and JohnJ. Beggs. 1994. ‘Minimalism, Mutualism, and Maturity: The Evolution of the American Trade Association Population in the 20th Century.’ pp. 223–239 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Amburgey, Terry L. and TinaDacin. 1994. ‘As the Left Foot Follows the Right? The Dynamics of Strategic and Structural Change.’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 6 (December): 1427–1452.
    Amburgey, Terry L., DawnKelly, and WilliamBarnett. 1993. ‘Resetting the Clock: The Dynamics of Organizational Change and Failure.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 1 (March): 51–73.
    Amburgey, Terry L., Marjo-RiittaLehtisalo, and DawnKelly. 1988. ‘Suppression and Failure in the Political Press: Government Control, Party Affiliation, and Organizational Life Chances.’ pp. 153–174 in Glenn R.Carroll (ed.), Ecological Models of Organization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Amburgey, Terry L. and AnneS. Miner. 1992. ‘Strategic Momentum: The Effects of Repetitive, Positional, and Contextual Momentum on Merger Activity.’Strategic Management Journal, 13, 5 (June): 335–348.
    Amburgey, Terry L. and HayagreevaRao. 1996. ‘Organizational Ecology: Past, Present, and Future Directions.’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 5 (October): 1265–1286.
    Aminzade, Ronald. 1992. ‘Historical Sociology and Time.’Sociological Methods & Research, 20, 4 (May): 456–480.
    Anderson, Phillip and MichaelTushman. 1990. ‘Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 4 (December): 604–633.
    Andrews, Edmund L.1992. ‘House Votes to Put Stricter Rules on “900” Pay – Call Phone Services.’New York Times, February 25, Al.
    Appelbaum, Eileen, ThomasBailey, PeterBerg, and ArneL. Kalleberg. 2000. Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Appold, Stephen J.1995. ‘Agglomeration, Interorganizational Networks, and Competitive Performance in the U.S. Metalworking Sector.’Economic Geography, 71, 1 (January): 27–54.
    Argote, Linda. 1993. ‘Group and Individual Learning Curves: Individual, System, and Environmental Components.’British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 1 (March): 31–51.
    Argote, Linda, Sara L.Beckman, and DennisEpple. 1990. ‘The Persistence and Transfer of Learning in Industrial Settings.’Management Science, 36, 2 (February): 140–154.
    Argote, Linda and DennisEpple. 1990. ‘Learning Curves in Manufacturing.’Science, 247 (February): 920–924.
    Argyris, Chris and DonaldSchön. 1978. Organizational Learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Arrow, Kenneth J.1962. ‘The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing.’Review of Economic Studies, 29: 155–173.
    Arrow, Kenneth J.1987. ‘Oral History I: An Interview.’ pp. 191–242 in G.R.Feiwel (ed.), Arrow and the Ascent of Modern Economic Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Arthur, W. Brian. 1989. ‘Competing Technologies, Increasing Returns, and Lock-in by Historical Events: The Dynamics of Allocation Under Increasing Returns.’The Economic Journal, 99 (March): 116–131.
    Astley, W. Graham. 1985. ‘The Two Ecologies: Population and Community Perspectives on Organizational Evolution.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 2 (June): 224–241.
    Astley, W. Graham and EdwardJ. Zajac. 1990. ‘Beyond Dyadic Exchange: Functional Interdependence and Sub-unit Power.’Organization Studies, 11, 4: 481–501.
    Atmar, Wirt and BruceD. Patterson. 1993. ‘The Measure of Order and Disorder in the Distribution of Species in Fragmented Habitat.’Oecologia. 96, 3 (December): 373–382.
    Axelrod, Robert, WillMitchell, Robert E.Thomas, D. ScottBennett, and ErhardBruderer. 1995. ‘Coalition Formation in Standard-setting Alliances.’Management Science, 41, 9 (September): 1493–1508.
    Baker, Ted. 1995. Stodgy Too Fast: Human Resource Practices and the Development of Inertia in Start Up Firms. Unpublished MA thesis, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Baker, Ted. 1999. Doing Well by Doing Good: The Bottom Line on Workplace Practices. Washington, DC: The Economic Policy Institute.
    Baker, Ted and HowardE. Aldrich. 1994. ‘Human Resource Management and New Ventures.’ Paper presented to the Babson College Conference on Entrepreneurship, Wellesley, MA, June.
    Baker, Ted, Anne S.Miner, and DaleT. Easley. 2003. ‘Improvising Firms: Bricolage, Account Giving, and Improvisational Competencies in the Founding Process.’Research Policy, 32: 255–276.
    Baker, Wayne E. and RobertF. Faulkner. 1993. ‘The Social Organization of Conspiracy in the Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry.’American Sociological Review, 58, 6 (December): 837–860.
    Baldwin, John, LinBian, RichardDupuy, and GuyGellatly. 2000. Failure Rates for New Canadian Firms: New Perspectives on Entry and Exit. Ottawa, Ontario: Statistics Canada.
    Barley, Stephen R.1990. ‘The Alignment of Technology and Structure through Roles and Networks.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 1 (March): 61–103.
    Barley, Stephen R., John HenryFreeman, and RalphC. Hybels. 1992. ‘Strategic Alliances in Commercial Biotechnology.’ pp. 311–347 in NitinNohria and Robert G.Eccles (eds), Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action. Boston, MA: Harvard University Business School.
    Barley, Stephen R. and GideonKunda. 2004. Gurus, Hired Guns, and Warm Bodies: Itinerant Experts in a Knowledge Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Barnard, Chester I.1938. The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Barnett, William P.1990. ‘The Organizational Ecology of a Technological System.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 1 (March): 31–50.
    Barnett, William P.1994. ‘The Liability of Collective Action: Growth and Change Among Early American Telephone Companies.’ pp. 337–354 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Barnett, William P.1995. ‘Telephone Companies.’ pp. 277–289 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Barnett, William P.1997. ‘The Dynamics of Competitive Intensity.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1 (March): 128–160.
    Barnett, William P. and TerryL. Amburgey. 1990. ‘Do Larger Organizations Generate Stronger Competition?’ pp. 78–102 in Jitendra V.Singh (ed.), Organizational Evolution: New Directions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Barnett, William P. and GlennR. Carroll. 1987. ‘Competition and Mutualism Among Early Telephone Companies.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 3 (September): 400–421.
    Barnett, William P. and GlennR. Carroll. 1993. ‘How Institutional Constraints Affected the Organization of Early U.S. Telephony.’Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 9, 1: 98–126.
    Barnett, William P. and GlennR. Carroll. 1995. ‘Modeling Internal Organizational Change.’ pp. 217–236 in Annual Review of Sociology, 21. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Barnett, William P., Henrich R.Greve, and DouglasY. Park. 1994. ‘An Evolutionary Model of Organizational Performance.’Strategic Management Journal, 15, S (Winter): 11–28.
    Barnett, William P. and MichaelWoywode. 2004. ‘From Red Vienna to the Anschluss: Ideological Competition among Viennese Newspapers during the Rise of National Socialism.’American Journal of Sociology, 109, 6 (May): 1452–1499.
    Barney, Jay B.1986. ‘Types of Competition and the Theory of Strategy: Toward an Integrative Framework.’Academy of Management Review, 11, 4 (October): 791–800.
    Baron, James N., Frank R.Dobbin, and P. DevereauxJennings. 1986. ‘War and Peace: The Evolution of Modern Personnel Administration in U.S. Industry.’American Journal of Sociology, 92, 2 (September): 350–383.
    Baron, James, Michael T.Hannan and M. DianeBurton. 1999. ‘Building the Iron Cage: Determinants of Managerial Intensity in the Early Years of Organizations.’American Sociological Review, 64, 4 (August): 527–547.
    Baron, James, Michael T.Hannan and M. DianeBurton. 2001. ‘Labor Pains: Change in Organizational Models and Employee Turnover in Young, High-Tech Firms.’American Journal of Sociology, 106, 4 (January): 960–1012.
    Baron, James N., P. DevereauxJennings and FrankR. Dobbin. 1988. ‘Mission Control? The Development of Personnel Systems in U.S. Industry.’American Sociological Review, 53, 4 (August): 497–514.
    Baron, Robert A. and GideonD. Markman. 2003. ‘Beyond Social Capital: The Role of Entrepreneurs' Social Competence in their Financial Success.’Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 1 (January): 41–60.
    Barron, David N.1995. ‘Credit Unions.’ pp. 137–162 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Barron, David N.1999. ‘The Structuring of Organizational Populations.’American Sociological Review, 64, 3 (June): 421–445.
    Barron, David. N.2001. ‘Simulating the Dynamics of Organizational Populations: A Comparison of Three Models of Organizational Entry, Exit and Growth.’ pp. 209–242 in AlessandroLomi and Erik R.Larsen (eds), Dynamics of Organizations: Computational Modeling and Organization Theories. Menlo Park, CA: MIT Press.
    Barron, David N., ElizabethWest, and MichaelT. Hannan. 1994. ‘A Time to Grow and a Time to Die: Growth and Mortality of Credit Unions in New York City, 1914–1990.’American Journal of Sociology, 100, 2 (September): 381–421.
    Bartunek, Jean M. and B.L.Betters-Reed. 1987. ‘The Stages of Organizational Creation.’American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 3 (June): 287–303.
    Bates, Timothy. 1997. ‘Financing Small Business Creation: The Case of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs.’Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 2 (March): 109–124.
    Baudrillard, Jean. 1983. Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Baum, Joel A.C.1996. ‘Organizational Ecology.’ pp. 77–114 in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy, and WalterNord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and TerryL. Amburgey. 2002. ‘Organizational Ecology.’ pp. 304–326 in Joel A.C.Baum, (ed.), Companion to Organizations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, Ltd.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and PaulIngram. 1998. ‘Survival-enhancing Learning in the Manhattan Hotel Industry, 1898–1980.’Management Science, 44: 996–1016.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and HeatherA. Haveman. 1997. ‘Love Thy Neighbor? Differentiation and Agglomeration in the Manhattan Hotel Industry, 1898–1990.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 2 (June): 304–338.
    Baum, Joel A.C., Helaine J.Korn, and SureshB. Kotha. 1995. ‘Dominant Designs and Population Dynamics in Telecommunications Services: Founding and Failure of Facsimile Transmission Service Organizations, 1965–1992.’Social Science Research, 24, 2 (June): 97–135.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and BillMcKelvey (eds), 1999. Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Compbell. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and StephenJ. Mezias. 1992. ‘Localized Competition and Organizational Failure in the Manhattan Hotel Industry, 1989–1990.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 4 (December): 580–604.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and ChristineOliver. 1992. ‘Institutional Embeddedness and the Dynamics of Organizational Populations.’American Sociological Review, 57, 4 (August): 540–559.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and WalterW. Powell. 1995. ‘Cultivating an Insititutional Ecology of Organizations: Comment on Hannan, Carroll, Dundon, and Torres.’American Sociological Review, 60, 4 (August): 529–538.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and Jitendra V.Singh (eds). 1994a. Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Baum, Joel A.C. and JitendraV. Singh. 1994b. ‘Organizational Niche Overlap and the Dynamics of Organizational Founding.’Organization Science, 5, 4 (November): 483–501
    Baum, Joel A.C. and JitendraV. Singh. 1994c. ‘Organizational Niche Overlap and the Dynamics of Organizational Mortality.’American Journal of Sociology, 100, 2 (September): 346–380.
    Bechky, Beth. 2003. ‘Object Lessons: Workplace Artifacts as Representations of Occupational Jurisdiction.’American Journal of Sociology, 109, 3 (November): 720–752.
    Becker, Gary S.1975. Human Capital (
    2nd edition
    ). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Becker, Howard, BlancheGeer, Everett C.Hughes, and AnselmL. Strauss. 1961. Boys in White: Student Culture in Medical School. London: Transaction Publishers.
    Becker, Markus C.2004. ‘Organizational Routines: A Review of the Literature.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 13, 4 (August): 643–677.
    Bellah, Robert N., RichardMadsen, William M.Sullivan, AnnSwidler, and StevenTipton. 1996. ‘Individualism and the Crisis of Civic Membership.’The Christian Century, 113, 16 (May 8): 510–516.
    Berger, Peter and ThomasLuckmann. 1966. The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Doubleday.
    Berk, Richard A.1983. ‘An Introduction to Sample Selection Bias in Sociological Data.’American Sociological Review, 48, 3 (June): 386–398.
    Berry, David C. and Donald E.Broadbent, 1984. ‘On The Relationship between Task Performance and Associated Verbalizable Knowledge.’The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36A, 2 (May): 209–231.
    Bielby, William T. and Denise DelgadoBielby. 1999. ‘Organizational Mediation of Project-Based Labor Markets.’American Sociological Review, 64, 1 (February): 64–85.
    Biggart, Nicole W.1988. Charismatic Capitalism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Biggart, Nicole W. and RichardCastanias, II. 1992. ‘Taiwan Capital Markets: An Economic and Sociological Perspective.’ Unpublished paper, Graduate School of Administration, University of California, Davis.
    Blau, Judith R.1993. Social Contracts and Economic Markets. New York: Plenum.
    Blau, Judith R.1995. ‘Art Museums.’ pp. 87–114 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Blau, Peter M.1955. The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Blau, Peter M.1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley.
    Blau, Peter M.1970. ‘A Formal Theory of Differentiation in Organizations.’American Sociological Review, 35, 2 (April): 201–218.
    Boden, Deidre. 1994. The Business of Talk: Organizations in Action. London: Polity Press.
    Bodfish, Morton. 1931. History of Building and Loans in the United States. Chicago, IL: United States Building and Loan League.
    Boeker, Warren. 1988. ‘Organizational Origins: Entrepreneurial and Environmental Imprinting at the Time of Founding.’ pp. 33–51 in Glenn. R.Carroll (ed.), Ecological Models of Organization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Boettger, Richard D. and CharlesR. Greer. 1994. ‘On the Wisdom of Rewarding A While Hoping for B.’Organization Science, 5, 4 (November): 569–582.
    Bögenhold, Dieter. 1987. Der Gründerboom: Realität und Mythos der Neuen Selbständigkeit. Frankfurt: Campus.
    Bögenhold, Dieter and UdoH. Staber. 1990. ‘Selbständigkeit als ein Reflex auf Arbeitslosigkeit? – Makrosoziologische Befunde Einer International Vergleichenden Studie.’Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 42: 265–279.
    Boisot, Max and JohnChild. 1988. ‘The Iron Law of Fiefs: Bureaucratic Failure and the Problem of Governance in the Chinese Economic Reforms.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 33, 4 (December): 507–527.
    Bolton, Michelle K.1993. ‘Organizational Innovation and Substandard Performance: When is Necessity the Mother of Innovation?’Organization Science, 4, 1 (February): 57–75.
    Boone, Christophe, Glenn R.Carroll, and Arjen vanWitteloostuijn. 2002. ‘Resource Distributions and Market Partitioning: Dutch Daily Newspapers, 1968 to 1994.’American Sociological Review, 67, 3 (June): 408–431.
    Boone, Christophe, Woody vanOlffen, Arjen vanWitteloostuijn, and Bert DeBrabander. 2004. ‘The Genesis of Top Management Team Diversity: Selective Turnover among Top Management Teams in Dutch Newspaper Publishing: 1970–94,’Academy of Management Journal, 47, 5 (October): 633–656.
    Botti, Hope Finney. 1995. ‘Misunderstandings: A Japanese Transplant in Italy Strives for Lean Production.’Organization, 2, 1 (February): 55–86.
    Botti, Hope Finney and GuiseppeBonazzi. 1994. ‘Asymmetric Expectations: Cross-National Coalitions in a Japanese Transplant in Italy.’ Unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Japanese Business Studies, Vancouver, Canada, January 8th.
    Boyd, Robert and PeterJ. Richerson. 1985. Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Bradach, Jeffrey L.1998. Franchise Organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Bradach, Jeffry L. and RobertG. Eccles. 1989. ‘Price, Authority, and Trust: From Ideal Types of Plural Forms.’ pp. 97–117 in Annual Review of Sociology, 15. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Breines, Wini. 1980. ‘Community and Organization: The New Left and Michels' Iron Law.’Social Problems, 27, 4 (April): 419–429.
    Brittain, Jack. 1994. ‘Density-Independent Selection and Community Evolution.’ pp. 355–378 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Brittain, Jack and John HenryFreeman. 1980. ‘Organizational Proliferation and Density Dependent Selection.’ pp. 291–338 in John R.Kimberly, Robert H.Miles, and Associates (eds), The Organizational Life Cycle. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Brittain, Jack and DouglasR. Wholey. 1988. ‘Competition and Coexistence in Organizational Communities: Population Dynamics in Electronic Components Manufacturing.’ pp. 195–222 in Glenn R.Carroll (ed.), Ecological Models of Organization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Brown, Shona L. and KathleenM. Eisenhardt. 1997. ‘The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-Paced Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting Organizations.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1 (March): 1–34.
    Bruderer, Erhard and JitendraSingh. 1996. ‘Organizational Evolution, Learning and Selection: A Genetic-Algorithm-Based Model.’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 5 (October): 1322–1349.
    Brunsson, Nils. 1985. The Irrational Organization. New York: John Wiley.
    Brush, Candida G.1992. ‘Research on Women Business Owners: Past Trends, a New Perspective, and Future Directions.’Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16, 4 (Summer): 5–30.
    Budros, Art. 1997. ‘The New Capitalism and Organizational Rationality: The Adoption of Downsizing Programs, 1979–1994.’Social Forces, 76, 1 (September): 229–249.
    Burgelman, Robert A.1983. ‘Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management: Insights from a Process Study.’Management Science, 29, 12 (December): 1349–1364.
    Burgelman, Robert A.1984. ‘Designs for Corporate Entrepreneurship in Established Firms.’California Management Review, 26, 3 (Spring): 154–166.
    Burgelman, Robert A. and BrianS. Mittman. 1994. ‘An Intraorganizational Ecological Perspective on Managerial Risk Behavior, Performance, and Survival: Individual, Organizational, and Environmental Effects.’ pp. 53–75 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Burkhardt, Marlene E. and DanielJ. Brass. 1990. ‘Changing Patterns or Patterns of Change: The Effects of a Change in Technology on Social Network Structure and Power.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 1 (March): 104–127.
    Burns, Lawton R. and DougR. Wholey. 1993. ‘Adoption and Abandonment of Matrix Management: Effects of Organizational Characteristics and Interorganizational Networks.’Academy of Management Journal, 36, 1 (February): 106–138.
    Burns, Tom R. and ThomasDietz. 1992. ‘Cultural Evolution: Social Role Systems, Selection, and Human Agency.’International Sociology, 7, 3 (September): 259–284.
    Burrell, Gibson. 1988. ‘Modernism, Post Modernism and Organizational Analysis 2: The Contribution of Michel Foucault.’Organization Studies, 9, 2 (March-April): 221–235.
    Burris, Val. 1987. ‘The Political Partisanship of American Business: A Study of Corporate Political Action Committees.’American Sociological Review, 52, 6 (December): 732–744.
    Burt, Ronald S.1982. Toward a Structural Theory of Action. New York: Academic Press.
    Burt, Ronald S.1983. Corporate Profits and Cooptation: Networks of Market Constraints and Directorate Ties in the American Economy. New York: Academic Press.
    Burt, Ronald S.1992. Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Burton, M. Diane. 1995. The Emergence and Evolution of Employment Systems in High Technology Firms. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
    Burton, M. Diane, Jesper B.Sorensen, and ChristineBeckman. 2002. ‘Coming from Good Stock: Career Histories and New Venture Formation.’Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 19: 229–262.
    Busenitz, Lowell W. and JayB. Barney. 1997. ‘Differences Between Entrepreneurs and Managers in Large Organizations: Biases and Heuristics in Strategic Decision-Making.’Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 1 (January): 9–30.
    Butler, John Sibley. 1991. Entrepreneurship and Self-Help Among Black Americans. New York: SUNY Press.
    Buxton, James. 1994. ‘Raising the Birthrate.’Financial Times, November 22.
    Buzzanell, Patrice M.1995. ‘Reframing the Glass Ceiling as a Socially Constructed Process: Implications for Understanding and Change.’Communication Monographs, 62, 4 (December): 327–354.
    Calâs, Marta. 1993. ‘Deconstructing ‘Charismatic Leadership’: Re-Reading Weber from the Darker Side.’Leadership Quarterly, 4, 3/4: 305–328.
    Campbell, Donald T.1969. ‘Variation and Selective Retention in Socio-Cultural Evolution.’General Systems, 14: 69–85.
    Campbell, Donald T.1982. ‘The “Blind-Variation-and-Selective-Retention” Theme.’ In J.M.Broughton and D.J.Freeman-Moir (eds), The Cognitive-Developmental Psychology of James Mark Baldwin: Current Theory and Research in Genetic Epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
    Campbell, Donald T.1994. ‘How Individual and Face-to-Face-Group Selection Undermine Firm Selection in Organizational Evolution.’ pp. 23–38 in Joel A. C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Campbell, Karen E.1988. ‘Gender Differences in Job-Related Networks.’Work and Occupations, 15, 2 (May): 179–200.
    Campion, Michael A., Gina J.Medsker, and A. CatherineHiggs. 1993. ‘Relations Between Work Group Characteristics and Effectiveness: Implications for Designing Effective Work Groups.’Personnel Psychology, 46, 4 (Winter): 823–850.
    Cannella, Albert A., Jr. and MichaelLubatkin. 1993. ‘Succession as a Sociopolitical Process: Internal Impediments to Outsider Selection.’Academy of Management Journal, 36, 4 (August): 763–793.
    Cannella, Albert and WeiShen. 2001. ‘So Close and Yet So Far: Promotion versus Exit for CEO Heirs Apparent.’Academy of Management Journal, 44, 2 (April): 252–270.
    Cappelli, Peter, LaurieBassi, HarryKatz, DavidKnoke, PaulOsterman, and MichaelUseem. 1997. Change at Work. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Carland, James W., FrankHoy, W.R.Boulton, and Jo Ann C.Carland.1984. ‘Differentiating Entrepreneurs from Small Business Owners: A Conceptualization.’Academy of Management Review, 9, 2 (April): 354–359.
    Carley, Kathleen. 1991. ‘A Theory of Group Stability.’American Sociological Review, 56, 3 (June): 331–354.
    Caronna, Carol and W. RichardScott. 1999. ‘Field and Organizational Governance Structures: The Case of Kaiser Permanente and the U.S. Healthcare Field.’ pp. 68–86 in D.Brock, M.Powell, and C.R.Hinings (eds.), Restructuring the Professional Organization: Accounting, Health and Law. London: Routledge Press.
    Carpenter, Daniel P.2002. ‘Groups, the Media, Agency Waiting Costs, and FDA Drug Approval.’American Journal of Political Science, 46, 3 (July): 490–505.
    Carroll, Glenn R.1985. ‘Concentration and Specialization: Dynamics of Niche Width in Populations of Organizations.’American Journal of Sociology, 90, 6 (May): 1262–1283.
    Carroll, Glenn R.1993. ‘Sociological View on Why Firms Differ.’Strategic Management Journal, 14, 4 (May): 237–249.
    Carroll, Glenn R., JacquesDelacroix, and JerryGoodstein. 1988. ‘The Political Environment of Organizations: An Ecological View.’ pp. 359–392 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 10. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and MichaelT. Hannan. 1989. ‘Density Delay and the Evolution of Organizational Populations: A Model and Five Empirical Tests.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 3 (September): 411–430.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and MichaelT. Hannan. 1995. ‘Automobile Manufacturers.’ pp. 195–214 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and MichaelT. Hannan. 2000. The Demography of Corporations and Industries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and J. RichardHarrison. 1994. ‘On the Historical Efficiency of Competition between Organizational Populations.’American Journal of Sociology, 100, 3 (November): 720–749.
    Carroll, Glenn R., Heather A.Haveman, and AnandSwaminathan. 1992. ‘Careers in Organizations: An Ecological Perspective.’ pp. 112–144 in DavidFeatherman, RichardLerner, and MarionPerlmutter (eds), Life-Span Development and Behavior, 11. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and Yangchung PaulHuo. 1986. ‘Organizational Task and Institutional Environments in Ecological Perspective: Findings from the Local Newspaper Industry.’American Journal of Sociology, 91, 4 (January): 838–873.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and Karl UlrichMayer. 1986. ‘Job-Shift Patterns in the Federal Republic of Germany: The Effects of Social Class, Industrial Sector, and Organizational Size.’American Sociological Review, 51, 3 (June): 323–341.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and ElaineMosakowski. 1987. ‘The Career Dynamics of Self-Employment.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 4 (December): 570–589.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and AnandSwaminathan. 1992. ‘The Organizational Ecology of Strategic Groups in the American Brewing Industry from 1975 to 1990.’Industrial and Corporate Changes, 1, 1: 65–97.
    Carroll, Glenn R. and James B.Wade1991. ‘Density Dependence in the Organizational Evolution of the American Brewing Industry Across Different Levels of Analysis.’Social Science Research, 20, 3: 271–302.
    Carter, Nancy M.1994. ‘Reducing Barriers Between Genders: Differences in New Firm Start-Ups.’ Center for the Study of Entrepreneurship, Marquette University. Milwaukee, WI. Unpublished paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX.
    Carter, Nancy M., William B.Gartner, and PaulD. Reynolds. 1996. ‘Exploring Startup Sequences.’Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 3, (May): 151–166.
    Carter, Nancy M., William B.Gartner, and PaulD. Reynolds. 2004. ‘Firm Founding.’ pp. 311–323 in WilliamGartner, KellyShaver, NancyCarter, and PaulReynolds (eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business Creation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cartwright, Dorwin and FrankHarary. 1956. ‘Structural Balance: A Generalization of Heider's Theory.’Psychological Review, 63: 277–93.
    Casciaro, Tiziana and MikolajJ. Piskorski. 2005. ‘Power Imbalance, Mutual Dependence, and Constraint Absorption: Resource Dependence Theory Revisited.’Administrative Science Quarterly, forthcoming.
    Caves, Richard E. and MichaelE. Porter. 1977. ‘From Entry Barriers to Mobility Barriers.’Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91, 2 (May): 241–261.
    Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. 1962. Strategy and Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. 1977. The Visible Hand. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Charles, Maria and DavidB. Grusky. 2004. Occupational Ghettos: The Worldwide Segregation of Women and Men. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Cheng, Man Tsun. 1991. ‘The Japanese Permanent Employment System.’Work and Occupations, 18, 2 (May): 148–171.
    Chi, Michelene T.H., RobertGlaser, and MarshallJ. Farr. 1988. The Nature of Expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Child, John. 1972. ‘Organization Structure, Environment, and Performance – The Role of Strategic Choice.’Sociology, 6, 1 (January): 1–22.
    Child, John. 1973. ‘Predicting and Understanding Organization Structure.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 18, 2 (June): 168–185.
    Christensen, Soren and JanMolin. 1995. ‘Origin and Transformation of Organizations: Institutional Analysis of the Danish Red Cross.’ pp. 67–90 in W. RichardScott and SorenChristensen (eds), The Institutional Construction of Organizations: International and Longitudinal Studies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Chura, Hillary. 1995. ‘Computer Software Visionary Makes Millions.’Raleigh News & Observer, September 17, 4F.
    Clark, Burton. 1956. ‘Organizational Adaptation and Precarious Values.’American Sociological Review, 21, 3 (June): 327–336.
    Clark, Burton. 1970. The Distinctive College: Antioch, Reed, and Swarthmore. Chicago: Aldine.
    Clark, Burton. 1972. ‘The Organizational Saga in Higher Education.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 2 (June): 178–184.
    Clark, Peter B. and JamesQ. Wilson. 1961. ‘Incentive Systems: A Theory of Organizations.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 6, 3 (September): 129–166.
    Clegg, Stewart. 1989. ‘Radical Revisions: Power, Discipline and Organizations.’Organization Studies, 10, 1: 97–115.
    Clegg, Stewart R. and CynthiaHardy. 1996. ‘Organizations, Organization and Organizing.’ pp. 1–28 in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy, and WalterNord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.
    Clemens, Elisabeth S.1993. ‘Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890–1920.’American Journal of Sociology, 98, 4 (July): 755–798.
    Clemens, Elisabeth S.1997. The People's Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest Group Politics in the United States, 1890–1925. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cody, Martin L., and JaredM. Diamond. 1975. Ecology and the Evolution of Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Cohen, Michael D. and PaulBacdayan. 1994. ‘Organizational Routines are Stored as Procedural Memory: Evidence from a Laboratory Study.’Organization Science, 5, 4 (November): 554–568.
    Cohen, Michael D. and LeeS. Sproull. 1991. ‘Editors' Introduction: Special Issue on Organizational Learning.’Organization Science, 2, 1 (February): i–ii.
    Cohen, Wesley M. and DanielA. Levinthal. 1990. ‘Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 1 (March): 128–152.
    Cole, Robert E.1985. ‘The Macropolitics of Organizational Change: A Comparative Analysis of the Spread of Small-Group Activities.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 4 (December): 560–585.
    Coleman, Donald C.1987. ‘The Uses and Abuses of Business History.’Business History, 39 (April): 141–156.
    Coleman, James S.1957. Community Conflict. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Coleman, James S.1974. Power and the Structure of Society. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Collins, Randall. 1979. The Credential Society. New York: Academic Press.
    Collins, Randall. 1997. ‘An Asian Route to Capitalism: Religious Economy and the Origins of Self-Transforming Growth in Japan,’American Sociological Review, 62, 6 (December): 843–865.
    Contacts Target Marketing Group. 1994. Market Planner. Vancouver, Canada: Contacts Target Marketing Group.
    Cooper, Arnold C. and DanSchendel. 1976. ‘Strategic Responses to Technological Threats.’Business Horizons, 19, 1 (February): 61–69.
    Corning, Peter A.1974. ‘Politics and the Evolutionary Process.’Evolutionary Biology, 7: 253–294.
    Cortada, James W.1993. Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, and Remington Rand and the Industry They Created, 1865–1956. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Coser, Lewis. 1974. Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment. New York: Free Press.
    Crozier, Michel. 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Cullen, John B., Kenneth S.Anderson, and DouglasB. Baker. 1986. ‘Blau's Theory of Structural Differentiation Revisited: A Theory of Structural Change or Scale?’Academy of Management Journal, 29, 2 (June): 203–229.
    Curtis, James E., Edward G.Grabb, and DouglasE. Baer. 1992. ‘Voluntary Association Membership in Fifteen Countries: A Comparative Analysis.’American Sociological Review, 57, 2 (April): 139–152.
    Cyert, Richard M. and JamesG. March. 1963. The Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Czarniawska, Barbara. 1997. Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dacin, M. Tina. 1997. ‘Isomorphism in Context: The Power and Prescription of Institutional Norms.’Academy of Management Journal, 40, 1 (February): 46–81.
    Damanpour, Fariborz. 1988. ‘Innovation Type, Radicalness, and the Adoption Process.’Communication Research, 15, 5 (October): 545–567.
    Darr, Eric L., LindaArgote, and DennisEpple. 1995. ‘The Acquisition, Transfer, and Depreciation of Knowledge in Service Organizations: Productivity in Franchises.’Management Science, 41, 11 (November): 1750–1762.
    David, Paul A.1985. ‘Clio and the Economics of QWERTY.’American Economic Review, 75, 2 (May): 332–337.
    David, Paul A. and ShaneGreenstein. 1990. ‘The Economics of Compatibility Standards: An Introduction to Recent Research.’Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1: 3–42.
    David, Robert J. and Shin-Kap, Han2004. ‘A Systematic Assessment of the Empirical Support for Transaction Cost Economics.’Strategic Management Journal, 25, 1 (January): 39–58.
    Davidsson, Per. 1995. ‘Culture, Structure, and Regional Levels of Entrepreneurship,’Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 7, 1: 41–62.
    Davis, Amy E. and HowardE. Aldrich. 2004. ‘Work Participation History.’ pp 115–128 in WilliamGartner, KellyShaver, NancyCarter, and PaulReynolds (eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business Creation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Davis, Amy E., LindaRenzulli, and HowardE. Aldrich. Forthcoming. ‘Mixing or Matching? The Influence of Voluntary Associations on the Occupational Diversity and Density of Business Owners' Networks,’Work and Occupations.
    Davis, Gerald F.1991. ‘Agents Without Principles? The Spread of the Poison Pill Through the Intercorporate Network.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 4 (December): 583–613.
    Davis, Gerald F.1994. ‘The Interlock Network as a Self-Reproducing Social Structure.’ Unpublished paper, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
    Davis, Gerald F., Kristina A.Diekmann, and CatherineH. Tinsley. 1994. ‘The Deinstitutionalization of Conglomerate Firms in the 1980s.’American Sociological Review, 59, 4 (August): 547–570.
    Davis, Gerald F., MinaYoo, and WayneE. Baker. 2003. ‘The Small World of the American Corporate Elite, 1982–2001.’Strategic Organization, 1, 3 (August): 301–326.
    Davis, James A.1963. ‘Structural Balance, Mechanical Solidarity, and Interpersonal Relations.’American Journal of Sociology, 68, 4 (January): 444–62.
    Dawkins, Richard. 1986. The Blind Watchmaker. New York: Norton.
    Deeds, David L., Paul Y.Mang, and MichaelL. Frandsen. 2004. ‘The Influence of Firms' and Industries' Legitimacy on the Flow of Capital into High-Technology Ventures.’Strategic Organization, 2, 1 (February): 9–34.
    Dees, J. Gregory and JenniferA. Starr. 1992. ‘Entrepreneurship Through an Ethical Lens: Dilemmas and Issues for Research and Practice.’ pp. 89–116 in Donald L.Sexton and John D.Kasarda (eds), The State of the Art of Entrepreneurship. Boston: PWS-Kent.
    Delacroix, Jacques and GlennR. Carroll. 1983. ‘Organizational Foundings: An Ecological Study of the Newspaper Industries of Argentina and Ireland.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 2 (June): 274–291.
    Delacroix, Jacques and M.V. HayagreevaRao. 1994. ‘Externalities and Ecological Theory: Unbundling Density Dependence.’ pp. 255–268 in Jitendra V.Singh and Joel A. C.Baum (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Delacroix, Jacques and MichaelSolt. 1988. ‘Niche Formation and Foundings in the California Wine Industry, 1941–1984.’ pp. 53–68 in Glenn R.Carroll (ed.), Ecological Models of Organization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Delacroix, Jacques and AnandSwaminathan. 1991. ‘Cosmetic, Speculative, and Adaptive Organizational Change in the Wine Industry: a Longitudinal Study.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 4 (December): 631–661.
    Delacroix, Jacques, AnandSwaminathan, and MichaelE. Solt. 1989. ‘Density Dependence Versus Population Dynamics: An Ecological Study of Failings in the California Wine Industry.’American Sociological Review, 54, 2 (April): 245–262.
    Delaney, Kevin J.1992. Strategic Bankruptcy: How Corporations and Creditors use Chapter 11 to their Advantage. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    De Meza, David and CliveSouthey. 1996. ‘The Borrower's Curse: Optimism, Finance, and Entrepreneurship.’The Economic Journal, 106 (March): 375–386.
    DeNardo, James. 1985. Power in Numbers: The Political Strategy of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Dennett, Daniel C.1995. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. London: Penguin Books.
    Denrell, Jerker C.2003. ‘Vicarious Learning, Undersampling of Failure, and the Myths of Management.’Organization Science, 14, 3 (May/June): 277–243.
    Denrell, Jerker C. and JamesG. March. 2001. ‘Adaptation as Information Restriction: The Hot Stove Effect.’Organization Science, 12, 5 (September): 523–538.
    DiMaggio, Paul J.1986. ‘Structural Analysis of Organizational Fields: A Blockmodel Approach.’ pp. 335–370 in B.Staw and L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.
    DiMaggio, Paul J.1988. ‘Interest and Agency in Institutional Theory.’ pp. 3–21 in Lynne G.Zucker (ed.), Institutional Patterns and Organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    DiMaggio, Paul J.1991. ‘Constructing an Organizational Field as a Professional Project: U.S. Art Museums, 1920–1940.’ pp. 267–292 in Walter W.Powell and Paul J.DiMaggio (eds), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    DiMaggio, Paul J.1994. ‘The Challenge of Community Evolution.’ pp. 444–450 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    DiMaggio, Paul J.1997. ‘Culture and Cognition.’ pp. 263–287 in Annual Review of Sociology23. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    DiMaggio, Paul (ed). 2001. The Twenty-First Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and WalterW. Powell. 1983. ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.’American Sociological Review, 48, 2 (April): 147–160.
    DiMaggio, Paul J. and WalterW. Powell. 1991. ‘Introduction.’ pp. 1–40 in Walter W.Powell and Paul J.DiMaggio (eds), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dobbin, Frank. 1994. Forging Industrial Policy: The United States, Britain, and France in the Railway Age. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Dobbin, Frank and TimothyJ. Dowd. 1997. ‘How Policy Shapes Competition: Early Railroad Foundings in Massachusetts.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 3 (September): 501–529.
    Dobbin, Frank and JohnR. Sutton. 1998. ‘The Strength of a Weak State: The Rights Revolution and the Rise of Human Resources Management Divisions.’American Journal of Sociology, 104, 2 (September): 441–476.
    Dobbin, Frank, JohnSutton, JohnMeyer, and W. RichardScott. 1993. ‘Equal Opportunity Law and the Construction of Internal Labor Markets.’American Journal of Sociology, 99: 396–427.
    Dobrev, Stanislav D. and WilliamP. Barnett. 2005. ‘Organizational Roles and Transition to Entrepreneurship.’Academy of Management Journal, 48, 3 (June): 433–449.
    Dobrev, Stanislav D., Tai-YoungKim, and GlennR. Carroll. 2002. ‘The Evolution of Organizational Niches: U.S. Automobile Manufacturers, 1885–1981.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 2 (June): 233–264.
    Dodge, H. Robert, SamFullerton, and JohnE. Robbins. 1994. ‘Stage of the Organizational Life Cycle and Competition as Mediators of Problem Perception for Small Businesses.’Strategic Management Journal, 15, 2 (February): 121–134.
    Donaldson, Lex. 1995. American Anti-Management Theories of Organization: A Critique of Paradigm Proliferation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dosi, Giovanni. 1988. ‘Sources, Procedures, and Microeconomic Effects of Innovation.’Journal of Economic Literature, 26, 4 (December): 1120–1171.
    Dow, Gregory K.1988. ‘Configurational and Coactivational Views of Organizational Structure.’Academy of Management Review, 13, 1 (January): 53–64.
    Drake, St. Clair, and HoraceR. Cayton. 1945. Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. New York: Harper & Row.
    Draper, Elaine A.1991. Risky Business: Genetic Testing and Exclusionary Practices in the Hazardous Workplace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Duncan, Joseph W. and DouglasP. Handler. 1994. ‘The Misunderstood Role of Small Business.’Business Economics, 29, 3 (July): 1–6.
    Duneier, Mitchell. 1999. Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Dunne, Timothy, Mark J.Roberts, and LarrySamuelson. 1988. ‘Patterns of Firm Entry and Exit in U.S. Manufacturing Industries.’Rand Journal of Economics, 19, 4 (Winter): 495–515.
    Dyck, Bruno. 1997. ‘Exploring Organizational Family Trees: A Multigenerational Approach for Studying Organizational Births.’Journal of Management Inquiry, 6, 3 (September): 222–233.
    Edelman, Lauren B.1990. ‘Legal Environments and Organizational Governance: The Expansion of Due Process in the American Workplace.’American Journal of Sociology, 95, 6 (May): 1401–1440.
    Edelman, Lauren B.1992. ‘Legal Ambiguity and Symbolic Structures: Organizational Mediation of Civil Rights Law.’American Journal of Sociology, 97, 6 (May): 1531–1576.
    Edelman, Lauren B. and MarkC. Suchman. 1997. ‘The Legal Environment of Organizations.’ pp. 479–515 in Annual Review of Sociology, 23. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Edwards, Bob and SamMarullo. 1995. ‘Organizational Mortality in a Declining Social Movement: The Demise of Peace Movement Organizations in the End of the Cold War.’American Sociological Review, 60, 6 (December): 908–927.
    Edwards, Clive T. and RodSamimi. 1997. ‘Japanese Interfirm Networks: Exploring the Seminal Sources of Their Success.’Journal of Management Studies, 34, 4 (July): 489–510.
    Edwards, Richards. 1979. Contested Terrain. New York: Basic Books.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.1989a. ‘Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review.’Academy of Management Review, 14, 1 (January): 57–74.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.1989b. ‘Making Fast Strategic Decisions in High-Velocity Environments.’Academy of Management Journal, 32, 3 (September): 543–576.
    Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. and Claudia BirdSchoonhoven. 1990. ‘Organizational Growth: Linking Founding Team, Strategy, Environment, and Growth Among U.S. Semiconductor Ventures, 1978–1988.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 3 (September): 504–529.
    Ekeh, Peter. 1974. Social Exchange Theory: The Two Traditions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Elder, Glen H., Jr. 1969. ‘Appearance and Education in Marriage Mobility.’American Sociological Review, 34, 4 (August): 519–533.
    Elder, Glen H., Jr. 1999. Children of the Great Depression: Social Change in Life Experiences. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (originally published in 1974).
    Elder, Glen H. and AngelaM. O'Rand. 1995. ‘Adult Lives in a Changing Society.’ pp. 452–475 in Karen S.Cook, Gary AlanFine, and James S.House (eds), Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Ellison, Glenn and EdwardGlaeser. 1997. ‘Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach.’Journal of Political Economy, 105, 5 (October): 889–927.
    Emerson, Richard M.1962. ‘Power-Dependence Relations.’American Sociological Review, 27, 1 (February): 31–40.
    Emerson, Richard M.1972. ‘Exchange Theory, Part I: A Psychological Basis for Social Exchange,’ and ‘Exchange Theory, Part II: Exchange Relations, Exchange Networks, and Groups as Exchange Systems.’ In JosephBerger et al. (eds), Sociological Theories in Progress, Vol. II. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Emery, Fred E. and EricL. Trist. 1965. ‘The Casual Texture of Organizational Environments.’Human Relations, 18: 21–32.
    Emirbayer, Mustafa and AnnMische. 1998. ‘What is Agency?’American Journal of Sociology, 103, 4 (January): 962–1023.
    Ensel, Walter M.1979. Sex, Social Ties, and Status Attainment. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Albany.
    ENSR. 2004. The European Observatory for SMEs: Highlights from the 2003 Observatory. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
    Espeland, Wendy Nelson and PaulM. Hirsch. 1990. ‘Ownership Changes Accounting Practice and the Redefinition of the Corporation.’Accounting, Organizations, and Society, 15, 1: 77–96.
    Feagin, Joe R. and NikitahImani. 1994. ‘Racial Barriers to African American Entrepreneurship: An Exploratory Study.’Social Problems, 41, 4 (November): 562–584.
    Feldman, Martha S. and BrianT. Pentland. 2003. ‘Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a Source of Flexibility and Change.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 1 (December): 94–118.
    Fernandez, Roberto M.1997. ‘Spatial Mismatch: Housing, Transportation and Employment in Regional Perspective.’ In B.Weisbrod and J.Worthy (eds.), The Urban Crisis: Linking Research to Action. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Fernandez, Roberto M. and NancyWeinberg. 1997. ‘Sifting and Sorting: Personal Contacts and Hiring in a Retail Bank.’American Sociological Review, 62, 6 (December): 883–902.
    Fichman, Mark and DanielA. Levinthal. 1991. ‘Honeymoons and the Liability of Adolescence: A New Perspective on Duration Dependence in Social and Organizational Relationships.’Academy of Management Review, 16, 2 (April): 442–468.
    Fiet, James O.2002. The Systematic Search for Entrepreneurial Discoveries. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
    Fine, Gary. 1984. ‘Negotiated Order and Organizational Cultures.’ pp. 239–262 in Annual Review of Sociology, 10. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Fiol, C. Marlene. 1991. ‘Managing Culture as a Competitive Resource: An Identity-Based View of Sustainable Competitive Advantage.’Journal of Management, 17, 1 (March): 191–211.
    Fiol, C. Marlene, DrewHarris, and RobertHouse. 1999. ‘Charismatic Leadership: Strategies for Effecting Social Change.’Leadership Quarterly, 10, 3 (Autumn): 449–482.
    Fischer, Claude S.1982. To Dwell Among Friends. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Fischer, Harald and TimothyPollock. 2004. ‘Effects of Social Capital and Power on Surviving Transformational Change: The Case of Initial Public Offerings.’Academy of Management Journal, 47: 463–481.
    Fisher, Walter R.1985. ‘The Narrative Paradigm: An Elaboration.’Communication Monographs, 52: 347–367.
    Fiske, Susan T. and ShelleyE. Taylor. 1991. Social Cognition (
    2nd edition
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Fligstein, Neil. 1985. ‘The Spread of the Multi-division Form Among Large Firms, 1919–1979.’American Sociological Review, 50, 3 (June): 377–391.
    Fligstein, Neil. 1990. The Transformation of Corporate Control. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
    Fligstein, Neil. 1996. ‘Markets as Politics: A Political-Cultural Approach to Market Institutions.’American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1 (July): 1–33.
    Fligstein, Neil, and PeterBrantley. 1992. ‘Bank Control, Owner Control, or Organizational Dynamics: Who Controls the Large Modern Corporation?’American Journal of Sociology, 98, 2 (September): 280–307.
    Fligstein, Neil and RobertFreeland. 1995. ‘Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives on Corporate Organizations.’ pp. 21–43 in Annual Review of Sociology, 21. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Fligstein, Neil and AlecS. Sweet. 2002. ‘Constructing Polities and Markets: An Institutionalist Account of European Integration.’American Journal of Sociology, 107, 5 (March): 1206–1243.
    Florida, Richard and MartinKenney. 1991. ‘The Transfer of Japanese Industrial Organization to the U.S.’American Sociological Review, 56, 3 (June): 381–398.
    Freear, J., J.E.Sohl, and WilliamE. Wetzel. 1995. ‘Who Bankrolls Software Entrepreneurs?’Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference, London, UK: April 9–13.
    Freeborn, Donald and ClydePope. 1994. Promise and Performance in Managed Care. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.
    Freeland, Robert F.2001. The Struggle for Control of the Modern Corporation: Organizational Change at General Motors, 1924–1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Freeman, John H.1983. ‘Entrepreneurs as Organizational Products: Semiconductor Firms and Venture Capital Firms.’ pp. 33–52 in Gary D.Libecap (ed.), Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth, Vol. 1. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Friedkin, Noah. 1999. ‘Choice Shift and Group Polarization.’American Sociological Review, 64, 6 (December): 856–875.
    Frost, Peter J., Larry F.Moore, Meryl ReisLouis, Craig C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin. 1985. Organizational Culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Frost, Peter J., Larry F.Moore, Meryl ReisLouis, Craig C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin. 1991. Reframing Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Galaskiewicz, Joseph. 1979. ‘The Structure of Community Organizational Networks.’Social Forces, 57, 4 (June): 1346–1364.
    Galaskiewicz, Joseph. 1985. ‘Interorganizational Relations.’ pp. 281–304 in Annual Review of Sociology, 11. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Galvin, Tiffany L.2002. ‘Examining Institutional Change: Evidence from the Founding Dynamics of U.S. Health Care Interest Associations,’Academy of Management Journal, 45, 4 (August): 673–696.
    Ganguly, Pom. 1982. ‘Births and Deaths of Firms in the UK in 1980.’British Business (January 29-February 5): 3–4.
    Garfinkel, Harold. 1967. Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Gartner, William B.1988. ‘“Who Is an Entrepreneur?” Is the Wrong Question.’American Journal of Small Business, 12, 4 (Spring): 11–32.
    Gartner, William B.2001. ‘Is There an Elephant in Entrepreneurship? Blind Assumptions in Theory Development.’Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 25, 4 (June): 27–39.
    Gartner, William B., Kelly G.Shaver, Nancy M.Carter, and Paul D.Reynolds (eds). 2004. Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business Creation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Garud, Raghu, SanjayJain, and ArunKumaraswamy. 2002. ‘Institutional Entrepreneurship in the Sponsorship of Common Technological Standards: The Case of Sun Microsystems and Java.’Academy of Management Journal, 45, 1 (February): 196–214.
    Garvin, David A.1983. ‘Spin-Offs and the New Firm Formation Process.’California Management Review, 25, 1 (Fall): 3–20.
    Geddes, Barbara. 1990. ‘How the Cases You Choose Affect the Answers You Get: Selection Bias in Comparative Politics.’Political Analysis, 2: 131–150.
    Georgiou, Petro. 1973. ‘The Goal Paradigm and Notes Towards a Counter Paradigm.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 18, 3 (September): 291–310.
    Gerlach, Michael L.1992. Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Japanese Business. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Gersick, Connie J.G.1991. ‘Revolutionary Change Theories: A Multilevel Exploration of the Punctuated Equilibrium Paradigm.’Academy of Management Review, 16, 1 (January): 10–36.
    Gersick, Connie J.G.1994. ‘Pacing Strategic Change: The Case of a New Venture.’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1 (January): 9–45.
    Gersick, Connie J.G. and J. RichardHackman. 1990. ‘Habitual Routines in Task-Performing Groups.’Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 47, 1 (October): 65–97.
    Gherardi, Slyvia. 1994. ‘The Gender We Think, The Gender We Do In Our Everyday Organizational Lives.’Human Relations, 47, 6 (June): 591–610.
    Giddens, Anthony. 1985. The Constitution of Society. London: Macmillan.
    Gifford, Sharon. 1997. ‘Limited Attention and the Role of the Venture Capitalist.’Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 6, (November): 459–482.
    Gimeno, Javier, Timothy B.Folta, Arnold C.Cooper, and CarolynY. Woo. 1997. ‘Survival of the Fittest? Entrepreneurial Human Capital and the Persistence of Underperforming Firms.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 4 (December): 750–783.
    Ginsberg, Ari and JoelA.C. Baum. 1994. ‘Evolutionary Processes and Patterns of Core Business Change.’ pp. 127–151 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Glynn, Mary Ann, Theresa K.Lant, and FrancesJ. Milliken. 1994. ‘Mapping Learning Processes in Organizations: A Multi-Level Framework Linking Learning and Organizing.’ pp. 43–83 in Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing, Vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Goffman, Erving. 1961. Asylums. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Anchor Books.
    Goffman, Erwing. 1967. Interaction Ritual. New York: Pantheon.
    Golden-Biddle, Karen and KarenD. Locke. 1997. Composing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Gorman, Michael and WilliamA. Sahlman. 1989. ‘What Do Venture Capitalists Do?’Journal of Business Venturing, 4, 4 (July): 231–248.
    Gottfried, Heidi and LaurieGraham. 1993. “Constructing Difference: The Making of Gendered Subcultures in a Japanese Automobile Assembly Plant.’Sociology, 27, 4 (November): 611–628.
    Granovetter, Mark. 1973. ‘The Strength of Weak Ties.’American Journal of Sociology, 78, 6 (May): 1360–1380.
    Granovetter, Mark. 1985. ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness.’American Journal of Sociology, 91, 3 (November): 481–510.
    Granovetter, Mark. 1993. ‘The Nature of Economic Relationships.’ pp. 3–41 in RichardSwedberg (ed.), Explorations in Economic Sociology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Granovetter, Mark. 1995. Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers (
    2nd Edition
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Granovetter, Mark and PatrickMcGuire. 1998. ‘The Making of an Industry: Electricity in the United States.’ pp. 147–173 in MichelCallon (ed.), The Law of Markets. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Grant, Don Sherman. 1995. ‘The Political Economy of Business Failures across the American States, 1970–1985: The Impact of Reagan's New Federalism.’American Sociological Review, 60, 6 (December): 851–873.
    Gray, Virginia and DavidLowery. 1996. The Population Ecology of Interest Representation: Lobbying Communities in the American States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Greiner, Larry E.1972. ‘Evolution and Revolution as Organizations Grow.’Harvard Business Review, 76, 3 (May): 37–46.
    Greve, Henrich. 2002. ‘An Ecological Theory of Spatial Evolution: Local Density Dependence in Tokyo Banking, 1894–1936.’Social Forces, 80, 3 (March): 847–880.
    Greve, Henrich. 2003. Organizational Learning from Performance Feedback: A Behavioral Perspective on Innovation and Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Griffin, Larry J.1992. ‘Temporality, Events, and Explanation in Historical Sociology.’Sociological Methods and Research, 20, 4 (May): 403–427.
    Gulati, Ranjay and MartinGargiulo. 1999. ‘Where Do Interorganizational Networks Come From?’American Journal of Sociology, 104, 5 (March): 1439–1493.
    Guler, Isin, MauroF. Guillén, and John MuirMacpherson. 2002. ‘Global Competition, Institutions, and the Diffusion of Global Practices: The International Spread of ISO 9000 Quality Certificates.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 2 (June): 207–232.
    Gusfield, Joseph R.1963. Symbolic Crusade: Status Politics and the American Temperance Movement. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Guthrie, Doug and LouiseM. Roth. 1999. ‘The State, Courts, and Maternity Policies in U.S. Organizations: Specifying Institutional Mechanisms.’American Sociological Review, 64, 1 (February): 41–63.
    Hackman, J. Richard. 1987. ‘The Design of Work Teams.’ pp. 314–342 in Jay W.Lorsch (ed.), Handbook of Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Hafner, Katie and MatthewLyon. 1996. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Halaby, Charles N.1986. ‘Worker Attachment and Workplace Authority.’American Sociological Review, 51, 5 (October): 634–649.
    Halaby, Charles N.1988. ‘Action and Information in the Job Mobility Process: The Search Decision.’American Sociological Review, 53, 1 (February): 9–25.
    Halliday, Terrence, Michael J.Powell, and MarkW. Granfors. 1987. ‘Minimalist Organizations: Vital Events in State Bar Associations, 1870–1930.’American Sociological Review, 52, 4 (August): 456–471.
    Hamilton, Barton H.2000. ‘Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment.’Journal of Political Economy, 108, 3 (June): 604–631.
    Han, Shin-Kap. 1994. ‘Mimetic Isomorphism and Its Effect on the Audit Services Market.’Social Forces, 73, 2 (December): 637–663.
    Hannan, Michael T.1998. ‘Rethinking Age Dependence in Organizational Mortality: Logical Formalizations.’American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1 (July): 126–164.
    Hannan, Michael T. and GlennR. Carroll. 1992. Dynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Legitimation, and Competition. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hannan, Michael T. and GlennR. Carroll. 1995. ‘An Introduction to Organizational Ecology.’ pp. 17–31 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hannan, Michael T., Glenn R.Carroll, Elizabeth A.Dundon, and JohnC. Torres. 1995. ‘Organizational Evolution in a Multinational Context: Entries of Automobile Manufacturers in Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, and Italy.’American Sociological Review, 60, 4 (August): 509–528.
    Hannan, Michael T. and John HenryFreeman. 1977. ‘The Population Ecology of Organizations.’American Journal of Sociology, 82, 5 (March): 929–964.
    Hannan, Michael T. and John HenryFreeman. 1984. ‘Structural Inertia and Organizational Change.’American Sociological Review, 49, 2 (April): 149–164.
    Hannan, Michael T. and John HenryFreeman. 1986. ‘Where Do Organizational Forms Come from?’Sociological Forum, 1, 1 (March): 50–72.
    Hannan, Michael T. and John HenryFreeman. 1987. ‘The Ecology of Organizational Founding: American Labor Unions, 1836–1975.’American Journal of Sociology, 92, 4 (January): 910–943.
    Hannan, Michael T. and John HenryFreeman. 1989. Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hannan, Michael T., LaszloPólos, and GlennR. Carroll. 2003. ‘Cascading Organizational Change.’Organization Science, 14, 5 (September): 463–482.
    Hanneman, Robert. 2005. ‘Nestedness in Community Organizational Ecology.’ Working Paper, Department of Sociology, University of California-Riverside.
    Hardin, Russell. 1976. ‘Stability of Statist Regimes: Industrialization and Institutionalization.’ pp. 147–168 in T.Burns and W.Buckley (eds), Power and Control. London: Sage Publications.
    Hargadon, Andrew B. and YellowleesDouglas. 2001. ‘When Innovations Meet Institutions: Edison and the Design of the Electric Light.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 3 (September): 476–501.
    Harris, Stanley G.1994. ‘Organizational Culture and Individual Sensemaking: A Schema-Based Perspective.’Organization Science, 5, 3 (August): 309–321.
    Harrison, Bennett. 1994. ‘The Italian Industrial Districts and the Crisis of the Cooperative Form: Part I.’European Planning Studies, 2, 1: 3–22.
    Hart, Stuart and DanielR. Denison. 1987. ‘Creating New Technology-Based Organizations: A System Dynamics Model.’Policy Studies Review, 6, 3 (February): 512–528.
    Hashimoto, Masanori and JohnRaisian. 1985. ‘Employment Tenure and Earnings Profiles in Japan and the United States.’American Economic Review, 75, 4 (September): 721–735.
    Hatcher, Larry and TimothyL. Ross. 1991. ‘From Individual Incentives to an Organization-Wide Gainsharing Plan: Effects of Teamwork on Product Quality.’Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12, 3 (May): 169–183.
    Haunschild, Pamela R.1993. ‘Interorganizational Imitation: The Impact of Interlocks on Corporate Acquisition Activity.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 4 (December): 564–592.
    Haveman, Heather A.1992. ‘Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Organizational Change and Performance Under Conditions of Fundamental Environmental Transformation.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 1 (March): 48–75.
    Haveman, Heather A.1993a. ‘Organizational Size and Change: Diversification in the Savings and Loan Industry after Deregulation.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 1 (March): 20–50.
    Haveman, Heather A.1993b. ‘Ghosts of Managers Past: Managerial Succession and Organizational Mortality.’Academy of Management Journal, 36, 4 (August): 864–881.
    Haveman, Heather A.1993c. ‘Follow the Leader: Mimetic Isomorphism and Entry into New Markets.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 4 (December): 593–627.
    Haveman, Heather A.1994. ‘The Ecological Dynamics of Organizational Change: Density and Mass Dependence in Rates of Entry into New Markets.’ pp. 152–166 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Haveman, Heather A. and LisaE. Cohen. 1994. ‘The Ecological Dynamics of Careers: The Impact of Organizational Founding, Dissolution, and Merger on Job Mobility.’American Journal of Sociology, 100, 1 (July): 104–152.
    Haveman, Heather A. and HayagreevaRao. 1997. ‘Structuring a Theory of Moral Sentiments: Institutional and Organizational Coevolution in the Early Thrift Industry.’American Journal of Sociology, 102, 6 (May): 1606–1651.
    Hawley, Amos. 1950. Human Ecology. New York: Ronald.
    Hawthorn, Geoffrey. 1988. ‘Three Ironies in Trust.’ pp. 111–126 in DiegoGambetta (ed.), Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations. New York: Basil Blackwell.
    Hegtvedt, Karen A. and BarryMarkovsky. 1994. ‘Justice and Injustice.’ pp. 257–280 in KarenCook, Gary AlanFine, and James S.House (eds), Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Henderson, Rebecca. 1993. ‘Underinvestment and Incompetence as Responses to Radical Innovation: Evidence from the Photolithographic Alignment Equipment Industry,’RAND Journal of Economics, 24, 2 (Summer): 248–270.
    Henderson, Rebecca M. and KimB. Clark. 1990. ‘Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 1 (March): 9–30.
    Hermalin, Benjamin E. and MichaelS. Weisbach. 1998. ‘Endogenously Chosen Boards of Directors and Their Monitoring of the CEO.’American Economic Review, 88, 1 (March): 96–118.
    Hesterly, William S., JuliaLiebeskind, and ToddR. Zenger. 1990. ‘Organizational Economics: An Impending Revolution in Organization Theory?’Academy of Management Review, 15, 3 (July): 402–420.
    Heydebrand, Wolf V.1989. ‘New Organizational Forms.’Work and Occupations, 16, 3 (August): 323–357.
    Hilts, Philip J.1992. ‘Bush to Ease Rules on Products Made by Altering Genes.’New York Times (February 25): A1, B7.
    Hinings, C.R. and RoystonGreenwood. 2002. ‘Disconnects and Consequences in Organization Theory.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 3 (September): 411–421.
    Hirsch, Paul M., RayFriedman, and MitchellP. Koza. 1990. ‘Collaboration or Paradigm Shift? Caveat Emptor and the Risk of Romance with Economic Models for Strategy and Policy Research.’Organization Science, 1, 1: 87–97.
    Hirsch, Paul M. and MichaelLounsbury. 1997. ‘Ending the Family Quarrel: Toward a Reconciliation of ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Institutionalism.’American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 4 (February): 406–418.
    Hirschman, Albert O.1972. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hochschild, Arlie. 1983. The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Hodgson, Geoffrey M.1993. Economics and Evolution: Bringing Life Back into Economics. Cambridge, MA: Polity Press.
    Hodgson, Geoffrey M.2002. ‘The Legal Nature of the Firm and the Myth of the Firm-Market Hybrid.’International Journal of the Economics of Business, 9, 1 (February): 37–60.
    Hodgson, Geoffrey M.2004a. ‘Reclaiming Habit for Institutional Economics.’Journal of Economic Psychology, 25, 5 (October): 651–660.
    Hodgson, Geoffrey M.2004b. ‘Opportunism is Not the Only Reason Why Firms Exist: Why an Explanatory Emphasis on Opportunism may Mislead Management Strategy.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 13, 2 (April): 401–418.
    Hodgson, Geoffrey and ThorbjørnKnudsen. 2004. ‘The Firm as an Interactor: Firms as Vehicles for Habits and Routines,’Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14, 3 (July): 281–307.
    Hoffman, Andrew J.2000. Competitive Environmental Strategy: A Guide to the Changing Business Landscape. Washington, DC: Island Press.
    Horowitz, Helen Lekfowitz. 1987. Campus Life: Undergraduate Cultures from the End of the Eighteenth Century to the Present. New York: A.A. Knopf.
    Howard, Judith. 1994. ‘Social Cognition.’ pp. 90–117 in KarenCook, Gary AlanFine, and James S.House (eds), Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Howell, Jane M. and ChristopherA. Higgins. 1990. ‘Champions of Technological Innovation.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 2 (June): 317–341.
    Hsu, Greta and JoelM. Podolny. 2005. ‘Critiquing the Critics: An Approach for the Comparative Evaluation of Critical Schemas.’Social Science Research, 34, 1 (March): 189–214.
    Huber, George P.1991. ‘Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literature.’Organization Science, 2: 88–115.
    Hughes, Thomas P.1983. Networks of Power: Electrification in Western Society, 1880–1930. Baltimore, MD: Johns-Hopkins Press.
    Hull, David. 2001. Science and Selection: Essays on Biological Evolution and the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hunt, Courtney Shelton and HowardE. Aldrich. 1998. ‘The Second Ecology: The Creation and Evolution of Organizational Communities as Exemplified by the Commercialization of the World Wide Web.’ pp. 267–302 in BarryStaw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 20. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Hutchins, Edwin. 1991. ‘Organizing Work by Adaptation.’Organization Science, 2, 1 (February): 14–39.
    Hybels, Ralph C., Alan R.Ryan, and StephenR. Barley. 1994. ‘Alliances, Legitimation, and Founding Rates in the U.S. Biotechnology Field, 1971–1989.’ Unpublished paper presented at the Academy of Management meetings, Dallas, Texas.
    Hylmo, Annika and PatriceBuzzanell. 2002. ‘Telecommuting as Viewed Through Cultural Lenses: An Empirical Investigation of the Discourses of Utopia, Identity, and Mystery.’Communication Monographs, 69, 4 (December): 329–356.
    Iansiti, Marco and TarunKhanna. 1995. ‘Technological Evolution, System Architecture and the Obsolescence of Firm Capabilities.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 4, 2: 333–362.
    Ingersoll, Virginia H. and GuyB. Adams. 1992. ‘The Child Is ‘Father’ to the Manager: Images of Organizations in U.S. Children's Literature.’Organization Studies, 13, 4: 497–520.
    Ingram, Paul and JoelA.C. Baum. 1997. ‘Opportunity and Constraint: Organizations' Learning from the Operating and Competitive Experience of Industries.’Strategic Management Journal, 18 (Summer Special Issue): 75–98.;2-Y
    Ingram, Paul and HayagreevaRao. 2004. ‘Store Wars: The Enactment and Repeal of Anti-Chain-Store Legislation in America.’American Journal of Sociology, 110, 2 (September): 446–487.
    Internal Revenue Service. 2003. Corporation Income Tax Returns. A Collection of Tables, Plus the Introduction, Changes in Law and Regulations, Description of the Sample and Limitations of the Data, and the Explanation of Terms. Sections, Table 2. SOI-2000, Corporation Income Tax Returns, September 2003. URL:,id=112834,00.html. Accessed September 23, 2004.
    Isaac, Larry W. and LarryJ. Griffin. 1989. ‘Ahistoricism in Time-Series Analyses of Historical Process: Critique, Redirection, and Illustrations from U.S. Labor History.’American Sociological Review, 54, 6 (December): 873–890.
    Jacobs, Jerry A.2005. ‘ASR's Greatest Hits.’American Sociological Review, 70, 1 (February): 1–3.
    Jacobs, Jerry A. and KathleenGerson. 2004. The Time Divide: Work, Family, and Gender Inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jacoby, Sanford M.2005. The Embedded Corporation: Corporate Governance and Employment Relations in Japan and the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    James, Erika Hayes. 2000. ‘Race-Related Differences in Promotions and Support: Underlying Effects of Human and Social Capital.’Organization Science, 11, 5: 493–508.
    Jansen, Karen J.2004. ‘From Persistence to Pursuit: A Longitudinal Examination of Momentum during the Early Stages of Strategic Change.’Organization Science, 15, 3 (May-June): 276–294.
    Japan Small Business Research Institute. 1995. Japan's Small Businesses: The Challenge. Tokyo: Ministry of International Trade and Industry.
    Japan Statistics Bureau. 2001. Establishment and Enterprise Census. Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications. URL: Accessed September 7, 2004.
    Jarley, Paul, JackFiorito, and JohnT. Delaney. 1997. ‘A Structural Contingency Approach to Bureaucracy and Democracy in U.S. National Unions.’Academy of Management Journal, 40, 4 (August): 831–861.
    Johnson, Anna G. and William FooteWhyte. 1977. ‘The Mondragon System of Worker Production Cooperatives.’Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 31, 1 (October): 18–30.
    Johnson, Peter S.1986. New Firms: An Economic Perspective. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Jones, Candace, William S.Herterly, and StephenP. Borgatti. 1997. ‘A General Theory of Network Governance: Exchange Conditions and Social Mechanisms.’Academy of Management Review, 22, 4 (October): 911–945.
    Jovanovic, Boyan. 1982. ‘Selection and the Evolution of Industry.’Econometrica, 50, 3 (May): 649–670.
    Jovanovic, Boyan. 1984. ‘Matching, Turnover, and Unemployment.’Journal of Political Economy, 92, 1 (February): 108–122.
    Jurik, N.C.1998. ‘Getting Away and Getting By: The Experiences of Self-Employed Homeworkers.’Work and Occupations, 25, 1 (February): 7–35.
    Kahneman, Daniel, PaulSlovic, and AmosTversky. 1982. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Kalleberg, Arne L. and LarryJ. Griffin. 1978. ‘Positional Sources of Inequality in Job Satisfaction.’Work and Occupations, 5, 4 (November): 371–401.
    Kalleberg, Arne L., Peter V.Marsden, Howard E.Aldrich, and JamesW. Cassell. 1990. ‘Comparing Organizational Sampling Frames.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 4 (December): 658–688.
    Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F.Reskin, and KennethHudson. 2000. ‘Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.’American Sociological Review, 65: 256–278.
    Kamm, Judith B. and AaronJ. Nurick. 1993. ‘The Stages of Team Venture Formation: A Decision Making Model.’Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17, 2 (Winter): 17–27.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1972. Commitment and Community; Communes and Utopias in Sociological Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1989. When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenge of Strategy, Management, and Careers in the 1990s. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss and Barry A.Stein (eds), 1979. Life in Organizations: Workplaces as People Experience Them. New York: Basic Books.
    Kaplan, Jerry. 1994. Startup: A Silicon Valley Adventure. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Karabel, Jerome. 2005. The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission at Harvard, Yale and Princeton. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Katz, Jerome and WilliamB. Gartner. 1988. ‘Properties of Emerging Organizations.’Academy of Management Review, 13 (July): 429–441.
    Kaufman, Herbert. 1985. Time, Chance, and Organizations. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
    Kelly, Dawn. and TerryL. Amburgey. 1991. ‘Organizational Inertia and Momentum: A Dynamic Model of Strategic Change.’Academy of Management Journal, 34, 3 (September): 591–612.
    Kelly, Erin L.2003. ‘The Strange History of Employer-Sponsored Child Care: Interested Actors, Uncertainty, and the Transformation of Law in Organizational Fields.’American Journal of Sociology, 109, 3 (November): 606–649.
    Khandekar, Rajendra and JohnYoung. 1985. ‘Selecting a Legal Structure: A Strategic Decision.’Journal of Small Business Management, 23: 47–55.
    Kim, Phillip H., Howard E.Aldrich, and LisaA. Keister. 2004. ‘Access (Not) Denied: The Impact of Financial, Human Capital, and Cultural Capital on Becoming a Nascent Entrepreneur.’ Working Paper, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Kimberly, John R.1980. ‘Initiation, Innovation, and Institutionalization in the Creation Process.’ pp. 18–43 in John R.Kimberly and Robert H.Miles (eds), The Organizational Life Cycle. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kindleberger, Charles. 1996. Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises (
    3rd edition
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Kirzner, Israel M.1997. ‘Entrepreneurial Discovery and the Competitive Market Process: An Austrian Approach.’Journal of Economic Literature, 35, 1 (March): 60–85.
    Klein, Jim and MarthaOlson. 1996. Taken for a Ride (Videorecording). Hohokus, NJ: New Day Films.
    Kleinman, Sherryl. 1996. Opposing Ambitions. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Kleinman, Sherryl and MarthaCopp. 1992. Emotions and Field Work. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Klepper, Steven and ElizabethGraddy. 1990. ‘The Evolution of New Industries and the Determinants of Market Structure.’Rand Journal of Economics, 21, 1 (Spring): 27–44.
    Knoke, David. 1990. Organizing for Collective Action: The Political Economics of Voluntary Associations. Hawthorne, NY: A. De Gruyter.
    Kochan, Thomas A. and PaulOsterman. 1994. The Mutual Gains Enterprise: Forging a Winning Partnership Among Labor, Management, and Government. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Kogut, Bruce and GordonWalker. 2001. ‘The Small World of Germany and the Durability of National Networks.’American Sociological Review, 66, 3 (June): 317–335.
    Kono, Clifford, DonaldPalmer, RogerFriedland, and MatthewZafonte. 1998. ‘Lost in Space: The Geography of Corporate Interlocking Directorates.’American Journal of Sociology, 103, 4 (January): 863–911.
    Krackhardt, David and RobertStern. 1988. ‘Informal Networks and Organizational Crises: An Experimental Simulation.’Social Psychology Quarterly, 51: 123–140.
    Kramer, Roderick M. and KarenCook (eds). 2004. Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Krecker, Margaret L.1994. ‘Work Careers and Organizational Careers: the Effects of Age and Tenure on Worker Attachment to the Employment Relation.’Work and Occupations, 21, 3 (August): 251–283.
    Kreiner, Glen E. and BlakeE. Ashforth. 2004. ‘Evidence Toward an Expanded Model of Organizational Identification.’Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 1 (February): 1–27.
    Kreiner, Kristian and MajkenSchultz. 1993. ‘Informal Collaboration in R & D. The Formation of Networks Across Organizations.’Organization Studies, 14, 2 (February): 189–210.
    Kunda, Gideon. 1992. Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High Tech Corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.
    Land, Kenneth C., Walter R.Davis, and JudithR. Blau. 1994. ‘Organizing of the Boys of Summer: The Evolution of U.S. Minor-League Baseball, 1883–1990.’American Journal of Sociology, 100, 3 (November): 781–813.
    Langlois, Richard N. and PaulL. Robertson. 1989. ‘Explaining Vertical Integration: Lessons from the American Automobile Industry.’Journal of Economic History, 49, 2 (June): 361–376.
    Langton, John. 1979. ‘Darwinism and the Behavioral Theory of Sociocultural Evolution: An Analysis.’American Journal of Sociology, 85, 2 (September): 288–309.
    Langton, John. 1984. ‘The Ecological Theory of Bureaucracy: The Case of Josiah Wedgwood and the British Pottery Industry.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 3 (September): 330–354.
    Lant, Theresa K. and StephenJ. Mezias. 1990. ‘Managing Discontinuous Change: A Simulation Study of Organizational Learning and Entrepreneurship.’Strategic Management Journal, 11: 147–179.
    Larson, Andrea. 1992. ‘Network Dyads in Entrepreneurial Settings: A Study of the Governance of Exchange Processes.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 1 (March): 76–104.
    Latour, Bruno. 1993. ‘Can the Sociology of Science Contribute Anything to Organizational Sociology?’ Keynote address at the meeting of European Group on Organization Studies, Paris, France, July 8th.
    Laumann, Edward and DavidKnoke. 1987. The Organizational State: Social Change in National Policy Domains. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Lave, Jean and Etienne, Wenger1991. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Performance. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
    Lawless, Michael W. And PhilipC. Anderson. 1996. ‘Generational Technological Change: Effects of Innovation and Local Rivalry on Performance.’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 5 (October): 1185–1217.
    Lawless, Robert M. and ElizabethWarren. 2005. ‘The Myth of the Disappearing Business Bankruptcy.’California Law Review, forthcoming.
    Lawrence, Barbara S.1997. ‘The Black Box of Organizational Demography.’Organization Science, 8, 1 (January/February): 1–22.
    Lawrence, Paul R. and DavisDyer. 1983. Renewing American Industry. New York: Free Press.
    Lawrence, Paul R. and JayLorsch. 1967. Organization and Environment. Boston, MA: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.
    Lazerson, Mark H.1988. ‘Organizational Growth of Small Firms: An Outcome of Markets and Hierarchies?’American Sociological Review, 53, 3 (June): 330–342.
    Leblebici, Hussein, GeraldSalancik, AnneCopay, and TomKing. 1991. ‘Institutional Change and the Transformation of Interorganizational Fields: An Organizational History of the U.S. Radio Broadcasting Industry.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 3 (September): 333–363.
    Lerner, Miri, CandidaBrush, and RobertHisrich. 1997. ‘Israeli Women Entrepreneurs: An Examination of Factors Affecting Performance.’Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 4 (July): 315–339.
    Levie, Jonathan and MichaelHay. 1998. ‘Progress or Just Proliferation? A Historical Review of Stages Models of Early Corporate Growth.’ Unpublished paper, London Business School, London, England.
    Levine, Adeline Gordon. 1982. Love Canal: Science, Politics, and People. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Levine, Sol and PaulE. White. 1961. ‘Exchange as a Conceptual Framework for the Study of Interorganizational Relationships.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 5, 1 (March): 583–610.
    Levinthal, Daniel. 1991. ‘Organizational Adaptation and Environmental Selection – Interrelated Processes of Change.’Organization Science, 2, 1 (February): 140–145.
    Levitt, Barbara and JamesG. March. 1988. ‘Organizational Learning.’ pp. 319–340 in Annual Review of Sociology, 14. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Li, Bobai and AndrewWalder. 2001. ‘Career Advancement as Party Patronage: Sponsored Mobility into the Chinese Administrative Elite, 1949–1996.’American Journal of Sociology, 106, 5 (March): 1371–1408.
    Lichtenstein, Sara and BaruchFischhoff. 1977. ‘Do Those Who Know More Also Know More About How Much They Know?’Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 20, 2: 159–183.
    Light, Ivan. 2005. ‘The Ethnic Economy.’ pp. 650–677 in NeilSmelser and RichardSwedberg (eds). The Handbook of Economic Sociology (
    2nd Edition
    ). New York: Princeton University Press and Russell Sage Foundation.
    Light, Ivan and StevenGold. 2000. Ethnic Economies. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Lin, Nan, Walter M.Ensel, and JohnC. Vaughn. 1981. ‘Social Resources and Strength of Ties: Structural Factors in Occupational Status Attainment.’American Sociological Review, 46, 4 (August): 393–405.
    Lincoln, James R. and ArneL. Kalleberg. 1990. Culture, Control, and Commitment: A Study of Work Organizations and Work Attitudes in the United States and Japan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Lindblom, Charles Edward. 1977. Politics and Markets: The World's Political Economic Systems. New York: Basic Books.
    Link, Albert N. and LauraL. Bauer. 1989. Cooperative Research in U.S. Manufacturing: Assessing Policy Initiatives and Corporate Strategies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Lippmann, Stephen. Forthcoming. ‘Public Airwaves, Private Interests: Competing Visions and Ideological Capture in the Regulation of U.S. Broadcasting, 1920–1934.’ In HarlandPrechel (ed.), Research in Political Sociology: Politics and the Corporation, Vol. 14. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Lipset, Seymour M., Martin A.Trow, and JamesS. Coleman. 1956. Union Democracy. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Litwak, Eugene and LydiaHylton. 1962. ‘Interorganizational Analysis: A Hypothesis on Coordination.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 6, 1 (March): 395–420.
    Loasby, Brian J.1995. ‘Running a Business: An Appraisal of Economics, Organization, and Management by Paul Milgrom and John Roberts.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 4, 2: 471–489.
    Lodahl, Thomas M. and StephenM. Mitchell. 1980. ‘Drift in the Development of Innovative Organizations.’ pp. 184–207 in John R.Kimberly, Robert H.Miles, and Associates (eds), The Organizational Life Cycle. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Lohr, S.1995. ‘Telecommunications Giants' Joint Internet Security Quest.’New York Times, December 18th: C2.
    Lomi, Alessandro. 1995. ‘The Population and Community Ecology of Organizational Founding: Italian Co-operative Banks, 1936–1989.’European Sociological Review, 11, 1 (May): 75–98.
    Lomi, Alessandro and ErikR. Larsen. 1998. ‘Density Delay and Organizational Survival: Computational Models and Empirical Comparisons.’Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, 3, 4: 219–247.
    Lomi, Alessandro, Erik R.Larsen, and JohnH. Freeman. 2005. ‘Things Change: Dynamic Resource Constraints and System-Dependent Selection in the Evolution of Organizational Populations.’Management Science, 51, 6 (June): 882–903.
    Lorenzoni, Gianni and AndreaLipparini. 1999. ‘The Leveraging of Interfirm Relationships as a Distinctive Organizational Capability: A Longitudinal Study.’Strategic Management Journal, 20, 4 (April): 317–338.;2-3
    Lorenzoni, Gianni and OscarA. Ornati. 1988. ‘Constellations of Firms and New Ventures.’Journal of Business Venturing, 3, 1 (Winter): 41–58.
    Lounsbury, Michael. 2001. ‘Institutional Sources of Practice Variation: Staffing College and University Recycling Programs.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 1 (March): 29–56.
    Lounsbury, Michael and Mary AnnGlynn. 2001. ‘Cultural Entrepreneurship: Stories, Legitimacy, and the Acquisition of Resources.’Strategic Management Journal, 22, 6/7 (June/July): 545–564.
    Lowstedt, Jan. 1993. ‘Organizing Frameworks in Emerging Organizations: A Cognitive Approach to the Analysis of Change.’Human Relations, 46, 4 (April): 501–526.
    Luger, Michael and HarveyGoldstein. 1991. Technology in the Garden: Research Parks and Regional Economic Development. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    Lynn, Leonard H. and TimothyJ. McKeown. 1988. Organizing Business: Trade Associations in America and Japan. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
    March, James G.1981. ‘Footnotes to Organizational Change.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 2 (June): 563–577.
    March, James G.1991. ‘Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning.’Organization Science, 2, 1 (February): 71–87.
    March, James G.1994. ‘The Evolution of Evolution.’ pp. 39–52 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    March, James G. and JohanP. Olsen. 1976. Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.
    March, James G., MartinSchulz, and XueguangZhou. 2000. The Dynamics of Rules: Change in Written Organizational Codes. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    March, James G. and ZurShapira. 1987. ‘Managerial Perspectives on Risk and Risk Taking.’Management Science, 33: 1404–1418.
    March, James G. and H.Simon. 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Mare, Robert D.1991. ‘Five Decades of Educational Assortative Mating.’American Sociological Review, 56, 1 (February): 15–32.
    Marks, Stephen R.1977. ‘Multiple Roles and Role Strain: Some Notes on Human Energy, Time and Commitment.’American Sociological Review, 42, 6 (December): 921–936.
    Marsden, Peter V.1987. ‘Core Discussion Networks of Americans.’American Sociological Review, 52, 1 (February): 122–131.
    Marsden, Peter V.2005. ‘Informants in Establishment Surveys,’ Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Harvard University.
    Marsden, Peter V. and KarenCampbell. 1984. ‘Measuring Tie Strength.’Social Forces, 63, 2 (December): 482–501.
    Martin, Joanne. 1982. ‘Stories and Scripts in Organizational Settings.’ pp. 225–305 in H.Hastorf and A.Isen (eds), Cognitive Social Psychology. New York: Elsevier-North-Holland.
    Martin, Joanne. 2002. Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Martin, Joanne, Martha S.Feldman, Mary JoHatch, and SimB. Sitkin. 1983. ‘The Uniqueness Paradox in Organizational Stories.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 3 (September): 438–453.
    Martin, Joanne and DebraMeyerson. 1988. ‘Organizational Culture and the Denial, Channeling, and Acknowledgment of Ambiguity.’ pp. 93–125 in Louis R.Pondy, RichardBoland, Jr., and HowardThomas (eds), Managing Ambiguity and Change. London: John Wiley.
    Martin, Joanne, Sim B.Sitkin, and MichaelBoehm. 1985. ‘Founders and the Elusiveness of a Cultural Legacy.’ pp. 99–124 in Peter J.Frost, Larry F.Moore, Meryl ReisLouis, Craig C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin (eds), Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Marx, Thomas. 1976. ‘Technological Change and the Theory of the Firm: The American Locomotive Industry, 1920–1955.’Business History Review, 50, 1: 1–24.
    Massey, Doreen, PaulQuintas, and DavidWield. 1992. High Tech Fantasies: Science Parks in Society, Science and Space. London: Routledge.
    McCaffrey, David P., Sue R.Faerman, and DavidW. Hart. 1995. ‘The Appeal and Difficulties of Participative Systems.’Organization Science, 6, 6 (November-December): 603–627.
    McDonald, Peggy. 1991. ‘The Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee: Developing Organizational Culture in the Short Run.’ pp. 26–38 in P.J.Frost, L.F.Moore, M.R.Louis, C.C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin (eds), Reframing Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    McKelvey, Bill. 1982. Organizational Systematics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    McKelvey, Bill and HowardE. Aldrich. 1983. ‘Populations, Natural Selection, and Applied Organizational Science.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 1 (March): 101–128.
    McKendrick, David G. and GlennR. Carroll. 2001. ‘On the Genesis of Organizational Forms: Evidence from the Market for Disk Arrays.’Organization Science, 12, 6 (November/December): 661–682.
    McKendrick, David G., JonathonJaffee, Glenn R.Carroll, and OlgaM. Khessina. 2003. ‘In the Bud? Analysis of Disk Array Producers as a (possibly) Emergent Organizational Form.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 1 (March): 60–93.
    McKendrick, Neil. 1961. ‘Josiah Wedgwood and Factory Discipline.’The Historical Journal, 4, 1: 30–55.
    McPherson, J. Miller. 1983. ‘The Ecology of Affiliation.’American Sociological Review, 48, 4 (August): 519–532.
    McPherson, J. Miller. 1990. ‘Evolution in Communities of Voluntary Organizations.’ pp. 224–245 in Jitendra V.Singh (ed.), Organizational Evolution: New Directions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    McPherson, J. Miller, Pamela A.Popielarz, and SonjaDrobnic. 1992. ‘Social Networks and Organizational Dynamics.’American Sociological Review, 57, 2 (April): 153–170.
    McPherson, J. Miller and JamesR. Ranger-Moore. 1991. ‘Evolution on a Dancing Landscape: Organizations and Networks in Dynamic Blau Space.’Social Forces, 70, 1 (September): 19–42.
    McPherson, J. Miller and ThomasRotolo. 1996. ‘Testing a Dynamic Model of Social Composition: Diversity and Change in Voluntary Groups.’American Sociological Review, 61, 2 (April): 179–202.
    McPherson, J. Miller and LynnSmith-Lovin. 1987. ‘Homophily in Voluntary Organizations: Status Distance and the Composition of Face to Face Groups.’American Sociological Review, 52, 3 (June): 370–379.
    McPherson, J. Miller, LynnSmith-Lovin, and JamesCook. 2001. ‘Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks.’ pp. 415–444 in Annual Review of Sociology, 27. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Meadows, Paul. 1967. ‘The Metaphors of Order: Toward a Taxonomy of Organization Theory.’ pp. 77–103 in LlewellynGross (ed.), Sociological Theory: Inquiries and Paradigms. New York: Harper & Row.
    Melbin, Murray. 1987. Night as Frontier: Colonizing the World After Dark. New York: Free Press.
    Merton, Robert K.1957. Social Theory and Social Structure. London: The Free Press of Glencoe.
    Meyer, Alan. 1982. ‘Adapting to Environmental Jolts.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, 4 (December): 515–537.
    Meyer, John W.1994. ‘Rationalized Environments.’ pp. 28–54 in W. RichardScott and John W.Meyer (eds), Institutional Environments and Organizations: Structural Complexity and Individualism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Meyer, John W., JohnBoli, and GeorgeM. Thomas. 1987. ‘Ontology and Rationalization in the Western Cultural Account.’ pp. 12–37 in G.M.Thomas, John W.Meyer, Franciso O.Ramirez, and J.Boli (eds), Institutional Structure: Constituting State, Society, and the Individual. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyer, John W. and BrianRowan. 1977. ‘Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.’American Journal of Sociology, 83, 2 (September): 340–363.
    Meyer, John W. and W. RichardScott. (eds) 1983. Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Meyer, Marshall W. and LynneG. Zucker. 1989. Permanently Failing Organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyerhoefer, W.1982. ‘Hemmnisse und Hilfen für Existenz- und Unternehmens-gründungen aus der Sicht Privater und Gewerblicher Gründer.’IFO Studien zu Handels und Dienstleistungsfragen, 21. München: IFO-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung e. V. München.
    Meyerson, Debra E.1990. ‘Uncovering Socially Undesirable Emotions: Experiences of Ambiguity in Organizations.’American Behavioral Scientist, 33, 3 (January): 296–307.
    Meyerson, Debra E.1991a. ‘“Normal” Ambiguity? A Glimpse of an Occupational Culture.’ pp. 131–144 in Peter J.Frost, Larry F.Moore, Meryl ReisLouis, Craig C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin (eds), Reframing Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyerson, Debra E.1991b. ‘Acknowledging and Uncovering Ambiguities in Cultures.’ pp. 254–270 in P.J.Frost, L.F.Moore, M.R.Louis, C.C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin (eds), Reframing Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Meyerson, Debra E. and JoanneMartin. 1987. ‘Cultural Change: An Integration of Three Different Views.’Journal of Management Studies, 24, 6 (November): 623–647.
    Meyerson, Debra E. and MaureenA. Scully. 1995. ‘Tempered Radicalism and the Politics of Ambivalence and Change.’Organization Science, 6, 5 (September): 585–600.
    Mezias, Stephen J. and Mary AnnGlynn. 1993. ‘The Three Faces of Renewal: Institution, Revolution, and Evolution.’Strategic Management Journal, 14, 2 (February): 77–101.
    Michels, Robert. 1962. Political Parties. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Miller, C. Chet and LauraB. Cardinal. 1994. ‘Strategic Planning and Firm Performance: A Synthesis of More than Two Decades of Research.’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 6 (December): 1649–1665.
    Milliken, Frances J. and TheresaK. Lant. 1991. ‘The Effect of an Organization's Recent Performance History on Strategic Persistence and Change: The Role of Managerial Interpretations.’ pp. 125–152 in PaulShrivastava, AnnHuff, and JaneDutton (eds), Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 7. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Mindlin, Sergio and HowardE. Aldrich. 1975. ‘Interorganizational Dependence: A Review of the Concept and a Re-examination of the Findings of the Aston Group.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 20, 3 (September): 382–392.
    Miner, Anne S.1987. ‘Idiosyncratic Jobs in Formalized Organizations.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 3 (September): 327–351.
    Miner, Anne S.1991. ‘The Social Ecology of Jobs.’American Sociological Review, 56, 6 (December): 772–785.
    Miner, Anne S.1992. ‘Structural Evolution Through Idiosyncratic Jobs: The Potential for Unplanned Learning.’Organization Science, 1, 2: 195–210.
    Miner, Anne S.1993. ‘Review ofDynamics of Organizational Populations: Density, Competition, and Legitimation.’ Academy of Management Review, 18, 2 (April): 355–367.
    Miner, Anne S.1994. ‘Seeking Adaptive Advantage: Evolutionary Theory and Managerial Action.’ pp. 76–89 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Miner, Anne S., Terry L.Amburgey, and TimothyM. Stearns. 1990. ‘Interorganizational Linkages and Population Dynamics: Buffering and Transformational Shields.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 4 (December): 689–713.
    Miner, Anne S. and SuzanneE. Estler. 1985. ‘Accrual Mobility: Job Mobility in Higher Education Through Responsibility Accrual.’Journal of Higher Education, 56, 2 (March/April): 121–143.
    Miner, Anne S. and PamelaR. Haunschild. 1995. ‘Population Level Learning.’ pp. 115–166 in BarryStaw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Miner, Anne S. and StephenJ. Mezias. 1996. ‘Ugly Duckling No More: Pasts and Futures of Organizational Learning Research.’Organization Science, 7, 1 (January-February): 88–99.
    Miner, Anne S., Sri V.Raghavan, and PamelaS. Haunschild. 1999. ‘Models of Imitation and the Convergence of Routines in a Population.’ In Joel A.C.Baum and BillMcKelvey (eds), Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Minkoff, Debra C.1994. ‘The Institutional Structuring of Organized Social Action, 1955–1985.’ pp. 135–171 in Research in Social Movements, Conflict, and Change, Vol. 17. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Minkoff, Debra C.1997. ‘The Sequencing of Social Movements.’American Sociological Review, 62, 5 (October): 779–799.
    Mintzberg, Henry. 1974. The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row.
    Mitchell, Will. 1992. ‘Are More Good Things Better: Or Will Technical and Market Capabilities Conflict When a Firm Expands?’Industrial and Corporate Change, 1, 2: 327–346.
    Miyashita, Kenichi and DavidW. Russell. 1994. Keiretsu: Inside the Hidden Japanese Conglomerates. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Mizruchi, Mark S.1982. The American Corporate Network, 1904–1974. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
    Mizruchi, Mark S.1992. The Structure of Corporate Political Action: Interfirm Relations and Their Consequences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mizruchi, Mark S.1996. ‘What Do Interlocks Do? An Analysis, Critique, and Assessment of Research on Interlocking Directorates.’ pp. 271–298 in Annual Review of Sociology, 22. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Mizruchi, Mark S. and LisaC. Fein. 1999. ‘The Social Construction of Organizational Knowledge: A Study of the Uses of Coercive, Mimetic, and Normative Isomorphism.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 4 (December): 653–683.
    Mizruchi, Mark S. and JosephGalaskiewicz. 1993. ‘Networks of Interorganizational Relations.’Sociological Methods & Research, 22, 1 (August): 46–70.
    Moe, Terry N.1980. The Organization of Interests. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Moffat, Michael. 1989. Coming of Age in New Jersey: College in American Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Mokyr, Joel. 1992. ‘Technological Inertia in Economic History.’The Journal of Economic History, 52, 2 (June): 325–338.
    Molotch, Harvey, WilliamFreudenberg, and KristaE. Paulsen. 2000. ‘History Repeats Itself, but How? City Character, Urban Tradition, and the Accomplishment of Place.’American Sociological Review, 65, 6 (December): 791–823.
    Montgomery, Cynthia A.1995. ‘Of Diamonds and Rust: A New Look at Resources.’ pp. 251–268 in Cynthia A.Montgomery (ed.), Resource-Based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm: Towards a Synthesis. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Moore, Dorothy P. and E. HollyButtner. 1997. Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Beyond the Glass Ceiling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Moorman, Christine and AnneS. Miner. 1998. ‘Organizational Improvisation and Organizational Memory.’Academy of Management Review, 23, 4 (October): 698–723.
    Morgenson, Gretchen. 1998. ‘Stock Options are not a Free Lunch.’Forbes, May 18th.
    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe. 1994. ‘Role Definitions and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Importance of the Employee's Perspective.’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 6 (December): 1543–1567.
    Moskowitz, Tobias J., and AnnetteVissing-Jorgensen2002. ‘The Returns to Entrepreneurial Investment: A Private Equity Premium Puzzle?’American Economic Review, 92, 4 (September): 745–778.
    Mouw, Ted. 2002. ‘Are Black Workers Missing the Connection? The Effect of Spatial Distance and Employee Referrals on Interfirm Racial Segregation.’Demography, 39, 3 (August): 507–528.
    Mouw, Ted. 2003. ‘Social Capital and Finding a Job: Do Contacts Matter?’American Sociological Review, 68, 6 (December): 868–898.
    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick. (ed.) 1970. Toward a National Urban Policy. New York: Basic Books.
    Müller, Walter and RichardArum. 2004. ‘Self-Employment Dynamics in Advanced Economies.’ pp. 1–35 in The Reemergence of Self-Employment: A Comparative Study of the Self-Employment Dynamics and Social Inequality, edited by R.Arum, and W.Müller. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Mumby, Dennis K. and LindaL. Putnam. 1992. ‘The Politics of Emotion: A Feminist Reading of Bounded Rationality.’Academy of Management Review, 17, 3 (July): 465–486.
    Murmann, Johann P.2003. Knowledge and Competitive Advantage: The Coevolution of Firms, Technology, and National Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nash, Nathaniel C.1994. ‘Germany Shuns Biotechnology.’New York Times (December 21): C1, C5.
    Nelson, Reed E.1993. ‘Authority, Organization, and Societal Context in Multinational Churches,’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 4 (December): 653–682.
    Nelson, Richard R.1994. ‘Evolutionary Theorizing About Economic Change.’ pp. 108–136 in NeilSmelser and RichardSwedberg (eds), The Handbook of Economic Sociology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Nelson, Richard R. and SidneyWinter. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
    Nemeth, Charlan Jeanne. 1995. ‘Dissent As Driving Cognition, Attitudes, and Judgment.’Journal of Social Cognition, 13: 273–291.
    Nemeth, Charlan Jeanne. 1997. ‘Managing Innovation: When Less Is More.’California Management Review, 40, 1 (Fall): 59–74.
    Nickerson, Jack A. and BrianS. Silverman. 2003. ‘Why Firms Want to Organize Efficiently and What Keeps Them from Doing So: Inappropriate Governance, Performance, and Adaptation in a Deregulated Industry.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 3 (September): 433–466.
    Nilakant, V. and HayagreevaRao. 1994. ‘Agency Theory and Uncertainty in Organizations: An Evaluation.’Organization Studies, 15, 5: 649–672.
    Nonaka, Ikujiro and HirotakaTakeuchi. 1995. The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
    O'Reilly, Charles A. III and JohnAnderson. 1982. ‘Personnel/Human Resource Management in the US: Some Evidence of Change.’Journal of Irish Business and Administrative Research, 4, 2 (October): 3–12.
    O'Reilly, Charles A. III, David F.Caldwell, and WilliamP. Barnett. 1989. ‘Work Group Demography, Social Integration, and Turnover.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 1 (March): 21–37.
    Oliver, Christine. 1991. ‘Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes.’Academy of Management Review, 16, 1 (January): 145–179.
    Oliver, Christine. 1992. ‘The Antecedents of Deinstitutionalization.’Organization Studies, 13, 4: 563–588.
    Olson, Mancur, Jr. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Orlikowski, Wanda J. and JoAnneYates. 1994. ‘Genre Repertoire: The Structuring of Communicative Practices in Organizations.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 4 (December): 541–574.
    Orloff, Ann Shola and ThedaSkocpol. 1984. ‘Why Not Equal Protection? Explaining the Politics of Public Social Spending in Britain, 1900–1911, and the United States, 1880s-1920.’American Sociological Review, 49, 6 (December): 726–750.
    Osterman, Paul. 1994. ‘How Common is Workplace Transformation and How Can We Explain Who Does It?’Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 47, 2 (January): 173–188.
    Ouchi, William. 1981. Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Palmer, Donald A., P. DevereauxJennings, and XueguangZhou. 1993. ‘Late Adoption of the Multidivisional Form by Large U.S. Corporations: Institutional, Political, and Economic Accounts.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 1 (March): 100–131.
    Pananond, Pavida. 1995. ‘Comparison of Conglomeration Development: The American and the Thai Experiences.’ Unpublished paper, Kenan-Flagler School of Business. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
    Park, Robert E., Ernest W.Burgess, and Roderick D.McKenzie, (eds). 1925. The City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Parsons, Talcott. 1956. ‘Suggestions for a Sociological Approach to the Theory of Organization, I and II.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 1, (1/2): 63–85, 225–239.
    Péli, Gábor and BartNootebaum. 1999. ‘Market Partitioning and the Geometry of the Resource Space.’American Journal of Sociology, 104, 4 (January): 1132–1153.
    Peng, Yusheng. 2004. ‘Kinship Networks and Entrepreneurs in China's Transitional Economy.’American Journal of Sociology, 109, 5 (March): 1045–1074.
    Pennings, Johannes M., HarryBarkema, and SytseDouma. 1994. ‘Organizational Learning and Diversification.’Academy of Management Journal, 37, 3 (June): 608–640.
    Pentland, Brian T.1992. ‘Organizing Moves in Software Support Hot Lines.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 4 (December): 527–548.
    Pentland, Brian T. and HenryH. Rueter. 1994. ‘Organizational Routines as Grammars of Action.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 3 (September): 484–510.
    Perrow, Charles. 1985. ‘Comment on Langton.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 2 (June): 278–283.
    Perrow, Charles. 1986. Complex Organizations (
    3rd edition
    ). New York: Scott Foresman.
    Perrow, Charles. 1991. ‘A Society of Organizations.’Theory and Society, 20, 6 (December): 725–762.
    Perrow, Charles. 1999. Normal Accidents: Living With High-Risk Technologies (
    2nd edition
    ). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Pettigrew, Andrew. 1979. ‘On Studying Organizational Culture.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 4 (December): 570–581.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey. 1972. ‘Merger as a Response to Organizational Interdependence.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 2 (June): 218–228.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey. 1983. ‘Organizational Demography.’ pp. 299–357 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey. 1993. ‘Barriers to the Advance of Organizational Science: Paradigm Development as a Dependent Variable.’Academy of Management Review, 18, 4 (October): 599–620.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey. 2003. ‘Introduction to the Classic Edition.’The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective (
    2nd Edition
    ). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey and JamesN. Baron. 1988. ‘Recent Trends in the Structuring of Employment.’ pp. 257–303 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 10. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Pfeffer, Jeffrey and GeraldSalancik. 1978. The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row.
    Phillips, Almarin. 1960. ‘A Theory of Interfirm Organization.’Quarterly Journal of Economics, 74, 4 (November): 602–613.
    Phillips, Damon J.2002. ‘A Geneological Approach to Organizational Life Chances: The Parent-Progeny Transfer among Silicon Valley Law Firms, 1946–1996.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 3 (September): 474–506.
    Picot, A., U.D.Laub, and D.Schneider. 1989. Innovative Unternehmensgründungen: Eine Ökonomisch-Empirische Analyse. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer.
    Pierce, Jennifer L.1995. Gender Trials: Emotional Lives in Contemporary Law Firms. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
    Podolny, Joel M.1994. ‘Market Uncertainty and the Social Character of Economic Exchange.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 39, 3 (September): 458–483.
    Podolny, Joel M.2001. ‘Networks as the Pipes and Prisms of the Market.’American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1 (July): 33–60.
    Podolny, Joel M., Toby E.Stuart, and MichaelT. Hannan. 1996. ‘Networks, Knowledge, and Niches: Competition in the Worldwide Semiconductor Industry, 1984–1991.’American Journal of Sociology, 102, 3 (November): 659–689.
    Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation. New York: Farrar and Rinehart.
    Polanyi, Michael. 1966. The Tacit Dimension. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Pólos, László, Michael T.Hannan, and GlennR. Carroll. 2002. ‘Foundations of a Theory of Social Forms.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 11, 1 (February): 85–115.
    Popielarz, Pamela A. and J. MillerMcPherson. 1995. ‘On the Edge or In Between: Niche Position, Niche Overlap, and the Duration of Voluntary Association Memberships.’American Journal of Sociology, 101, 3 (November): 698–720.
    Porac, Joseph F., HowardThomas, and C.Baden-Fuller. 1989. ‘Competitive Groups as Cognitive Communities: The Case of Scottish Knitwear Manufacturers.’Journal of Management Studies, 1989, 26, 4 (July): 397–416.
    Porter, Michael and RebeccaE. Wayland. 1995. ‘Global Competition and the Localization of Competitive Advantage.’ pp. 63–105 in Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 11. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Portes, Alejandro and JuliaSensenbrenner. 1993. ‘Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action.’American Journal of Sociology, 98, 6 (May): 1320–50.
    Portes, Alejandro, WilliamHaller, and LuisE. Guarnizo. 2002. ‘Transnational Entrepreneurs: An Alternative Form of Immigrant Economic Adaptation.’American Sociological Review, 67, 2 (April): 278–298.
    Powell, Walter W.1990. ‘Neither Market nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization.’ pp. 295–336 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 12. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Powell, Walter W.2001. ‘The Capitalist Firm in the Twenty-First Century: Emerging Patterns in Western Enterprise.’ pp. 33–68 in PaulDiMaggio (ed.) The Twenty-First Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Powell, Walter W., Kenneth W.Koput, and LarelSmith-Doerr. 1996. ‘Interorganizational Collaboration and the Locus of Innovation: Networks of Learning in Biotechnology.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 1 (March): 116–145.
    PriceWaterhouseCoopers, Thomson Venture Economics and the National Venture Capital Association. 2004. MoneyTree™ Survey. accessed September 7, 2004.
    Pugh, Derek S., David J.Hickson, C. RobertHinings, and C.Turner. 1968. ‘Dimensions of Organizational Structure.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 13, 1 (June): 65–105.
    Rafaeli, Anat and RobertI. Sutton. 1990. ‘Busy Stores and Demanding Customers: How Do They Affect the Display of Positive Emotion?’Academy of Management Journal, 33, 3 (September): 623–637.
    Rafaeli, Anat, and RobertI. Sutton. 1991. ‘Emotional Contrast Strategies as Means of Social Influence: Lessons from Criminal Interrogators and Bill Collectors.’Academy of Management Journal, 34, 4 (December): 749–775.
    Ranger-Moore, James R.1997. ‘Bigger May Be Better, But Is Older Wiser?: Organizational Age and Size in the New York Life Insurance Industry.’American Sociological Review, 62, 6 (December): 903–920.
    Ranger-Moore, James, JaneBanaszak-Holl, and MichaelT. Hannan. 1991. ‘Density-Dependent Dynamics in Regulated Industries: Founding Rates of Banks and Life Insurance Companies.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 1 (March): 36–65.
    Rao, Hayagreeva. 1989. The Social Organization of Trust: The Growth and Decline of Organizational Forms in the Savings and Loan Industry; 1960–1987. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
    Rao, Hayagreeva. 1994. ‘The Social Construction of Reputation: Certification Contests, Legitimation, and the Survival of Organizations in the American Automobile Industry: 1895–1912.’Strategic Management Journal, 15 (Winter): 29–44.
    Rao, Hayagreeva. 1998. ‘Caveat Emptor: The Construction of Nonprofit Consumer Watchdog Organizations.’American Journal of Sociology, 103, 4 (January): 912–961.
    Rao, Hayagreeva and RobertDrazin. 2002. ‘Overcoming Resource Constraints on Product Innovation by Recruiting Talent from Rivals: A Study of the Mutual Fund Industry; 1986–1994.’Academy of Management Journal, 45, 3 (June): 491–508.
    Rao, Hayagreeva, PhilippeMonin, and RodolpheDurand. 2003. ‘Institutional Change in Toque Ville: Nouvelle Cuisine as an Identity Movement in French Gastronomy.’American Journal of Sociology, 108, 4 (January): 795–843.
    Rao, Hayagreeva and KumarSivakumar. 1999. ‘Institutional Sources of Boundary-Spanning Structures: The Establishment of Investor Relations Departments in the Fortune 500 Industrials.’Organization Science, 10, 1 (January-February): 27–42.
    Reed, Michael I.1988. ‘The Problem of Human Agency in Organizational Analysis.’Organization Studies, 9, 1: 33–46.
    Reed, Michael I.1996. ‘Organizational Theorizing: a Historically Contested Terrain.’ pp. 31–56 in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy, and Walter R.Nord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.
    Reed, Richard and RobertJ. DeFillippi. 1990. ‘Causal Ambiguity, Barriers to Imitation, and Sustainable Competitive Advantage.’Academy of Management Review, 15, 1 (January): 88–102.
    Reiss, Albert J., Jr. 1992. ‘The Trained Incapacities of Sociologists.’ pp. 297–315 in TerrenceHalliday and MorrisJanowitz (eds), Sociology and Its Publics. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Renzulli, Linda. 1998. Small Business Owners, Their Networks, and the Process of Resource Acquisition. Unpublished MA thesis, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Renzulli, Linda A.2005. ‘Organizational Environments and the Emergence of Charter Schools in the U.S.’Sociology of Education78 (1): 1–26.
    Renzulli, Linda, Howard E.Aldrich, and JamesMoody. 2000. ‘Family Matters: Gender, Networks, and Entrepreneurial Outcomes.’Social Forces, 79, 2 (December): 523–546.
    Renzulli, Linda A. and VincentRoscigno. Forthcoming. ‘Charter School Policy, Implementation, and Diffusion in the United States’Sociology of Education.
    Reynolds, Paul D.2000. ‘National Study of U.S. Business Start-Ups: Background and Methodology.’ pp. 153–228 in JeromeKatz (ed), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, Vol. 4. Stamford, CT: JAI.
    Reynolds, Paul D.2005. Entrepreneurship in the U.S. Miami, FL: Eugenio Pino and Family Global Entrepreneurship Center, College of Business Administration, Florida International University.
    Reynolds, Paul D. and SammisB. White. 1997. The Entrepreneurial Process: Economic Growth, Men, Women, and Minorities. Westport, CN: Quorum Books.
    Richtel, Matt. 1998. ‘Venture Capital Is Alive, and Plentiful.’New York Times, April 6, C3.
    Ridgeway, Cecilia, ElizabethBoyle, KathyKuipers, and DawnRobinson. 1998. ‘How Do Status Beliefs Develop? The Role of Resources and Interaction.’American Sociological Review, 63: 331–350.
    Ritzer, George. 2006. ‘Metatheory.’ In G.Ritzer (ed.), Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. London: Blackwell (forthcoming).
    Robins, James A.1987. ‘Organizational Economics: Notes on the Use of Transaction-Cost Theory in the Study of Organizations.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 1 (March): 68–86.
    Rogers, Everett M.1995. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: The Free Press.
    Romanelli, Elaine. 1989. ‘Organization Birth and Population Variety: A Community Perspective on Origins.’ pp. 211–246 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 11. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Romanelli, Elaine. 1999. ‘Blind (But Not Unconditioned) Variation: Problems of Copying in Socio-cultural Evolution.’ pp. 79–91 in Joel A.C.Baum and BillMcKelvey (eds), Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Roscigno, Vincent J. and WilliamF. Danaher. 2004. The Voice of Southern Labor: Radio, Music, and Textile Strikes, 1929–1934. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
    Rosenfeld, Rachel A.1992. ‘Job Mobility and Career Processes.’ pp. 39–61 in Annual Review of Sociology, 18. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Rosenkopf, Lori and MichaelL. Tushman. 1994. ‘The Coevolution of Technology and Organization.’ pp. 403–424 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rosenwein, Robert E. and DonaldT. Campbell. 1992. ‘Mobilization to Achieve Collective Action and Democratic Majority/Plurality Amplification.’Journal of Social Issues, 48, 2: 125–138.
    Rothschild, Joyce. 1979. ‘The Collectivist Organization: An Alternative to Rational-Bureaucratic Models.’American Sociological Review, 44, 4 (August): 509–527.
    Rothschild, Joyce and RaymondRussell. 1986. ‘Alternatives to Bureaucracy: Democratic Participation in the Economy.’ pp. 307–328 in Annual Review of Sociology, 12. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Rothschild, Joyce and J. AllenWhitt. 1986. ‘Worker-owners as an Emergent Class: Effects of Cooperative Work on Job Satisfaction, Alienation and Stress.’Economic and Industrial Democracy, 7, 3 (August): 297–317.
    Roughgarden, Jonathan. 1983. ‘The Theory of Coevolution.’ pp. 33–64 in D.J.Futuyama and M.Slatkin (eds), Coevolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
    Roy, Donald. 1953. ‘Work Satisfaction and Social Reward in Quota Achievement.’American Sociological Review, 18, 5 (October): 507–514.
    Roy, William G.1981. ‘The Process of Bureaucratization in the U.S. State Department and the Vesting of Economic Interests, 1886–1905.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 3 (September): 419–433.
    Roy, William G.1997. Socializing Capital: The Rise of the Large Industrial Corporation in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ruef, Martin. 1997. ‘Assessing Organizational Fitness on a Dynamic Landscape: An Empirical Test of the Relative Inertia Hypothesis.’Strategic Management Journal, 18, 11 (December): 837–853.;2-B
    Ruef, Martin. 2000. ‘The Emergence of Organizational Forms: A Community Ecology Approach.’American Journal of Sociology, 106, 3 (November): 658–714.
    Ruef, Martin. 2002a. ‘Strong Ties, Weak Ties and Islands: Structural and Cultural Predictors of Organizational Innovation.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 11, 3 (June): 427–449.
    Ruef, Martin. 2002b. ‘Unpacking the Liability of Aging: Toward a Socially-Embedded Account of Organizational Disbanding.’Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 19: 195–229.
    Ruef, Martin. 2004. ‘The Demise of an Organizational Form: Emancipation and Plantation Agriculture in the American South, 1860–1880.’American Journal of Sociology, 109, 6 (May): 1365–1410.
    Ruef, Martin. 2005. ‘Origins of Organizations: The Entrepreneurial Process.’ pp. 63–101 in LisaKeister (ed), Research in the Sociology of Work, Vol 15. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Ruef, Martin. 2006. ‘Boom and Bust: The Effect of Entrepreneurial Inertia on Organizational Populations.’ In JoelBaum, StanislavDobrev, and Arjen vanWitteloostuijn (eds), Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 23. forthcoming.
    Ruef, Martin, Howard E.Aldrich, and NancyM. Carter. 2003. ‘The Structure of Founding Teams: Homophily, Strong Ties, and Isolation among U.S. Entrepreneurs.’American Sociological Review, 68, 2 (April): 195–222.
    Ruef, Martin and W. RichardScott. 1998. ‘A Multidimensional Model of Organizational Legitimacy: Hospital Survival in Changing Institutional Environments.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 4 (December): 877–904.
    Russell, Raymond. 1985. Sharing Ownership in the Workplace. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Ryan, Allan, John H.Freeman, and RalphC. Hybels. 1995. ‘Biotechnology Firms.’ pp. 332–357 in Glenn R.Carroll and Michael T.Hannan (eds), Organizations in Industry: Strategy, Structure, and Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rynes, Sara L. and AlisonE. Barber. 1990. ‘Applicant Attraction Strategies: An Organizational Perspective.’Academy of Management Review, 15, 2 (April): 286–310.
    Rytina, Steve and DavidMorgan. 1982. ‘The Arithmetic of Social Relations: The Interplay of Category and Network.’American Journal of Sociology, 88, 1 (July): 88–113.
    Saloner, Garth, AndreaShepard and JoelPodolny. 2001. Strategic Management. New York: John Wiley.
    Sanders, Jimy and VictorNee. 1996. ‘Immigrant Self-Employment: The Family as Social Capital and the Value of Human Capital.’American Sociological Review, 61, 2 (April): 231–249.
    Saxenian, Annalee. 1994. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
    Schein, Edgar. 1990. ‘Organizational Culture.’American Psychologist, 45, 2 (February): 109–119.
    Schlozman, Kay Lehman and JohnT. Tierney. 1986. Organized Interests and American Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Schmitz, Christopher J.1993. The Growth of Big Business in the United States and Western Europe, 1850–1939. London: Macmillan.
    Schmookler, Jacob. 1962. ‘Economic Sources of Inventive Activity.’Journal of Economic History, 22, 1 (March): 1–20.
    Schneiberg, Marc and TimBartley. 2001. ‘Regulating American Industries: Markets, Politics, and the Institutional Determinants of Fire Insurance Regulation.’American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1 (July): 101–146.
    Schofer, Evan, and MarionFourcade-Gourinchas. 2001. ‘The Structural Contexts of Civic Engagement: Voluntary Association Membership in Comparative Perspective.’American Sociological Review66, 6 (December): 806–828.
    Schön, Donald. 1983. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.
    Schumpeter, Joseph. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development (originally published in 1911). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Schwartz, Evan I.1997. Webonomics: Nine Essential Principles for Growing your Business on the World Wide Web. New York: Broadway Books.
    Scott, Allen J.1988. From the Division of Labor to Urban Form. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Scott, John Finley. 1965. ‘The American College Sorority: Its Role in Class and Ethnic Endogamy.’American Sociological Review, 30, 4 (August): 514–527.
    Scott, W. Richard. 1987. ‘The Adolescence of Institutional Theory.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 4 (December): 493–511.
    Scott, W. Richard. 2001. Institutions and Organizations (
    2nd edition
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Scott, W. Richard. 2003. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems (
    5th edition
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Scott, W. Richard and BruceL. Black. 1986. The Organization of Mental Health Services: Societal and Community Systems. Beverly Hill, CA: Sage.
    Scott, W. Richard and JohnW. Meyer. 1983. ‘The Organization of Societal Sectors.’ pp. 129–154 in John W.Meyer and W. RichardScott (eds), Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Scott, W. Richard, MartinRuef, PeterMendel, and CarolCaronna, 2000. Institutional Change and Healthcare Organizations: From Professional Dominance to Managed Care. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Seabrook, John. 1994. ‘Rocking in Shangri-La.’The New Yorker (October 10): 64–78.
    Selznick, Philip. 1949. TVA and the Grass Roots. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
    Selznick, Philip. 1957. Leadership in Administration. New York: Harper & Row.
    Selznick, Philip. 1969. Law, Society, and Industrial Justice. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Shaiken, Harley. 1986. Work Transformed: Automation and Labor in the Computer Age. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Shan, Weijian, Jitendra V.Singh, and TerryL. Amburgey. 1991. ‘Modeling the Creation of New Biotechnology Firms, 1973–1987.’ pp. 78–82 in Jerry L.Wall and Lawrence R.Jauch (eds), Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings 1991. Miami Beach, FL: Academy of Management.
    Shane, Scott and S.Venkataraman. 2000. ‘The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research.’Academy of Management Review, 25, 1 (January): 217–226.
    Shelanski, Howard A. and PeterG. Klein. 1995. ‘Empirical Research in Transaction Costs Economics: A Review and Assessment.’Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 11, 2 (October): 335–361.
    Shirai, Taishiro. 1983. Contemporary Industrial Relations in Japan. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Silverman, Brian S., Jack A.Nickerson, and JohnFreeman. 1997. ‘Profitability, Transactional Alignment, and Organizational Mortality in the U.S. Trucking Industry.’Strategic Management Journal, 18, Special Issue (Summer): S31–52.;2-J
    Simon, Herbert A.1955. ‘A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice.’Quarterly Journal of Economics, 69, 1 (February): 99–118.
    Simon, Herbert A.1962. ‘The Architecture of Complexity.’Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106, 6 (December): 467–482.
    Simon, Herbert A.1997. Administrative Behavior (
    4th edition
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Simon, Herbert A.1985. ‘Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science.’American Political Science Review, 79, 2 (June): 293–304.
    Simon, Herbert A. and CharlesP. Bonini. 1958. ‘On the Size Distribution of Business Firms.’American Economic Review, 48, 4 (September): 607–617.
    Simons, Tal and PaulIngram. 2004. ‘An Ecology of Ideology: Theory and Evidence from Four Populations.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 13, 1 (February): 33–59.
    Sine, Wesley D., Heather A.Haveman, and PamelaS. Tolbert. 2005. ‘Risky Business? Entrepreneurship in the New Independent-Power Sector.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 2 (June): 200–232.
    Sitkin, Sim B.1992. ‘Learning Through Failure: The Strategy of Small Losses.’ pp. 231–266 in BarryStaw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 14. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Sitkin, Sim B., Kathleen M.Sutcliffe, and RogerG. Schroeder. 1994. ‘Distinguishing Control from Learning in Total Quality Management: A Contingency Perspective.’Academy of Management Review, 19, 3 (June): 537–564.
    Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Small Business Administration. 1982. The State of Small Business: A Report of the President. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. 1997. Characteristics of Small Business Employees and Owners, 1997.
    Small Business Administration. 1998. Mergers and Acquisitions in the United States, 1990–1994. Office of Advocacy, Small Business Administration, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. 2002. The Small Business Economy: A Report to the President. Washington DC: United States Government Printing Office.
    Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. 2003. Small Business Economic Indicators for 2003. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
    Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. 2004. The Small Business Economy: A Report to the President. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office.
    Small Business Administration Website FAQ. 2004. Accessed September 8, 2004.
    Smelser, Neil J.1998. ‘The Rational and the Ambivalent in the Social Sciences.’American Sociological Review, 63, 1 (February): 1–15.
    Smigel, Erwin O.1964. The Wall Street Lawyer: Professional Organization Man?New York: Free Press.
    Smircich, Linda. 1983. ‘Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 3 (September): 339–358.
    Smith, Eric L.1996. ‘The Great Black Hope.’Black Enterprise, 26, 7 (February): 150.
    Snow, David A., E. BurkeRochford, Jr, Steven K.Worden, and RobertD. Benford. 1986. ‘Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation.’American Sociological Review, 51, 4 (August): 464–481.
    Sober, Elliot. 1984. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Sørensen, Jesper. 2004. ‘Recruitment-Based Competition Between Industries: A Community Ecology.’Industrial and Corporate Change, 13, 1 (February): 149–170.
    Sorenson, Olav and PinoG. Audia. 2000. ‘The Social Structure of Entrepreneurial Activity: Geographic Concentration of Footwear Production in the United States, 1940–1989.’American Journal of Sociology, 106, 2 (September): 424–462.
    Spencer, Herbert. 1898. The Principles of Sociology. New York: D. Appleton.
    Spilling, Olav R.1996. SMB-typologi: Om klassifisering av små og mellomstore bedrifter. [SME typologies: on classifying small and medium-sized firms]. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian School of Management, Discussion Paper 6/1996.
    Spilling, Olav R. and TorjusBolkesjø. 1998. ‘Motivation for Entrepreneurship in Different Contexts: Some Reflections on Entrepreneurial Typologies.’ Paper presented at the 10th Nordic Conference on Small Business Research, Växjö, Sweden.
    Staber, Udo H.1993‘Worker Cooperatives and the Business Cycle: Are Cooperatives the Answer to Unemployment?’American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 52: 129–143.
    Staber, Udo H.1998. ‘Inter-Firm Cooperation and Competition in Industrial Districts,’Organization Studies, 19, 4: 701–724.
    Staber, Udo H. and HowardE. Aldrich. 1983. ‘Trade Association Stability and Public Policy.’ pp. 163–178 in RichardHall and RobertQuinn (eds), Organization Theory and Public Policy. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Staber, Udo H. and BasuSharma. 1994. ‘The Employment Regimes of Industrial Districts: Promises, Myths, and Realities.’Industrielle Beziehungen: Zeitschrift für Arbeit, Organisation und Management, 1, 4: 321–346.
    Staggenborg, Suzanne. 1989. ‘Stability and Innovation in the Women's Movement: A Comparison of Two Movement Organizations.’Social Problems, 36, 1 (February): 75–92.
    Starbuck, William H.1965. ‘Organizational Growth and Development.’ pp. 451–533 in James G.March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Stark, David. 2001. ‘Ambiguous Assets for Uncertain Environments: Heterarchy in Postsocialist Firms.’ pp. 69–104 in PaulDiMaggio (ed.), The Twenty-First Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Starr, Paul. 2004. The Creation of the Media: Political Origins of Modern Communications. New York: Basic Books.
    Stasser, Garold, L.A.Taylor, and C.Hanna. 1989. ‘Information Sampling in Structured and Unstructured Discussion of Three- and Six-person Groups.’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1 (January): 67–78.
    Staw, Barry M., Lance E.Sandelands, and JaneE. Dutton. 1981. ‘Threat-rigidity Effects in Organizational Behavior: A Multilevel Analysis.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 4 (December): 501–524.
    Stearns, Linda Brewster and KennethD. Allan. 1996. ‘Economic Behavior in Institutional Environments: The Corporate Merger Wave of the 1980s.’American Sociological Review, 61, 4 (August): 699–718.
    Stephens, Evelyne Huber and JohnD. Stephens. 1982. ‘The Labor Movement, Political Power, and Workers' Participation in Western Europe.’ pp. 215–249 in Political Power and Social Theory, Vol. 3. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Stevenson, Howard H. and DavidE. Gumpert. 1985. ‘The Heart of Entrepreneurship.’Harvard Business Review, 63, 2 (March-April): 85–94.
    Stevenson, William B. and JeanM. Bartunek. 1996. ‘Power, Interaction, Position, and the Generation of Cultural Agreement in Organizations.’Human Relations, 49, 1 (January): 75–105.
    Stewart, Alex. 1989. Team Entrepreneurship. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Stewart, Alex. 1998. The Ethnographer's Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Stewman, Shelby. 1988. ‘Organizational Demography.’ pp. 173–202 in Annual Review of Sociology, 14. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Stinchcombe, Arthur L.1964. Rebellion in a High School. Chicago, MA: Quadrangle.
    Stinchcombe, Arthur L.1965. ‘Social Structure and Organizations.’ pp. 142–193 in James G.March (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, MA: Rand McNally.
    Stoeberl, Philipp A., Gerald E.Parker, and Seong-JongJoo. 1998. ‘Relationship between Organizational Change and Failure in the Wine Industry: An Event History Analysis.’Journal of Management Studies, 35, 4 (July): 537–555.
    Storey, David J.1994. Understanding the Small Business Sector. London: Routledge.
    Story, Ronald. 1980. The Forging of an Aristocracy: Harvard and the Boston Upper Class, 1800–1870. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
    Strang, David and MichaelW. Macy. 2001. ‘In Search of Excellence: Fads, Success Stories, and Adaptive Emulation.’American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1 (July): 147–182.
    Strang, David and SaraSoule. 1998. ‘Diffusion in Organizations and Social Movements: From Hybrid Corn to Poison Pills.’ pp. 265–290 in Annual Review of Sociology, 24. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Stratton, Kay. 1989. ‘Union Democracy in the International Typographers Union: Thiry Years Later.’Journal of Labor Research, 10, 1 (Winter): 119–135.
    Strauss, Anselm L.1978. Negotiations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Stuart, Toby E., HaHoang, and RalphC. Hybels. 1999. ‘Interorganizational Endorsements and the Performance of Entrepreneurial Ventures.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 2 (June): 315–349.
    Studer-Ellis, Erich. 1995a. ‘Springboards to Mortarboards: Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania Women's College Foundings.’Social Forces, 73, 3 (March): 1051–1070.
    Studer-Ellis, Erich. 1995b. ‘Women's College Evolution, 1960 to 1990: Coed or Not Coed?’ Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Sociological Association, Washington, DC, August 1995.
    Suchman, Mark C.1995. ‘Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches.’Academy of Management Review, 20, 3 (July): 571–610.
    Suchman, Mark C. and MiaL. Cahill. 1996. ‘The Hired-Gun as Facilitator: The Case of Lawyers in Silicon Valley.’Law and Social Inquiry, 21, 3: 679–712.
    Suchman, Mark C. and LaurenB. Edelman. 1996. ‘Legal Rational Myths: The New Institutionalism and the Law and Society tradition.’Law and Social Inquiry, 21, 4 (Fall): 903–941.
    Suchman, Mark C., Daniel J.Steward, and CliffordA. Westfall. 2001. ‘The Legal Environment of Entrepreneurship: Observations on the Legitimation of Venture Finance in Silicon Valley.’ pp. 349–382 in Claudia B.Schoonhoven and ElaineRomanelli (eds), The Entrepreneurship Dynamic: Origins of Entrepreneurship and the Evolution of Industries. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Suehiro, Akira. 1992. ‘Capitalist Development in Postwar Thailand: Commercial Bankers, Industrial Elites, and Agribusiness Groups.’ pp. 35–63 in RuthMcVey (ed.), Southeast Asian Capitalists. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Sutton, John. 1997. ‘Gibrat'sLegacy.’ Journal of Economic Literature, 35, 1 (March): 40–59.
    Sutton, Robert I. and AnitaL. Callahan. 1987. ‘The Stigma of Bankruptcy: Spoiled Organizational Image and Its Management.’Academy of Management Journal, 30, 3 (September): 405–436.
    Swaminathan, Anand. 1995. ‘The Proliferation of Specialist Organizations in the American Wine Industry: 1941–1990.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 4 (December): 653–680.
    Swaminathan, Anand. 1996. ‘Environmental Conditions at Founding and Organizational Mortality: A Trial-by-Fire Model.’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 5 (October): 1350–1377.
    Swanson, Guy E.1971. ‘An Organizational Analysis of Collectivities.’American Sociological Review, 36, 4 (August): 607–623.
    Swidler, Ann. 1986. ‘Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies.’American Sociological Review, 51, 2 (April): 273–286.
    Teece, David J.1986. ‘Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing, and Public Policy,’Research Policy, 15, 6 (December): 285–305.
    Teece, David J.1987. ‘Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing, and Public Policy.’ pp. 185–219 in DavidTeece (ed.), The Competitive Challenge. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Thaler, Richard H.1994. The Winner's Curse: Paradoxes and Anomalies of Economic Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Thomas, Joe and RickyGriffin. 1983. ‘The Social Information Processing Model of Task Design: A Review of the Literature.’Academy of Management Review, 8, 4 (October): 672–682.
    Thomas, Robert. 1994. What Machines Can't Do. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Thompson, James D.1967. Organizations in Action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thornton, Patricia H.2004. Markets from Culture: Institutional Logics and Organizational Decisions in Higher Education Publishing. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Tiedens, Larissa Z.2001. ‘Anger and Advancement versus Sadness and Subjugation: The Effect of Negative Emotion Expressions on Social Status Conferral.’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 1 (January): 86–94.
    Tilly, Charles. 1998. Durable Inequality. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Tolbert, Pamela and LynneZucker. 1996. ‘The Institutionalization of Institutional Theory.’ pp. 175–190 in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy, and WalterNord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Torres, David L.1988. ‘Professionalism, Variation, and Organizational Survival.’American Sociological Review, 53, 3 (June): 380–394.
    Tracy, Sarah J.2004. ‘Dialectic, Contradiction, or Double Bind? Analyzing and Theorizing Employee Reactions to Organizational Tension.’Journal of Applied Communication Research, 32, 2 (May): 119–146.
    Trethewey, Angela. 1999. ‘Isn't It Ironic: Using Irony to Explore the Contradictions of Organizational Life.’Western Journal of Communication, 63, 2 (Spring): 140–167.
    Trevino, Linda Klebe, and BartVictor. 1992. ‘Peer Reporting of Unethical Behavior.’Academy of Management Journal, 35, 1 (March): 38–64.
    Trice, Harrison M. and JaniceM. Beyer. 1991. ‘Cultural Leadership in Organizations.’Organization Science, 2, 2 (May): 149–169.
    Tripsas, Mary. 1997. ‘Unraveling the Process of Creative Destruction: Complementary Assets and Incumbent Survival in the Typesetter Industry,’Strategic Management Journal, 18 (Special Summer Issue): 119–142.;2-S
    Tucker, David J., Jitendra V.Singh, and AgnesMeinhard. 1990. ‘Organizational Form, Population Dynamics, and Institutional Change: The Founding Pattern of Voluntary Organizations.’Academy of Management Journal, 33, 1 (March): 151–178.
    Tushman, Michael L. and PhilipAnderson. 1986. ‘Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 3 (September): 439–465.
    Tushman, Michael L. and JohannP. Murmann. 1998. ‘Dominant Designs, Innovations Types, and Organizational Outcomes.’ pp. 231–266 in B.M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol 20. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Tversky, Amos and DanielKahneman. 1981. ‘The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice.’Science, 211, 4481 (January): 453–458.
    Tyre, Marcie J. and WandaJ. Orlikowski. 1994. ‘Windows of Opportunity: Temporal Patterns of Technological Adaptation in Organizations.’Organization Science, 5 (February): 98–118.
    UCLA. 2003. ‘College Student Survey.’ Higher Education Research Institute, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. 1992. Bureau of the Census. Characteristics of Business Owners. CB092–1. U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. 2001. 1997 Economic Census: Survey of Women-Owned Business. U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. 2003. Statistical Abstract of the United States: The National Data Book. U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2003. Work Experience of the Population in 2002. USDL 03–911.
    U.S. Department of Labor. 2004a. ‘Employee Tenure Summary.’ Washington, DC: United States Department of Labor Report # 04–1829, September 29th.
    U.S. Department of Labor. 2004b. ‘Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth Among Younger Baby Boomers.’ Washington, DC: United States Department of Labor Report # 04–1678, August 25th.
    U.S. Department of Labor. 2004c. ‘National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, March 2003.’ Washington, DC: United States Department of Labor Report # 04–02, April.
    Uzzi, Brian. 1997. ‘Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox Of Embeddedness.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 1 (March): 35–67.
    Uzzi, Brian. and JarrettSpiro. 2005. ‘Collaboration and Creativity: Big Differences from Small World Networks.’American Journal of Sociology, 111, 2 (September).
    Vallas, Steven P.2003. ‘Why Teamwork Fails: Obstacles to Workplace Change in Four Manufacturing Plants.’American Sociological Review, 68, 2 (April): 223–250.
    Van de Ven, Andrew H. and RaghuGarud. 1994. ‘The Coevolution of Technical and Institutional Events in the Development of an Innovation.’ pp. 425–443 in Joel A.C.Baum and Jitendra V.Singh (eds), Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Van de Ven, Andrew H. and Marshall ScottPoole. 1995. ‘Explaining Development and Change in Organizations.’Academy of Management Review, 20, 3 (July): 510–540.
    Van Maanen, John and StephenBarley. 1984. ‘Occupational Communities: Culture and Control in Organizations.’ pp. 287–365 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol 6. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Van Maanen, John and GideonKunda. 1989. ‘Real Feelings: Emotional Expression and Organizational Culture.’ pp. 43–103 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 11. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Van Osnabrugge, Mark. 1998. Comparison of Business Angels and Venture Capitalists: Financiers of Entrepreneurial Firms. London: British Venture Capital Association.
    Vanderpool, Tim. 2001. ‘Lawsuits Tee Off Against Male Golf Clubs.’Christian Science Monitor, 93, 225 (October 16th): 3.
    Vaughan, Diane. 1983. Controlling Unlawful Organizational Behavior: Social Structure and Corporate Misconduct. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Vaughan, Diane. 1996. The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Vaughan, Diane. 1999. ‘The Dark Side of Organizations: Mistake, Misconduct, and Disaster.’ pp. 271–305 in Annual Review of Sociology, 25. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Vogel, David. 1973. ‘The Power of Business in America: A Reappraisal.’British Journal of Political Science, 13, 1 (January): 19–43.
    Voss, Kim and RachelSherman. 2000. ‘Breaking the Iron Law of Oligarchy: Union Revitalization in the American Labor Movement.’American Journal of Sociology, 106, 2 (September): 303–349.
    Wade, James B.1995. ‘Dynamics of Organizational Communities and Technological Bandwagons: An Empirical Investigation of Community Evolution in the Microprocessor Market.’Strategic Management Journal, 16, (Summer Special Issue): 111–133.
    Wade, James B.1996. ‘A Community Level Analysis of Sources and Rates of Technological Variation in the Microprocessor Market.’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 5 (October): 1218–1244.
    Wade, James B., AnandSwaminathan, and Michael ScottSaxon. 1998. ‘Normative and Resource Flow Consequences of Local Regulations in the American Brewing Industry, 1845–1918.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, (4): 905–935.
    Wageman, Ruth. 1995. ‘Interdependence and Group Effectiveness.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 1 (March): 145–180.
    Wagner, John A. III. 1995. ‘Studies of Individualism-Collectivism: Effects on Cooperation in Groups.’Academy of Management Journal, 38, 1 (February): 152–172.
    Waldinger, Roger and MichaelI. Lichter. 2003. How the Other Half Works. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
    Walsh, James P.1988. ‘Top Management Turnover Following Mergers and Acquisitions.’Strategic Management Journal, 9, 2 (March/April): 173–183.
    Walsh, James P.1995. ‘Managerial and Organizational Cognition: Notes from a Trip Down Memory Lane.’Organization Science, 6, 3 (May/June): 280–321.
    Walsh, James P. and Gerardo RiveraUngson. 1991. ‘Organizational Memory.’Academy of Management Review, 16, 1 (January): 57–91.
    Warren, Roland Leslie, Stephen M.Rose, and AnnF. Bergunder. 1974. The Structure of Urban Reform: Community Decision Organizations in Stability and Change. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Washington, Marvin. 2004. ‘Field Approaches to Institutional Change: The Evolution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, 1906–1995.’Organization Studies, 25, 3 (March): 393–414.
    Weber, Alfred. 1928. Theory of the Location of Industries. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Weber, Caroline L.1994. The Effects of Personnel and Human Resource Management Practices on Firm Performance: A Review of the Literature. Report submitted to Queen's University – University of Ottawa Economic Projects.
    Weber, Max. 1947. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (translated and edited by A.M.Henderson and TalcottParsons). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Weber, Max. 1963. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Religionssoziologie. Tübingen, Germany: J.C.B. Mohr.
    Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (edited by GuentherRoth and ClausWittich). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Wegner, T.G. and DanielM. Wegner. 1995. ‘Transactive Memory.’ pp. 654–656 in S.R.Manstead and M.Hewstone (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Weick, Karl E.1976. ‘Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1, (March): 1–19.
    Weick, Karl E.1979. The Social Psychology of Organizing. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Weick, Karl E.1991. ‘The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster.’ pp. 117–130 in Peter J.Frost, Larry F.Moore, Meryl ReisLouis, Craig C.Lundberg, and JoanneMartin (eds), Reframing Organizational Culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Weick, Karl E.1995. Sensemaking in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Weick, Karl E. and KarleneRoberts. 1993. ‘Collective Mind in Organizations: Heedful Interrelating on Flight Decks.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 3 (September): 357–381.
    Weick, Karl E. and FrancesWestley. 1996. ‘Organizational Learning: Affirming an Oxymoron.’ pp. 440–458 in Stewart R.Clegg, CynthiaHardy, and WalterNord (eds), Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.
    Welbourne, Theresa M.1997. ‘Pay For What Performance? Using the Role-Based Performance Scale.’Journal of Strategic Performance Measurement, 1 (5): 13–20.
    Welbourne, Theresa M. and AliceO. Andrews. 1996. ‘Predicting the Performance of Initial Public Offerings: Should Human Resource Management be in the Equation?’Academy of Management Journal, 39, 4 (August): 891–919.
    Welbourne, Theresa M. and LindaA. Cyr. 1999. ‘The Human Resource Executive Effect in Initial Public Offering Firms.’Academy of Management Journal, 42: 616–629.
    Welbourne, Theresa M. and LuisR. Gomez-Mejia. 1995. ‘Team Incentives in the Workplace.’ pp. 236–247 in M.L.Rock and L.A.Berger (eds), The Compensation Handbook: A State-of-the Art Guide to Compensation Strategy and Design. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Welsh, M. Ann and E. AllenSlusher. 1986. ‘Organizational Design as a Context for Political Activity.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 3 (September): 389–402.
    Westney, D. Eleanor. 1987. Imitation and Innovation: The Transfer of Western Organizational Patterns to Meiji Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Weston, J. Fred, Kwang S.Chung, and SusanE. Hoag. 1990. Mergers, Restructuring, and Corporate Control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Westphal, James, RanjayGulati, and StephenM. Shortell. 1997. ‘Customization or Conformity: An Institutional and Network Perspective on the Content and Consequences of TQM Adoption.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 2 (June): 366–394.
    Wholey, Douglas R., Jon B.Christianson, and SusanM. Sanchez. 1993. ‘Professional Reorganization: The Effect of Physician and Corporate Interests on the Formation of Health Maintenance Organizations.’American Journal of Sociology, 99, 1 (July): 164–200.
    Williamson, Oliver E.1981. ‘The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach.’American Journal of Sociology, 87, 3 (November): 548–577.
    Williamson, Oliver E.1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism: Firms, Markets, Relational Contracting. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, Oliver E.1994. ‘Transaction Cost Economics and Organization Theory.’ pp. 77–107 in NeilSmelser and RichardSwedberg (eds), The Handbook of Economic Sociology, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Willis, Paul E.1977. Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough: Saxon House.
    Wilson, Kenneth and AlejandroPortes. 1980. ‘Immigrant Enclaves: An Analysis of the Labor Market Experiences of Cubans in Miami.’American Journal of Sociology, 86, 2 (September): 295–315.
    Winborg, Joakim and HansLandstrom. 2000. ‘Financial Bootstrapping in Small Businesses: Examining Managers' Resource Acquisition Behaviors.’Journal of Business Venturing16, 3 (May): 235–254.
    Winter, Sidney G.1984. ‘Schumpeterian Competition in Alternative Technological Regimes.’Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 5, 3–4 (Sept/Dec): 287–320.
    Wood, Wendy and JeffreyQuinn. 2005. ‘The Power of Repetition in Daily Life: Habits and Intentions Guide Actions.’ Unpublished paper, Department of Psychology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.
    Wood, Wendy, Jeffrey M.Quinn, and DeborahKashy. 2002. ‘Habits in Everyday Life: Thoughts, Emotions, and Action.’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 6 (December): 1281–1297.
    Wuthnow, Robert. 1987. Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Xu, Hongwei and MartinRuef. 2004. ‘The Myth of the Risk-Tolerant Entrepreneur.’Strategic Organization, 2, 4 (November): 331–355.
    Xu, Hongwei and MartinRuef. Forthcoming. ‘Boundary Formation in Emergent Organizations.’ In MartinRuef and MichaelLounsbury (eds), Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Vol. 24.
    Young, Ed. 1989. ‘On the Naming of the Rose: Interests and Multiple Meanings as Elements of Organizational Culture.’Organization Studies, 10, 2: 187–206.
    Young, Ruth and JoeD. Francis. 1991. ‘Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Small Manufacturing Firms.’Social Science Quarterly, 72, 1 (March): 149–162.
    Yuchtman, Ephraim and StanleySeashore. 1967. ‘A System Resource Approach to Organizational Effectiveness.’American Sociological Review, 32, 6 (December): 891–903.
    Zajac, Edward J.1988. ‘Interlocking Directorates as an Interorganizational Strategy: A Test of Critical Assumptions.’Academy of Management Journal, 31, 2 (June): 428–438.
    Zajac, Edward J. and MatthewS. Kraatz. 1993. ‘A Diametric Forces Model of Strategic Change: Assessing the Antecedents and Consequences of Restructuring in the Higher Education Industry.’Strategic Management Journal, 14, Special Issue (Summer): 83–102.
    Zajac, Edward J. and JamesD. Westphal. 1996. ‘Director Reputation, CEO-Board Power, and the Dynamics of Board Interlocks.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 3 (September): 507–529.
    Zald, Mayer N.1970. Organizational Change: The Political Economy of the YMCA. Chicago, MA: University of Chicago Press.
    Zald, Mayer and MichaelBerger. 1978. ‘Social Movements in Organizations: Coup d'État, Insurgency, and Mass Movements.’American Journal of Sociology, 83, 4 (January): 823–861.
    Zald, Mayer N. and PatriciaDenton. 1963. ‘From Evangelism to General Service: The Transformation of the YMCA.’Administrative Science Quarterly, 8, 3 (September): 214–234.
    Zelizer, Vivian A.1978. ‘Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.’American Journal of Sociology, 84, 3 (November): 591–610.
    Zeune, G.D.1993. ‘Ducks in a Row: Orchestrating the Flawless Stock Offering.’Corporate Cashflow, 14, 2: 18–21.
    Zimmer, Catherine and HowardE. Aldrich. 1987. ‘Resource Mobilization Through Ethnic Networks: Kinship and Friendship Ties of Shopkeepers in England.’Sociological Perspectives, 30, 4 (October): 422–455.
    Zorn, Dirk. 2004. ‘Here a Chief, There a Chief: The Rise of the CFO.’American Sociological Review, 69, 3 (June): 345–364.
    Zuboff, Shoshana. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books.
    Zucker, Lynne G.1986. ‘Production of Trust: Institutional Sources of Economic Structure, 1840–1920.’ pp. 53–112 in Barry M.Staw and Larry L.Cummings (eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 8. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Zucker, Lynne G.1987. ‘Institutional Theories of Organization.’ pp. 443–464 in Annual Review of Sociology, 13. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
    Zucker, Lynne G.1988. ‘Where Do Institutional Patterns Come from? Organizations as Actors in Social Systems.’ pp. 23–49 in Lynne G.Zucker (ed.), Institutional Patterns and Organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Zucker, Lynne G.1989. ‘Combining Institutional Theory and Population Ecology: No Legitimacy, No History.’American Sociological Review, 54, 4 (August): 542–545.
    Zuckerman, Ezra. 1999. ‘The Categorical Imperative: Securities Analysts and the Illegitimacy Discount.’American Journal of Sociology, 104, 5 (March): 1398–1438.
    Zuckerman, Ezra. 2004. ‘Structural Incoherence and Stock Market Activity.’American Sociological Review, 69, 3 (June): 405–432.

    Author Index