Neighborhood Planning and Community-Based Development: The Potential and Limits of Grassroots Action

Books

William Peterman

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    I first became involved with neighborhood planning and community development when I was on the faculty of Bowling Green State University in Ohio during the 1970s. Almost by chance I developed an association with the Toledo Metropolitan Mission (TMM). TMM had received a small grant to assist an ad hoc group of citizens on the fringe of the urbanized area of Toledo in an effort to fight urban sprawl.1 I first inquired about the effort and then volunteered to help. At the time, TMM, the action arm of the Toledo (Ohio) Council of Churches, was headed by an ex-priest, Jerry Ceille, who had previously been an associate of the well-known Milwaukee activist priest, Father Groppi. It was through working with TMM and Ceille that I initially came to discover how community organizing, activism, and community-oriented research could bring about effective community building.

    Building on my initial work with TMM, I applied for and received a National Science Foundation “public service science residency.” The short-lived residency program (I believe it lasted only 2 years) allowed me to take a year's leave of absence to work full-time with TMM. During this year, I worked on several neighborhood issues being supported by TMM. I helped a group of churches plan and implement a dial-a-ride medical transportation system for inner-city seniors, helped another group of seniors develop plans for an activity center, and helped found the Greater Toledo Housing Coalition. The highlight of this last activity was traveling to Cincinnati to present the case for the very first challenge ever made under the then newly enacted Community Reinvestment Act (CRA).

    After my residency was over, I continued to work with TMM on a voluntary basis, but in 1979 I got the opportunity to go to the University of Illinois at Chicago and to become the director of the newly formed Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement, a unit of the College of Architecture, Art, and Urban Planning.2 The search committee for the director was looking for an academic with experience in doing community development, and my work with TMM had made me somewhat unique among those who had applied. In a written document in which I articulated what I hoped to be able to do as director of the Voorhees Center, I argued that research and technical assistance were important for supporting community organizing and community development. I also stated that I believed that universities had an obligation to serve the needs of the communities in which they are located and that an outreach center was one way that this obligation could be met.

    During the approximately 11 years that I directed the Voorhees Center, I had the opportunity to work in a variety of Chicago's communities, with many different community organizations, and on a variety of topics ranging from an inventory of art owned by the Chicago Park District to the opposition of a sports stadium complex on Chicago's near west side. In each instance, the Voorhees Center responded to a request for assistance from the neighborhood and partnered on projects with community-based organizations or areawide organizations concerned about neighborhood development. A few of these efforts are documented in this book.

    I have always considered what we did at the Voorhees Center to be research in that we were constantly seeking to find new ways and means to improve the quality of neighborhoods and the socioeconomic well-being of neighborhood people.3 We, ourselves, did not become directly involved in community organizing but instead worked alongside of individuals whose mission was community organizing. It was the dual efforts of research and organizing that resulted in most of our successes. It should be noted, however, that neighborhood work of this type is not easy, and our failures were as numerous as our successes.

    In 1991, I left the Voorhees Center to become a regular faculty member in the University of Illinois at Chicago's School of Urban Planning and Policy.4 Then in 1995, the opportunity arose for me to apply to head up yet another urban center, this time at Chicago State University, a medium-sized comprehensive teaching university on Chicago's south side. I applied and was offered the position. So now, once again, I am attempting to bring the resources of a university to bear on the problems of urban neighborhoods.

    I began writing this book with encouragement from several of my colleagues, and I hope that I can live up to their expectations. In many ways, I no longer believe as I did 15 to 20 years ago that community-based efforts are the only way to do urban development. Nor do I believe that community-based organizations are always fair, equitable, and right. And although I am hopeful about the future of our cities, I am not optimistic about current trends relating to poverty, immigration, affirmative action, and overall fairness.

    I believe that to do successful neighborhood work, one must be a realist. Global, national, and local forces have significant impacts on what happens in neighborhoods, and no amount of community organizing at the local level will change these forces. Racism and sexism cannot be countered by working only at the neighborhood level. But unorganized and unassisted communities, whether they be communities of place or communities of common interest or identity, will always suffer more than those that have come together to determine what they want and expect and have identified and obtained the resources needed to at least make progress toward their visions. On my office wall hangs a small poster with a quote from the legendary labor activist Mother Jones: “Pray for the dead and fight like hell for the living” (Jones 1925, p. 41). I have always tried to follow Mother's charge.

    It is argued that cities have always been the center of civilization (Mumford, 1961). Despite some progress toward revitalizing some parts of some cities, our metropolitan areas remain in trouble, fragmented politically and socially, with too many poor and disadvantaged people compelled to live in deteriorating areas far from jobs and other opportunities. We tend to call places where the poor and disadvantaged live neighborhoods, although many of these places have few if any neighborhood amenities. But it seems to me that as our neighborhoods die, so do the cities in which they exist, and ultimately the entire metropolis suffers. So, even though there are significant forces that work against the empowerment of local communities, it is still important and essential to work to improve the quality of life in our central cities. Doing good in central-city neighborhoods will ultimately benefit us all.

    Acknowlegment

    The material in this book covers a period of nearly 20 years. Over those years I worked with numerous people, many who helped me either in my work or in my thinking about neighborhood development. All these people, at least their thoughts and deeds, appear in this book. Although I cannot possibly acknowledge them all, I must at least single out several individuals.

    This book would never have been written had it not been for the encouragement of my good colleague, Myron Levine of Albion College. Myron insisted that I put aside my vow to never write a book, and he got Roger Caves, Bob Waste, and Margaret Wilder interested in what I might have to write. They, in turn, got Catherine Rossbach of Sage to show up at my office door one day at Chicago State University. Catherine not only convinced me I should write a book, but she also kept me going throughout the entire process. My wife, Jean Peterman, can also take credit for helping me get to the end. Because her book was published before mine, she showed me, by example, that I could do it.

    I have always thought of students as being my colleagues. In the projects that make up the case studies in this book, I was lucky to have had the assistance of several excellent students. Among them were David Browne, Sherrie Hannon, Ken Brierre, Mary Ann Young, and Jean Gunner of the University of Illinois at Chicago and, more recently, Elaine Davis and Allegra Henderson of Chicago State University. Most of my good ideas have resulted from lively discussions with these and other students. I particularly value and miss my conversations with Sherrie Hannon, who was without a doubt my finest student and who died much too soon.

    Three individuals have played key roles at various parts of my professional career, and they must be singled out. They are true partners—Hallie Aimee, Stanley Horn, and Shiela Radford-Hill. Their role in shaping my ideas about neighborhood development cannot be underestimated.

    Finally, I must acknowledge my current colleagues at Chicago State University—Mark Bouman, Celeste Henderson, and Mike Siola. These three have made it possible for me to continue applying what I know and to help meet at least some of the needs of the communities that make up the southeast and far south sides of Chicago. They also help me to keep my spirits up when things are not going just right. That I could write this book while expanding the outreach work at Chicago State University suggests that they know their jobs and do them well, sometimes despite my interference.

    Notes

    1. My wife was on the committee that awarded the grant to TMM. Following one of the committee meetings, she mentioned the project to me as one that I might be interested in. I subsequently contacted TMM about it. Although skeptical at first about working with some unknown young academic, TMM's director, Jerry Ceille, eventually accepted my offer to assist in the project on a pro bono basis.

    2. Along with the Center for Urban Economic Development (CUED), the Voorhees Center became the model on which the university's “Great Cities” program would be developed in the 1990s. At the time I became director of the Voorhees Center, there was little support for grassroots activism on the part of the University of Illinois at Chicago administration, and the center initially got a poor review because it did too little “scholarly” work and did not bring enough grant money into the university.

    3. Sometimes what we did would result in work that could be published in academic journals, but often it did not. Publishing and grant making were not the primary goals of the center, and this occasionally got us in trouble with our academic colleagues.

    4. I was followed as director of the Voorhees Center by Patricia Wright, who had been on the staff of the CUED at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Under Pat's guidance, the Voorhees Center has continued to assist community-based efforts throughout Chicago and, in my personal opinion, has carried the work of the center to a new and higher level.

  • References

    Advisory Council on the Chicago Housing Authority. (1988). New strategies, new standards for new times in public housing. Chicago: Author.
    Alinsky, S. D. (1972). Rules for radicals: A practical primer for realistic radicals. New York: Vintage.
    Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 8, 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225
    Austin, M. J., & Betten, N. (1990). The roots of community organizing, 1917-1939. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Bowden, C., & Kreinberg, L. (1981). Street signs Chicago: Neighborhood and other illusions of big-city life. Chicago: Chicago Review Press.
    Bowley, D. (1978). The poorhouse: Subsidized housing in Chicago, 1895-1976. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Bradford, C. (1979). Financing home ownership: The federal role in urban decline. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 14, 313–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808747901400303
    Bratt, R. G. (1989). Rebuilding a low-income housing policy. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Bratt, R. G. (1991). Mutual housing: Community-based empowerment. Journal of Housing, 48, 173–180.
    Bratt, R. G. (1997). CDCs: Contributions outweigh contradictions: A reply to Randy Stoecker. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19, 23–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00393.x
    Bratt, R. G., & Keyes, L. C. (1997). New perspectives on self-sufficiency: Strategies of nonprofit housing organizations. Medford, MA: Department of Urban and Environmental Policy, Tufts University.
    Bratt, R. G., Vidal, A. C., Schwartz, A., Keyes, L. C., & Stockard, J. (1998). The status of nonprofit-owned affordable housing: Short-term success and long-term challenges. Journal of the American Planning Association, 64, 39–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944369808975955
    Brazier, A. M. (1969). Black self-determination: The story of the Woodlawn Organization. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Herdman.
    Breitbart, M. (1974). Advocacy planning. In R. E.Kasperson & M.Breitbart (Eds.), Participation, decentralization, and advocacy planning (Commission on College Geography Resource Paper No. 25, pp. 41–55). Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers.
    Brown, C. (1997, June). The United Way/Crusade of Mercy's housing initiative: Changing the way United Way views housing. Paper presented at Housing in the 21st Century: Looking Forward, a meeting of the International Sociological Association Committee on Housing and the Built Environment, Arlington, VA.
    Burgess, E. W. (1925a). Can neighborhood work have a scientific basis? In R. E.Park, E. W.Burgess, & R. D.McKenzie (Eds.), The city (pp. 142–155). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Burgess, E. W. (1925b). The growth of the city: An introduction to a research project. In R. E.Park, E. W.Burgess, & R. D.McKenzie (Eds.), The city (pp. 47–62). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Chandler, M. O. (1991). What have we learned from public housing resident management?Journal of Planning Literature, 6, 136–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088541229100600202
    Checkoway, B. (1984). Two types of planning in neighborhoods. Journal of Planning, Education, and Research, 3, 102–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739456X8400300209
    Chicago Fact Book Consortium. (1995). Local community fact book: Chicago metropolitan area 1990. Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers.
    Clavel, P., & Wiewel, W. (Eds.). (1991). Harold Washington and the neighborhoods: Progressive city government in Chicago, 1983-1987. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Cleveland City Planning Commission. (1975). Cleveland policy planning report. Cleveland, OH: Author.
    Davidoff, P. (1965). Advocacy and pluralism in planning. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 31, 331–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944366508978187
    Dedman, B. (1988, May 1-4). The color of money. Atlanta Journal/Constitution.
    DeGiovanni, F. (1983). Patterns of change in housing market activity in revitalizing neighborhoods. Journal of the American Planning Association, 49, 22–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944368308976193
    de Tocqueville, A. (1945). Democracy in America. New York: Vintage. (Original publication 1835).
    Drier, P. (1996). Community empowerment strategies: The limits and potential of community organizing in urban neighborhoods. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, 2, 121–159.
    Federal Housing Administration (FHA). (1936). Planning neighborhoods for small houses (Technical bulletin no. 5). Washington, DC: Author.
    Ford, L. R. (1991). A metatheory of urban structure. In J. F.Hart (Ed.), Our changing cities (pp. 12–30). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Gans, H. J. (1962). The urban villagers: Group and class in the life of Italian-Americans. New York: Free Press.
    Gans, H. J. (1991). People, plans and policies. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Garreau, J. (1991). Edge city: Life on the new frontier. New York: Doubleday.
    Giloth, R. (1988). Community economic development: Strategies and practices of the 1980s. Economic Development Quarterly, 2, 343–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124248800200409
    Goldsmith, W. W., & Blakely, E. J. (1992). Separate societies: Poverty and inequality in U.S. cities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Gunner, J. (1991). South Armour Square community: A case study of displacement. Unpublished master's project, University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Hall, P. (1989). The turbulent eighth decade: Challenges to American city planning. Journal of the American Planning Association, 55, 275–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944368908975415
    Henig, J. R. (1981). Community organizations in gentrifying neighborhoods. Journal of Community Action, 2(2), 45–55.
    Hirsch, A. (1983). Making the second ghetto: Race and housing in Chicago 1940-1960. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Howard, E. (1945). Garden cities of tomorrow. London: Fisher and Faber. (Original publication 1902).
    ICF, Inc. (1992). Evaluation of resident management in public housing. Washington, DC: Office of Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
    Jacobs, A. B. (1980). Making city planning work. Washington, DC: American Planning Association.
    Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Vintage.
    Janke, D. A. (1996). Roseland Christian ministries: “I saw the Holy City” 1997-2002. South Holland, IL: Covenant House Ministries.
    Janowitz, M. (1952). The community press in an urban setting: The social elements of urbanism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Jones, B. (1990). Neighborhood planning: A guide for citizens and planners. Chicago: Planners Press.
    Jones, M. (1925). The autobiography of Mother Jones. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company.
    Joravsky, B. (1987). Comiskey neighbors organize for survival. The Neighborhood Works, 10(8), 1, 15–17.
    Joravsky, B. (1988, April 22). The stadium game: Who loses if the White Sox win?The Reader.
    Kain, J. (1968). Housing segregation, Negro employment, and metropolitan decentralization. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 82, 175–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1885893
    Keating, W. D. (1989, February/March/April). The emergence of community development corporations: Their impact on housing and neighborhoods. Shelterforce, pp. 8–14.
    Keating, W. D. (1997). The CDC model of urban development: A reply to Randy Stoecker. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19, 29–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00394.x
    Kennedy, M. (1996). Transformative community planning: Empowerment through community development. Planners Network, 118, 12–13.
    Knoke, D., & Woods, J. R. (1981). Organized for action: Commitment in voluntary associations. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Kotler, M. (1969). Neighborhood government: The local foundations of political life. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Krumholz, N. (1982). A retrospective view of equity planning: Cleveland 1969-1979. Journal of the American Planning Association, 48, 163–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944368208976535
    Krumholz, N., & Forester, J. (1990). Making equity planning work: Leadership in the public sector. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Kunstler, J. H. (1993). The geography of nowhere: The rise and decline of America's man-made landscape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Langdon, P. (1994). A better place to live: Reshaping the American suburb. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Leachman, M., Nyden, P., Peterman, W., & Coleman, D. (1998). Black, white, and shades of brown: Fair housing and economic opportunity in the Chicago region. Chicago: Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities.
    Logan, J. R., & Molotch, H. L. (1987). Urban fortunes: The political economy of place. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (1981). Tenant management: Findings from a three ear experiment in public housing. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mayer, N. S., & Blake, J. L. (1981). Keys to the growth of neighborhood development organizations. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
    McIlwain, C. H. (1936-1937). The historian's part in a changing world. American Historical Review, 42, 212.
    McKenzie, R. D. (1925). The ecological approach to the study of the human community. In R. E.Park, E. W.Burgess, & R. D.McKenzie (Eds.), The city (pp. 63–79). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Metzger, J. T. (1996). The theory and practice of equity planning: An annotated bibliography (Council of Planning Librarians bibliography no. 329). Journal of Planning Literature, 11, 112–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088541229601100106
    Metzger, J. T. (1998). Neighborhood Reinvestment Corporation. In W.van Vliet (Ed.), The encyclopedia of housing (pp. 392–393). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Mier, R. (Ed.). (1993). Social justice and local development policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Milroy, B. (1991). Into postmodern weightlessness. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 10, 181–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739456X9101000304
    Monti, D. J. (1989). The organizational strengths and weaknesses of resident managed public housing sites in the United States. Journal of Urban Affairs, 11, 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1989.tb00175.x
    Morris, D., & Hess, K. (1975). Neighborhood power: The new localism. Boston: Beacon.
    Mumford, L. (1961). The city in history: Its origins, its transformations, and its prospect. New York: Harcourt Brace.
    Naparstek, A. J., & Cincotta, G. (1976). Urban disinvestment: New implications for community organization, research, and public policy. Washington, DC: National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs.
    National Association of Neighborhoods. (1979). National neighborhood platform. Washington, DC: Author.
    National Congress for Community Economic Development.(1989). Against all odds: The achievements of community-based development organizations. Washington, DC: Author.
    Nelson, K. P. (1994). Whose shortage of affordable housing?Housing Policy Debate, 5, 401441. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1994.9521172
    Nyden, P., Maly, M., Lukehart, J., & Peterman, W. (1998). Neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity in U.S. cities and overview of the 14 neighborhoods studied. Cityscape, 4(2), 1–28.
    Park, R. E., Burgess, E. W., & McKenzie, R. D. (Eds.). (1925). The city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Perin, C. (1977). Everything in its place: Social order and land use in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Perry, C. A. (1929). The neighborhood unit: Regional plan of New York and its environs, VII. New York: Regional Plan Association.
    Peterman, W. (1993). Resident management and other approaches to tenant control of public housing. In R. A.Hays (Ed.), Ownership, control, and the future of housing policy (pp. 161–175). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Peterman, W. (1996). The meanings of resident empowerment: Why just about everybody thinks it's a good idea and what it has to do with resident management. Housing Policy Debate, 7, 473–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10511482.1996.9521230
    Peterman, W. (1997, June). Neighborhoods, affordability, and low income housing policy in Chicago, Illinois. Paper presented at Housing in the 21st Century: Looking Forward, a meeting of the International Sociological Association Research Committee 43—Housing and the Built Environment, Arlington, VA.
    Peterman, W., & Hannon, S. (1986). Influencing change in gentrifying neighborhoods: Do community-based organizations have a role?Urban Resources, 3(3), 33–36, 54.
    Pierce, N. R., & Steinbach, C. F. (1987). Corrective capitalism: The rise of “America's community development corporations. New York: Ford Foundation.
    Piven, F. F., & Cloward, R. (1993). Regulating the poor: The functions of public welfare. New York: Vintage.
    Prestby, J. E., & Wandersman, A. (1985). An empirical explanation of a framework of organizational viability: Maintaining block organizations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 21, 287–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188638502100305
    Reardon, K. M. (1997). Participatory action research and real community-based planning in East St. Louis, Illinois. In P.Nyden, A.Figert, M.Shibley, & D.Burrows (Eds.), Building community: Social science in action (pp. 233–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
    Research and Policy Committee. (1995). Rebuilding inner-city communities: A new approach to the nation's urban crisis. New York: Committee for Economic Development.
    Riger, S., & Laurakas, P. J. (1981). Community ties: Patterns of attachment and social interaction in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 55–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00896360
    Ross, B. H., & Levine, M. A. (1996). Urban politics: Power in metropolitan America. Itasca, IL: Peacock.
    Rubin, H. J. (1993). Community empowerment within an alternative economy. In D.Peck & J.Murphy (Eds.), Open institutions: The hope for democracy (pp. 99–121). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Rubin, H. J. (1994). There aren't going to be any bakeries here if there is no money to afford jellyrolls: The organic theory of community based development. Social Problems, 41, 401–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1994.41.3.03x0446d
    Rubin, H. J., & Rubin, I. S. (1992). Community organizing and development. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Sacks, D. H. (1989). Celebrating authority in Bristol, 1475-1640. In S.Zimmerman and R. F. E.Weissman (Eds.), Urban life in the renaissance (pp. 187–223). Newark: University of Delaware Press.
    Salem, G. (1993). Participatory politics. In D.Simpson (Ed.), Chicago's future in a time of change (pp. 206–216). Champaign, IL: Stipes.
    Sandburg, C. (1994). Chicago poems. New York: Dover. (Original publication 1916).
    Save the Sox—on the west side. (1988, May 30). Chicago Sun-Times.
    Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is beautiful: Economics as if people mattered. New York: Harper & Row.
    Schwartz, A., Bratt, R. G., Vidal, A. C., & Keyes, L. C. (1996). Nonprofit housing organizations and institutional support: The management challenge. Journal of Urban Affairs, 18, 389–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1996.tb00387.x
    Sennett, R. (1976). The fall of public man. New York: Knopf.
    Smith, C. (1995). Urban disorder and the shape of belief. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Southworth, M., & Ben-Joseph, E. (1995). Street standards and the shaping of suburbia. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61, 65–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944369508975620
    Speeter, G. (1978). Power: A repossession manual. Amherst: Citizen Involvement Training Project, University of Massachusetts.
    Spielman, F. (1988, April 19). Sox park “can be saved”: Firm revises assessment of Comiskey. Chicago Sun-Times, p. 8.
    Squires, G. D. (1994). Capital and communities in black and white: The intersections of race, class and uneven development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Squires, G. D., Bennett, L., McCourt, K., & Nyden, P. (1987). Chicago: Race, class, and the response to urban decline. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Squires, G. D., & Velez, W. (1987). Neighborhood racial composition and mortgage lending: City and suburban differences. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23, 217–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1987.tb00477.x
    Squires, G. D., Velez, W., & Taeuber, K. E. (1991). Insurance redlining, agency location, and the process of urban disinvestment. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 26, 567–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208169102600407
    Stein, C. S. (1951). Toward new towns for America. Liverpool, UK: University Press of Liverpool.
    Stoecker, R. (1997). The CDC model of urban redevelopment: A critique and an alternative. Journal of Urban Affairs, 19, 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9906.1997.tb00392.x
    Suttles, G. D. (1972). The social construction of communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Turner, M. A., Struyk, R. Y., & Yinger, J. (1991). Housing discrimination study. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    United Way/Crusade of Mercy. (1996). A best practice study of affordable housing property management. Chicago: Author.
    United Way Needs Assessment Committee for Community Development. (1998). A new strategy for community development in Chicago. Chicago: United Way/Crusade of Mercy.
    Vander Weele, M. (1994). Reclaiming our schools: The struggle for Chicago school reform. Chicago: Loyola University Press.
    Vidal, A. C. (1992). Rebuilding communities: A national study of urban community development corporations. New York: Community Development Research Center, Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy, New School for Social Research.
    Vidal, A. C. (1997). Can community development re-invent itself? The challenges of strengthening neighborhoods in the 21st century. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63, 429–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944369708975937
    Weiner, D. H. (Ed.). (1993). The Chicago affordable housing fact book: Vision for change. Chicago: Chicago Rehab Network.
    Werth, J. T., & Bryant, D. (1979). A guide to neighborhood planning. Washington, DC: American Planning Association.
    Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wiltz, T. (1990, January). Neighborhoods: Battle over new Comiskey Park goes into extra innings. Chicago Enterprise, pp. 14–15, 28.
    Worley, W. S. (1990). J. C. Nichols and the shaping of Kansas City: Innovation in planned residential communities. Columbia: University of Missouri Press.

    About the Author

    William Peterman is Professor of Geography at Chicago State University, where he is coordinator of both the Fredrick Blum Neighborhood Assistance Center and the Calument Environmental Resource Center. Both centers work with local community organizations, agencies, and governments to focus the resources of the university for the purpose of community problem solving. Dr. Peter-man received his Ph.D. from the University of Denver, specializing in the area of urban geography. He has had 25 years of experience creating and maintaining university/community collaborations. He previously was associate director of environmental studies at Bowling Green State University and was director of the Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has been the senior faculty fellow for the Illinois Campus Compact for Community Service and has received community service awards from the Chicago United Way/Crusade of Mercy, Chicago's Leadership Council for Metropolitan Open Communities, and HOPE Fair Housing Center of suburban Chicago.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website