This book helps elected and appointed government officials and citizens assess and establish standards for the efficient and effective delivery of quality services. Actual benchmarks are provided for numerous services such as libraries, parks and recreation, public works, emergency medical services, courts, animal control, risk management and public transport.

Parks and Recreation
Parks and recreation

In 1906, the fledgling Playground Association of America (PAA) called for playground space equal to 30 square feet per child. Although the formulators of this standard acknowledged the existence of “no inherent relation between space and children,” they reported the establishment of such a requirement in London and thought it reasonable (cited in Gold, 1973, p. 144; Lancaster, 1983, p. 15). Thus began a long series of standards adopted by leading associations in the parks and recreation field that have established ratios between recommended park acreage or recreational facilities and population. These ratios are the best known, but not the only or least controversial, standards in parks and recreation.

History of Parks and Recreation Standards1

Following the adoption of the 30-square-feet-per-child standard ...

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