Municipal Benchmarks Assessing Local Performance and Establishing Community Standards

Books

David N. Ammons

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    In memory of Jan Ammons and Dot Hudson—both benchmarks, themselves.

    Copyright

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    Preface

    City governments need performance benchmarks, if they are serious about the efficient delivery of quality services. And their citizens need municipal benchmarks, if they are not!

    Some years ago, as a local government practitioner, I fielded intermittent inquiries from council members and citizens who were concerned about our police department, our parks and recreation department, or our public works department, and who wondered whether local performance was up to par. Such questions were difficult to answer back then, except perhaps by anecdote — my tales of good performance balancing their bad ones—or by resorting to testimonials or evidence of “busy-ness.” Not surprisingly, however, my assurances that the police department was making as many arrests as last year or that the streets department was laying as many tons of asphalt were hardly compelling to a caller who doubted that last year's performance was very good either! Such instances begged for a standard or benchmark against which local performance could be judged.

    Now, as a university faculty member with a specialty in the management of local government, I still get those questions. My perspective might have changed a little because my relationship to the caller and the municipality in question is different and because the locales from which the calls come are more widespread, but the questions are basically the same. Mayors, council members, general citizens, and municipal administrators, too, want to know how to judge the service delivery performance of their local government. Often, the answers in the past were regrettably incomplete. “Hmm, I think typical performance is about…” or “I heard some time ago that professional standards were being considered. Maybe they have been established and would apply in this case.” As one city official, contacted prior to the first edition of Municipal Benchmarks, said, “Unfortunately, there is no central repository of such standards.”

    Well, there is now.

    Mayors, city council members, city managers, department heads, other municipal officials, and citizens who want a measuring rod for local government services can turn to the benchmarks presented in this book. They will find national standards, “engineered” standards, statistical norms, rules of thumb, selected statistics from comparative performance measurement projects, excerpts from actual performance records, and performance targets of a collection of respected cities.

    The list of benchmarks is long—and with the second edition the list keeps growing and the benchmarks become more and more ambitious. That is the nature of benchmarks, and it is also the nature of the drive for continuous improvement.

    Acknowledgments

    The preparation of this book turned out to be a bigger project than I imagined at its beginning. I am indebted to many persons who have graciously assisted me along the way. Matt Bronson, Ben Canada, Larry DiRe, Randy Harrington, and Sonya Smith, graduate students at the University of North Carolina, helped me with this second edition—much like their fine group of predecessors, Jordan Davis, Jeremy Chen, Anne Lockwood, and Debra Hill at the University of Georgia, did do when I was working on the first edition. Each tackled various data collection tasks and doggedly pursued authorities who could answer the recurring questions “Are there standards on this?” and “What does this number mean?”

    Alex Hess, Marsha Lobacz, and Edie Hughes of the Institute of Government Library at the University of North Carolina tracked down elusive bits of information for me time after time. My son, Drew, readied various figures for publication. Elaine Welch, Patt Dower, and Elizabeth Gardner were immensely helpful as I pursued the tedious tasks of cataloging information and developing tables for the manuscript. The project was probably bigger than they had imagined, too.

    Richard W. Campbell, my friend and colleague at the University of Georgia, saw value in this project from the beginning and urged me on. I thank him again for that.

    Above all, I am indebted to the many officials who each added bits and pieces to the growing collection of material that eventually became the heart of this volume. Officials in various professional associations affiliated with or relevant to municipal government responded to inquiries, provided documents, and offered helpful advice when my pursuits needed to be redirected. A host of municipal officials scattered across the United States and Canada were generous with their time and with pertinent documents. Most of all, they were generous with their words of encouragement, providing reassurance time and again that this product was eagerly awaited and would be worth the effort.

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    Municipal Documents

    • City and County of Denver (CO). Mayor's proposed 2000 budget.
    • City of Albuquerque (NM). (1996, December). Albuquerque progress report: December 1996.
    • City of Albuquerque (NM). Approved budget: Fiscal year 1997.
    • City of Albuquerque (NM). (1998, October). Goals in action: Goals, community conditions, service strategies, programs and objectives in the City of Albuquerque (2nd ed.).
    • City of Alexandria (VA). Fiscal year 1992–1993 approved budget.
    • City of Alexandria (VA). Fiscal year 1994–1995 approved budget.
    • City of Alexandria (VA). Fiscal year 1996–1997 approved budget.
    • City of Alexandria (VA). Fiscal year 2000 approved operating budget.
    • City of Alexandria (VA). Fiscal year 2000–fiscal year 2005 approved budgetCapital improvement program.
    • City of Amarillo (TX). Annual budget: 1992–1993.
    • City of Ames (IA). 1998–99 program budget.
    • City of Anaheim (CA). Resource allocation plan: 1992/93.
    • City of Ann Arbor (MI). 1996–1997 annual budget.
    • City of Ann Arbor (MI). Measures of success: First quarter FY 1996/97.
    • City of Ann Arbor (MI). 1999/2000 budget.
    • City of Auburn (AL). FY93 annual budget.
    • City of Auburn (AL). FY97 annual budget.
    • City of Bakersfield (CA). Annual budget, 1989–90.
    • City of Bellevue (WA). 1998 performance measures.
    • City of Bellevue (WA). 1999–2000 budget (Vol. 1).
    • City of Bellevue (WA). 1999–2000 budget (Vol. 2).
    • City of Boca Raton (FL). Approved budget, FY 1998–99 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Boise (ID). Annual budget 1992–93.
    • City of Boston (MA). Mayor's management report: FY 1992 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Boston (MA). Mayor's management report: FY 1992 (Vol. 2).
    • City of Boston (MA). Mayor's management report: FY 1996 (Vol. 2).
    • City of Brentwood (TN). Fiscal year 1996–97 annual budget.
    • City of Burbank (CA) Fire Department. Management reporting system: Year end report 1988–89.
    • City of Burbank (CA). 1992–1994 biennial budget.
    • City of Calgary (Alberta). 1998 operating budget: Volume VPerformance measures.
    • City of Cambridge (MA). Annual budget 1996–97.
    • City of Carrollton (TX). Comprehensive annual financial report: Fiscal year ended September 30, 1993.
    • City of Chandler (AZ). Annual budget 1992–1993.
    • City of Chandler (AZ). Annual budget: 1996–97.
    • City of Chandler (AZ). 1999–2000 annual budget.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). FY88–FY89 objectives.
    • City of Charlotte (NC) Budget and Evaluation Department. (1994, January). Achievement of objectives: FY94 mid-year status report.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). FY95 operating plan.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). FY98 year-end corporate scorecard report.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). Corporate performance report: FY99 year-end.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). The corporate scorecard: Inventory, fiscal year 1999.
    • City of Charlotte (NC). FY99 business plan: Engineering and property management.
    • City of Charlottesville (VA). Adopted budget 1998–99.
    • City of Chesapeake (VA). Approved operating budget: 1992–93.
    • City of Chesapeake (VA). Fiscal year 1998–99 operating budget.
    • City of Cincinnati (OH) Research, Evaluation and Budget. (1992, May 1). Annual performance report: 1991 measures of success.
    • City of Cincinnati (OH). 1993/1994 budget: Program information.
    • City of Cincinnati (OH). Biennial operating budget: 1995–1996.
    • City of Cincinnati (OH). Measures of success: 1995 (July 1996).
    • City of Cincinnati (OH). (n.d.). City manager recommended benchmarks and current operation descriptions (undated).
    • City of College Park (MD). (1992, May 26). Adopted operating and capital budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1993 and five-year capital improvement plan.
    • City of College Park (MD). Adopted operating and capital budget for fiscal year 2000 and five-year capital improvement program.
    • City of College Station (TX). 1992–1993 annual budget.
    • City of College Station (TX). FY 1996–1997 budget.
    • City of College Station (TX). FY 1999–2000 annual budget.
    • City of Corpus Christi (TX). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1992–1993.
    • City of Corpus Christi (TX). Annual quality plans: FY 1995–96.
    • City of Corpus Christi (TX). Performance plans: FY 98–99.
    • City of Corpus Christi (TX). Performance reports: December 1998.
    • City of Corvallis (OR). Quarterly operating report: Fourth quarter ending June 30, 1992.
    • City of Corvallis (OR). Fiscal year 1992–93 annual budget.
    • City of Dallas (TX). (1989, August). Dallas Police Department's recommendations to improve response time to citizens’ calls for police service.
    • City of Dallas (TX) Parks and Recreation Department. (1992, April). City comparison study.
    • City of Danville (KY). Annual budget for fiscal year ending June 30, 1999.
    • City of Dayton (OH) Office of Management and Budget. (1991). 1991 program strategies.
    • City of Decatur (IL). Annual performance budget, fiscal year 1992–1993 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Decatur (IL). Annual performance budget: 1996–1997.
    • City of Denton (TX). Annual program of services: 1992–93.
    • City of Denton (TX). Annual program of services: 1998–99.
    • City of Duncanville (TX). Annual budget: Fiscal year October 1, 1991–September 30, 1992.
    • City of Duncanville (TX). Comprehensive annual financial report for the fiscal year ended September 30, 1996.
    • City of Duncanville (TX). Duncanville annual budget 1996–97.
    • City of Duncanville (TX). 1998–99 annual budget.
    • City of Duncanville (TX). 1999–2000 budget.
    • City of Dunedin (FL). Fiscal year 1992/1993 adopted annual operating and capital budgets.
    • City of Durham (NC). FY 1999–2000 budget.
    • City of Edmonton (Alberta). Business plan 1996–1998: Office of the city clerk.
    • City of Eugene (OR). Proposed budget: Fiscal year 1998.
    • City of Eugene (OR). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1999.
    • City of Fairfield (CA). Proposed 1992/93 budget and ten-year financial plan.
    • City of Fayetteville (AR). (1989, January). Public works maintenance management system: System manual.
    • City of Fayetteville (AR). Annual budget and work program: 1993.
    • City of Fayetteville (AR). Annual budget and work program: 1994.
    • City of Fayetteville (AR). 1999 annual budget and work program.
    • City of Flagstaff (AZ). Annual budget and financial plan: 1998–1999.
    • City of Fort Collins (CO). 1993 annual budget: Volume 1. Budget overview.
    • City of Fort Collins (CO). 1993 annual budget: Volume 2. Program performance budget.
    • City of Fort Collins (CO). 1998 and 1999 biennial budget, volume 2: Program performance budget.
    • City of Fort Smith (AR). Fiscal year 1999 budget.
    • City of Fort Worth (TX). 1992–1993 annual budget and program objectives.
    • City of Fort Worth (TX). Annual budget and program objectives: 1998–99.
    • City of Gainesville (GA). Annual budget: Fiscal year ending June 30, 2000.
    • City of Germantown (TN). Fiscal year 1997 budget.
    • City of Glendale (AZ). 1998–1999 annual budget.
    • City of Grand Junction (CO). Comprehensive annual financial report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 1991.
    • City of Grand Junction (CO). 1992–1993 municipal budgets.
    • City of Grand Prairie (TX). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1996–1997 approved.
    • City of Grand Prairie (TX). Approved budget: Fiscal year 1997–1998.
    • City of Grants Pass (OR). Adopted operating/capital budget: Fiscal year 1996–1997.
    • City of Greeley (CO). 1999 budget.
    • City of Greensboro (NC). Adopted budget 1998–1999 and projected budget 1999–2000.
    • City of Greenville (SC). 1991 year-end performance report.
    • City of Greenville (SC). 1992 adopted budget.
    • City of Gresham (OR). Adopted operating/capital budget document: Fiscal year 1992–93.
    • City of High Point (NC). Performance objectives and measures: Fourth quarter ending June 30, 1998.
    • City of Houston (TX) Finance and Administration Department. FY93 monthly status report for the period ended December 31, 1992.
    • City of Houston (TX). Adopted budget for fiscal year ending June 30, 1993 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Houston (TX). Adopted budget for fiscal year ending June 30, 1993 (Vol. 2).
    • City of Hurst (TX). Annual operating budget for fiscal year of 1991–92.
    • City of Hurst (TX). Annual operating budget for fiscal year 1998–1999.
    • City of Iowa City (IA). Comprehensive annual financial report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1992.
    • City of Iowa City (IA). Financial plan for FY93–95.
    • City of Irving (TX). Annual operating budget: Municipal service programs 1992–1993.
    • City of Irving (TX). Annual operating budget: Municipal service programs 1996–1997.
    • City of Irving (TX). 1999–2000 annual operating budget: Municipal services program.
    • City of Jacksonville (FL). Annual budget for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996.
    • City of Jacksonville (FL). Annual financial plan for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1999.
    • City of Kalamazoo (MI). Comprehensive annual financial report: 1996.
    • City of Kalamazoo (MI). 1999 proposed budget.
    • City of Kansas City (MO). Budget 1997.
    • City of Kingsport (TN). Annual budget 1997–98.
    • City of Kingsport (TN). FY 1998–99 budget.
    • City of Knoxville (TN). FY92–93 annual operating budget.
    • City of Largo (FL). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1993.
    • City of Largo (FL). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1996.
    • City of League City (TX). Annual budget for fiscal year 1992–93.
    • City of Lee's Summit (MO). Operating budget: Year beginning July 1, 1992.
    • City of Little Rock (AR). (1990). Management information systems manual.
    • City of Little Rock (AR). 1993 annual operating budget.
    • City of Little Rock (AR). 1997 annual operating budget.
    • City of Long Beach (CA). Adopted resource allocation plan: Fiscal year 1992–93/operating detail.
    • City of Long Beach (CA). Hitting the mark: City services and performanceFiscal year 1995–1996.
    • City of Long Beach (CA). Annual budget 1996–97.
    • City of Long Beach (CA). Hitting the mark: City services and performanceFiscal year 1996–1997.
    • City of Longview (TX). Annual budget 1992–1993.
    • City of Longview (TX). Annual budget 1993–1994.
    • City of Loveland (CO). 1993 budget.
    • City of Loveland (CO). 1999 adopted budget.
    • City of Lubbock (TX). Goals and objectives: 1992–93.
    • City of Lubbock (TX). Program of services: 1996–97.
    • City of Lubbock (TX). Annual budget 98–99.
    • City of Macon (GA). 1997 annual budget.
    • City of Milwaukee (WI). 1993 budget.
    • City of Milwaukee (WI). Special ADAP supplement to the proposed executive budget: 1993.
    • City of Milwaukee (WI). 1994 budget.
    • City of Milwaukee (WI). 1995 budget.
    • City of Milwaukee (WI). 1999 plan and budget summary.
    • City of New York (NY). (1992, September 17). Mayor's management report.
    • City of New York (NY). Mayor's management report, fiscal 1997, volume 2: Agency and citywide indicators.
    • City of New York (NY). Mayor's management report, fiscal 1998, volume 1: Agency narratives.
    • City of New York (NY). Mayor's management report, fiscal 1998, volume 2: Agency and citywide indicators.
    • City of Newburgh (NY). The fiscal budget for the year 1993.
    • City of Norfolk (NE). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1996–1997.
    • City of Norfolk (VA). Building a community worth caring about: Approved budget July 1, 1998 through June 30, 1999.
    • City of Norman (OK). Budget: Fiscal year ending June 30, 1999.
    • City of Norman (OK). Budget: Fiscal year ending June 30, 2000.
    • City of Oak Park (MI). Annual budget, fiscal year 1998–1999.
    • City of Oak Ridge (TN). Goals and objectives program: Annual report fiscal year 1992.
    • City of Oak Ridge (TN). 1993 budget.
    • City of Oak Ridge (TN). 1994 budget.
    • City of Oak Ridge (TN). 1999 budget.
    • City of Oakland (CA). 1992–93 adopted policy budget (Vol. 2).
    • City of Oakland (CA). 1996–97 adopted policy budget.
    • City of Ocala (FL). 1992–1993 budget.
    • City of Ocala (FL). Fiscal year 1996–97 adopted budget.
    • City of Oklahoma City (OK). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1992–1993.
    • City of Oklahoma City (OK). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1999–2000.
    • City of Orlando (FL). Annual budget 1992/1993.
    • City of Orlando (FL). Annual budget 1995–1996.
    • City of Orlando (FL). Annual budget 1997–1998.
    • City of Overland Park (KS). 1993 budget.
    • City of Overland Park (KS). 1996 budget.
    • City of Overland Park (KS). 1999 annual budget.
    • City of Palo Alto (CA). 1998–99 adopted budget (Vol. 1).
    • City of Palo Alto (CA). 1998–99 adopted budget (Vol. 2).
    • City of Pasadena (CA) Management Audit Team. (1986, October). Opportunities for improving efficiency and effectiveness: Department of public works.
    • City of Peoria (AZ). 1991–92 approved budget and financial plan.
    • City of Philadelphia (PA) Office of the City Controller. (1991, January). Performance audit: Streets department/sanitation division.
    • City of Philadelphia (PA). (1996). Mayor's report on city services.
    • City of Philadelphia (PA). Mayor's report on city services (fiscal year 1998).
    • City of Phoenix (AZ) Auditor Department. (1991, December 31). Fire department performance indicators.
    • City of Phoenix (AZ) Auditor Department. (1992, May 6). Parks, recreation and library department performance indicators.
    • City of Phoenix (AZ) Auditor Department. (1992, June 12). Police department performance indicators.
    • City of Phoenix (AZ). The Phoenix budget 1992–93.
    • City of Phoenix (AZ). The Phoenix budget 1993–94.
    • City of Plano (TX). Program of services, 1998–99.
    • City of Portland (OR) Office of the City Auditor. (1992, May). An evaluation of city financial trends: 1980–91.
    • City of Portland (OR). FY 1992–93 adopted budget (Vol. 1).
    • City of Portland (OR) Office of the City Auditor. (1993, January). Service efforts and accomplishments: 1991–92 (Rep. No. 176).
    • City of Portland (OR) Office of the City Auditor. (1998, December). City of Portland service efforts and accomplishments: 1997–98.
    • City of Portland (OR). Adopted budget fiscal year 1999–2000 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Prairie Village (KS). 1997 annual budget.
    • City of Raleigh (NC). Description of operating programs: FY 1992–93.
    • City of Raleigh (NC). Performance indicators: Fiscal year 1998–1999.
    • City of Raleigh (NC). Performance indicators: Fiscal year 1999–2000.
    • City of Redondo Beach (CA). Adopted budget fiscal year 1998–1999/adopted financial plan fiscal year 1999–2000.
    • City of Reno (NV). Program and financial plan: Fiscal year 1991–1992.
    • City of Reno (NV). 1998/99 budget.
    • City of Richmond (VA). General fund budget 1993–1994: Proposed.
    • City of Rochester (NY). 1992–93 budget.
    • City of Rochester (NY). 1992–93 second quarter report: Program performance.
    • City of Rochester (NY). 1996–1997 budget.
    • City of Rock Hill (SC). Budget and work program 1993.
    • City of Rock Island (IL). (1993). Budget for fiscal year 1993–1994.
    • City of Rockville (MD). FY99 adopted operating budget and capital improvements program.
    • City of Sacramento (CA). (1992, September-November). Budget workshop materials.
    • City of Saginaw (TX). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1992–1993.
    • City of San Antonio (TX). Adopted annual budget 1992–1993: Detail information.
    • City of San Antonio (TX). Proposed annual budget: FY 1996–97.
    • City of San Antonio (TX). Adopted annual budget, fiscal year 1998–1999.
    • City of San Clemente (CA). Annual budget and capital improvement program: Fiscal year 1999–2000.
    • City of San Diego (CA). Fiscal year 1999 semi-annual performance report.
    • City of San Diego (CA). Fiscal year 2000 annual budget: Volume 1Citizens’ budget.
    • City of San Diego (CA). Fiscal year 2000 annual budget: Volume 2Department detail.
    • City of San Diego (CA). Fiscal year 2000 annual budget: Volume 3Department detail.
    • City of San Jose (CA). Adopted operating budget 1989–90.
    • City of San Jose (CA). Proposed 1996–97 operating budget.
    • City of San Luis Obispo (CA). 1991–93 financial plan and approved 1991–92 budget.
    • City of San Luis Obispo (CA). (1992, July). 1991–93 financial plan supplement and approved 1992–93 budget.
    • City of San Luis Obispo (CA). 1995–97 financial plan and approved 1995–96 budget.
    • City of San Luis Obispo (CA). 1997–99 financial plan and adopted 1997–98 budget.
    • City of Santa Ana (CA). Annual budget 1988–89.
    • City of Santa Ana (CA). Annual budget 1996–97.
    • City of Savannah (GA). Community, Housing and Economic Development Department. (1988, October). Responsive public services programs.
    • City of Savannah (GA). 1992 program of work.
    • City of Savannah (GA). 1994 service program and budget.
    • City of Savannah (GA). Neighborhood quality benchmarks: 1996 report to the community.
    • City of Savannah (GA). 1999 service program and budget.
    • City of Savannah (GA) Park and Tree Department. Condition standards, 1999.
    • City of Scottsdale (AZ). Performance report: 1999.
    • City of Shreveport (LA). 1993 annual operating budget.
    • City of Shreveport (LA). Annual operating budget 1996.
    • City of Sioux Falls (SD). Comprehensive annual financial report: Fiscal year ended December 31, 1991.
    • City of Smyrna (GA). Annual financial plan: Fiscal year 1997.
    • City of Southfield (MI). Municipal budget: July 1992–June 1993.
    • City of St. Charles (IL). Budget plan 1992–1993.
    • City of St. Petersburg (FL). (1992). Approved 1992 program budget.
    • City of St. Petersburg (FL). Approved program budget: Fiscal year 1997.
    • City of Sterling Heights (MI). 1992/93 annual budget.
    • City of Sterling Heights (MI). Annual budget 1996/97.
    • City of Stockton (CA). 1996–97 annual budget.
    • City of Sunnyvale (CA). (1993, June). Performance indicators.
    • City of Tacoma (WA). Preliminary program biennial budget: 1993/1994.
    • City of Tallahassee (FL). Fiscal year 1993 approved detail budget.
    • City of Tempe (AZ). Annual budget 1998/99.
    • City of Tucson (AZ). (1989, December). City of Tucson parks and recreation master plan 2000: Planning our recreational future.
    • City of Tucson (AZ). Cost report summary: Fiscal year 1991–92. [Prepared by S. Postil, Department of Budget and Research]
    • City of Tucson (AZ). Fiscal year 1992–1993 budget.
    • City of Tucson (AZ). Adopted budget summary, fiscal year 1998–99 (Vol. 1).
    • City of Tucson (AZ). Adopted budget operating detail, fiscal year 1998–99 (Vol. 2).
    • City of Upper Arlington (OH). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1992.
    • City of Vancouver (WA). (1991). 1991–1992 biennial budget.
    • City of Victoria (TX). Performance measurements pilot program, September 2, 1997.
    • City of Washington, D.C. (1989a, March). Improving ambulance operations in Washington, D.C.: A blueprint for change. Washington, DC: Office of the City Administrator, Productivity Management Services.
    • City of Washington, D.C. (1989b, June). Improving emergency medical services communications. Washington, DC: Office of the City Administrator, Productivity Management Services.
    • City of Washington, D.C. (n.d.). Improving vehicle maintenance productivity in the D.C. Department of Transportation (Productivity Rep. No. 4). Washington, DC: Department of Transportation and Office of the City Administrator, Productivity Management Services.
    • City of Waukesha (WI). Annual budget management plan: 1993.
    • City of West Valley City (UT). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1996–1997.
    • City of White Plains (NY). 1996–1997 proposed budget.
    • City of Wichita (KS). 1993/94 annual budget performance measures.
    • City of Wichita (KS). 2000/2001 annual budget.
    • City of Wilmington (DE). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1993.
    • City of Wilmington (DE) Office of Management and Budget. MAPP: Management's administrative planning process, FY 1994.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). Annual budget program 1986–1987: Year-end report.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). (1993, January). Year-end reports for FY91–92.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). Annual budget program for FY92–93.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). Performance measurement objectives: Year-end reports FY 96–97.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). 1997–1998 performance report and 1998–1999 business plan, October 1998.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). 1998–1999 annual budget program and 1999–2003 capital plan.
    • City of Winston-Salem (NC). (n.d.). Fleet services project: Phase I report. [Report prepared by Office of Organizational Effectiveness]
    • Lane Council of Governments. (1996, February). City of Eugene progress report on 1995–96 city council goals.
    • Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County (TN). Fiscal year 1993 operating budget.
    • Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County (TN). Fiscal year 1998–99 operating budget: Departmental narrative (Vol. 2).
    • Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County (TN). Fiscal year 1999–2000 operating budget: Departmental narrative (Vol. 2).
    • New Hanover County (NC), 1999–2000 budget.
    • Sedgwick County (KS). 1991 budget.
    • Town of Addison (TX). Annual budget: Fiscal year 1992–93.
    • Town of Avon (CT). Annual operating budget 1998–1999.
    • Town of Blacksburg (VA). Adopted operating budget: Fiscal year 1998–1999.
    • Town of Cary (NC). Annual operating budget: Fiscal year 1999–2000.
    • Town of Chapel Hill (NC). First quarter report: 1996–97.
    • Town of Chapel Hill (NC). Annual report: 1998–99.
    • Unified Government of Athens–Clarke County (GA). FY 2000 annual operating and capital budget.

    Acronyms

    AASHTOAmerican Association of State Highway Transportation Officials
    ADAAmericans with Disabilities Act
    ALAAmerican Library Association
    ALSadvanced life support
    ANIAutomatic Number Identification
    ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
    APHAAmerican Public Health Association
    APTAAmerican Public Transit Association
    AWWAAmerican Water Works Association
    BANbond anticipation notes
    BLSbasic life support
    BMIbody mass index
    BODbiological oxygen demand
    CAFRcomprehensive annual financial reports
    CALEACommission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies
    CAMAcomputer-assisted mass appraisal
    CIPcapital improvement program
    CODcoefficient of dispersion
    CPRcardiopulmonary resuscitation
    CPSChild Protective Services
    CPSCConsumer Product Safety Commission
    cpucobalt platinum units
    DTPdiphtheria-tetanus-pertussis
    DUIdriving under the influence
    DWIdriving while intoxicated
    EABEmergency Ambulance Bureau
    EEOEqual Opportunity Employment
    EMSemergency medical service
    EMT-Demergency medical technician-defibrillation
    EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency
    ESIequivalent sphere illumination
    EXSLExemplary State and Local
    FBIFederal Bureau of Investigation
    FTAFederal Transit Administration
    FTEfull-time equivalent
    FTMSFinancial Trend Monitoring System
    GAAPgenerally accepted accounting principles
    GASBGovenmental Accounting Standards Board
    GEDgeneral equivalency diploma
    GFOAGovernment Finance Officers Association
    GOgeneral obligation
    gpmgallons per minute
    HibHaemophilos influenzae type b
    HRhuman resources
    HSUSHumane Society of the United States
    IAAOInternational Association of Assessing Officers
    IAFFInternational Association of Fire Fighters
    ICMAInternational City/County Management Association
    IFLAInternational Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
    ILLinterlibrary loan
    ISOInsurance Services Office
    JTPAJob Training Partnership Act
    kPakilopascals
    kWhkilowatt-hours
    LANlocal area network
    LCCLeague of California Cities
    MBOmanagement-by-objectives
    mphmiles per hour
    MSAmetropolitan statistical area
    NAFANational Association of Fleet Administrators
    NALGANational Association of Local Government Auditors
    NAFANational Association of Fleet Administrators
    NAPANational Academy of Public Administration
    NFIRSNational Fire Incident Reporting System
    NFPANational Fire Protection Association
    NCALPRANational Commission on Accreditation Local Park Recreation Agencies
    NCLNational Civic League
    NRPANational Recreation and Park Association
    NTUnephelometric turbidity units
    OSHAOccupational Safety and Health Administration
    PAAPlayground Association of America
    PLAPublic Library Association
    ppm; ppbparts per million; parts per billion
    psipounds per square inch
    PSRpresent servicability rating
    PUDplanned unit development
    ROWpublicly defined right-of-way
    SPRPCSouthwestern Pennsylvania Regional Planning Commission
    SEAService Efforts and Accomplishments
    TDDtelecommunications device for the deaf
    THMtrihalomethanes
    TONthreshold odor number
    TSStotal suspended solids
    UCRUniform Crime Report

    About the Author

    DAVID N. AMMONS (Ph.D., University of Oklahoma) is a Professor of Public Administration at the University of North Carolina's Institute of Government in Chapel Hill. He previously served in various administrative capacities in four municipalities—Fort Worth, Texas; Hurst, Texas; Phoenix, Arizona; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee—and has taught in the public administration programs of the University of North Carolina, the University of Georgia, and the University of North Texas.

    His works include five previous books on local government—Municipal Productivity, City Executives (with Charldean Newell), Recruiting Local Government Executives (with James J. Glass), Administrative Analysis for Local Government, and Accountability for Performance: Measurement and Monitoring in Local Government. He consults with city and county governments on organizational and management concerns, including performance measurement, benchmarking, and productivity improvement.


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