Multiple Meanings of Money: How Women See Microfinance
Publication Year: 2009
This book analyzes what microfinance money means to women; and in doing so, it focuses on the perspectives of individual women and of women-only groups. It explores women’s own money management strategies, group dynamics and learning processes in groups, and in this context, discusses the divergence between the perspectives of external intervening agencies, and those of women who are members of self-help groups. The book does not consciously follow a feminist methodology; yet the perspective is feminist, as it questions the benefits and costs to women from development programs.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Copyright © Smita Premchander, V. Prameela, M. Chidambaranathan, L. Jeyaseelan, 2009
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2009 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street
#02-01 Far East Square
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 10.5/12.5 pt Minion by Star Compugraphics Private Limited, Delhi and printed at Artxel, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Multiple meanings of money: how women see microfinance/Smita Premchander
… [et al.].
Including bibliographical references and index.
1. Microfinance—India. 2. Women—India—Economic conditions. 3. Economic assistance, Domestic—India. I. Premchander, Smita.
HG178.33.I4M85 322.082—dc22 2009 2009026083
ISBN: 978-81-321-0169-7 (PB)
The SAGE Team: Elina Majumdar, Manali Das, Vijay Sah and Trinankur Banerjee
For the women who talked about their lives, relationships and finances, so that we could all learn together[Page vi]
List of Tables[Page viii]
- 1.1 Terms and Conditions for Different Types of Loans 4
- 2.1 Partnership Models for Microfinance Delivery 33
- 2.2 Units for Impact Assessment 42
- 2.3 Aspects and Indicators for Impact Assessment 43
- 2.4 Divergence in Microfinance Savings: Model and Practice 49
- 2.5 Debts of Women SHG Members in Orissa 51
- 2.6 Divergence between Theory and Practice: Purpose of Loans 51
- 2.7 Critique of Practice of Impact 60
- 3.1 Distribution of Landholdings 70
- 3.2 Income from Land (per acre) 72
- 3.3 Seasonal Calendar—Agricultural Labour Work 74
- 3.4 Sectoral Distribution of Employment in Koppal District 75
- 3.5 Demographic Profile of the Five Villages Studied 79
- 3.6 Gender and Human Development Indices (Koppal) 80
- 3.7 Landholdings Distribution in Koppal 80
- 3.8 Infrastructure Facilities 92
- 3.9 SHG-Bank Linkage of Sampark Groups (2007) 98
- 4.1 Informal Loan Sources 139
- 4.2 Analysis of Subsidy Loan Defaults 145
- 4.3 Loans from Different Formal Sources (August 2003) 149
- 4.4 Factors and Perceptions Related to Value of Loan Taken 153
- 5.1 Details of Loans from SHGs (August 2003) 163
- 5.2 Savings and Loan Transaction of Gallidurgamma SHG 165
- 5.3 Loans from Own Savings: Kasturibai SHG 168
- 5.4 Different Repayment Practices 175
- 5.5 Different Rationales for Money Management 180
- 5.6 Social Impacts 190
- 6.1 Financial and Women's Perspectives 213 [Page ix]
- A1.1 Overview of Field Visits 227
- A1.2 Number of NGOs, Groups and Women Visited 229
- A1.3 Review of Selected Microfinance Impact Assessment Studies 229
- A1.4 Tools 231
- A1.5 List of NGOs in Koppal District 232
List of Figures[Page x]
- 1.1 Spectrum of Credit Supply 4
- 1.2 Exploring Meanings of Money 8
- 1.3 Application of Analytical Frameworks 10
- 1.4 Socio-economic Positioning 12
- 1.5 Data Collection Methods Used 14
- 2.1 Changing Focus of Donors and NGOs 28
- 2.2 Banking Structure 30
- 2.3 Characteristics of Indian Microfinance Models 32
- 2.4 SHG-Bank Linkage Model (NGO as ‘Facilitator’) 34
- 2.5 SHG-Bank Linkage through RRB 34
- 2.6 SHG-Bank Linkage through NGO 34
- 2.7 Cooperative Model 35
- 2.8 NGO–MFIs as Financial Intermediaries 36
- 2.9 MBT/MACS–NBFC Model 37
- 2.10 Understanding of Impact 39
- 2.11 Spectrum of Different Perspectives on MF Impact 40
- 2.12 Approaches to Impact Assessment 41
- 2.13 Conflict of Objectives 47
- 3.1 Exploring Meanings: Livelihoods Context 69
- 3.2 Research Location 70
- 3.3 Observed Migration Pattern 76
- 3.4 Ecological and Economic Context 78
- 3.5 Livelihoods in the Koppal Context 100
- 4.1 Exploring Meanings: Women's Use of Money 105
- 4.2 Shivavva's Inflows Distributions 119
- 4.3 Shivavva's Distribution of Outflows 119
- 4.4 Total Inflows and Outflows of Shivavva 119
- 4.5 Dramatic Change in Condition and Position 131
- 4.6 Women's Livelihoods Assets 136
- 4.7 Spectrum of Loan Sources 137 [Page xi]
- 4.8 Nature of Relationship with Landlord 140
- 4.9 Spectrum of Formal Sources 141
- 4.10 Determining Factors for Use of Loan 154
- 4.11 Factors Determining Use of Credit for Enterprise Start-up 155
- 5.1 Exploring Meanings: Group Processes and Dynamics 158
- 5.2 Livelihoods Perspective of Savings 159
- 5.3 Financial Perspective of Savings 161
- 5.4 Relationships between Women and Formal Sources of Loans 176
- 5.5 Perception of Risk 178
- 5.6 Impact from Group Savings 181
- 5.7 Access and Control Over Savings 182
- 5.8 Structure of Women's Organisations 186
- 5.9 Different Perspectives, Divergent Paths 189
- 6.1 Values of Local and External Actors 199
- 6.2 Framework for Impact Assessment 202
- 6.3 Impact of Formal Loans 204
- 6.4 From Gender-sensitive Research to Practice 219
- A2.1 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework 234
- A2.2 AOP Framework 234
- A2.3 Rural Livelihood Systems Nine-square Mandala Framework 235
List of Abbreviations[Page xii]
ADB Asian Development Bank AFC Agriculture Finance Corporation Ltd AIMS Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services ANM Auxiliary Nurse and Midwife AOP Actor-oriented Perspectives AP Andhra Pradesh APMAS Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society ASA Activists for Social Action BAIF Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation BDS Business Development Services BPL Below Poverty Line BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee BRCS Bay Research and Consultancy Services CARE Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere CCA Canadian Cooperative Association CDE Centre for Development and Environment CETZAM The Christian Enterprise Trust Zambia CGAP Consultative Group for Assisting the Poor CMF Centre for Microfinance CYSD Centre for Youth and Social Development DANIDA Danish International Development Assistance DFID Department for International Development DIC District Industries Centre DLCC District Level Coordination Committee DLRC District Level Review Committee DWCRA Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas EDPs Entrepreneurship Development Programmes FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FWWB Friends of Women's World Banking GOI Government of India GOK Government of Karnataka GTZ German Development Cooperation/German Technical Cooperation [Page xiii] HCR Head Count Ratio HDFC Housing Development Finance Corporation HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome HSBC Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Ltd. ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development IFP Institut Frangais de Pondicherry IGA Income Generating Activity IIHRD Indian Institute for Human Research and Development IIPO Indian Institute of Public Opinion IIPS International Institute for Population Sciences ILO International Labour Organization IRDP Integrated Rural Development Programme KSWDC Karnataka State Women's Development Corporation LEAD League for Education and Development MACS Mutually Aided Cooperative Society MASY Mahila Arthik Samavrudhi Yojane MBT Mutual Benefit Trust MFI Microfinance Institution MFO Micro-finance Organisations MFP Minor Forest Produce MHHDC Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre MLA Member of Legislative Assembly MYRADA Mysore Resettlement and Development Agency NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NBFC Non-Banking Financial Company NCCR-NS National Centre for Competence in Research—North-South NGO Non-governmental Organisation OBCs Other Backward Castes ODA Overseas Development Administration PGB Pragato Grameen Bank PGI Poverty Gap Index PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal PRADAN Professional Assistance for Development Action PSI Pastoral Service Institute RBI Reserve Bank of India RCC Rural Credit Cooperative RLS Rural Livelihood Systems RMP Registered Medical Practitioner RRB Regional Rural Bank SAA Service Area Approach [Page xiv] SAPAP South Asia Poverty Alleviation Programme SBH State Bank of Hyderabad SBI State Bank of India SC Scheduled Caste SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SDMC School Development and Management Committee SEWA Self-Employed Women's Association SFMC SIDBI Foundation for Microcredit SGSY Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana SHG Self-help Group SHPI Self-help Promoting Institution SIDBI Small Industries Development Bank of India SLF Sustainable Livelihoods Framework SNSF Swiss National Science Foundation SNRM Sustainable Natural Resources Management ST Scheduled Tribes TB Tuberculosis TBF The Bridge Foundation TGB Tungabhadra Grameen Bank TN Tamil Nadu TRYSEM Training of Rural Youth for Self-employment UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Services USAID United States Agency for International Development UTI Unit Trust of India ZP Zilla Parishad
This book analyses what microfinance money means to women; in doing so, it focuses on the perspectives of individual women and those of women-only groups. Most microfinance programmes are delivered through women-only groups, which are formed when 15–20 women get together on a voluntary basis to form the group, usually with the encouragement of an external agency (for example, non-governmental organisation [NGO], government, microfinance institution [MFI]) and are engaged primarily in savings and credit activities. The book explores women's own money management strategies, group dynamics and learning processes in groups and, in this context, discusses the divergence between the perspectives of external intervening agencies and those of women who are members of self-help groups (SHGs).
This book does not consciously follow a feminist methodology; yet, the perspective is feminist, as it questions the benefits and costs arising to women from development programmes. The feminist principles used include a focus on gender, valuing women's experiences, rejecting a split between subject and object and emphasising empowerment, political change and emancipation.1
In Sampark, we work as practitioners, advisors and trainers in the field of microfinance and microenterprise and in this sense have multiple roles and therefore have access and sensitivity to multiple perspectives in this sector. As evaluation teams, advisors and trainers, we work with several donor organisations and NGOs at the macro- and meso-levels. The task involves understanding women, and one of our professional habits is to listen to women. Our professional responsibility is to represent women's perspectives in a way that the project implementing agencies and donors hear ‘their’ voices directly, so as to say. The job involves authenticating women's voices and we are aware that it takes a lot of energy. Somehow, we find that we can be talking ‘against’ the projects, that ‘projects’ take on personalities to be respected and feared, they cannot be questioned very easily, much less challenged and changed.
As we worked with microfinance reviews and impact assessments, we became aware that most programmes and projects are drawn on the basis of an assumed understanding of the impact of microfinance programmes and also that the implementers are not comfortable when these assumptions are challenged. Yet, the voices that we hear from the field are certainly not the beautiful musical sounds orchestrated by the microfinance sector, they are actually a jarring cacophony that shocks, and so has been subdued. It is no surprise that women are hardly consulted, and if consulted, not heard. Participatory discussions say exactly what the implementing and donor agencies want to hear. The programmes and projects go on unchallenged, as if everything that is happening is on the right track; to question this is blasphemy, it is seen as turning away from all that is ‘advanced’ and ‘given knowledge’ or ‘best practice’ in the sector.
[Page xvi]Smita, as a former banker, reminded us of normal banking lessons again and again and questioned why the microfinance industry was bent upon rediscovering the wheel. We wondered why donors were pouring in so much money to learn what was already known in the lessons of the Indian banking sector about reaching or not reaching the poor. There were times when we wondered why the other external agencies did not hear what we heard from women.
We are all committed to improving the lives of the poor; this is what brought us to the development field and this is what has retained us here. This gives us the courage to represent their views in every project that we take on; to use our professional expertise to guide them to become better entrepreneurs and leaders and to advise donors and implementing agencies to work in ways that would improve the lot of women.
With regard to gender equality, we realise that it is both women and men who are responsible for making the society what it is, and any effort at changing the situation must involve both women and men. And yet, as of now, the world does not provide equal opportunities to women, much less poor women. Our endeavour is to make this world a bit fairer for women—even if it is only a little bit, because we believe that in the long run, every bit counts. In this sense, we are all clearly strong feminists.
A question often asked about representing the issues of the poor is how can you represent poor women when you have yourself never experienced poverty? It is true that we are none of us poor now, but two of us have experienced poverty for certain periods in our lives. The dependence, humiliation and indignity experienced were enough to convince us that no one deserves to be poor. We have spent large portions of our time for the past 15 years living with people who are poor, sharing their life concerns and helping them overcome poverty.2 We have seen women caught up in very difficult situations arising out of their gender, situations that men are not subjected to, and have felt keenly the injustice of it all. Yet, we are conscious that we are not ourselves caught up in these circumstances. We do not claim our voice to be theirs. Our sole endeavour in this book is to try to represent their true voices, using the nuances of their language wherever possible, even though we realise that no translation can do justice to this. It must be borne in mind that we have tried our best to represent their perspectives, but these perspectives have passed through our individual and collective personalities, and to this end we have shared some part of our backgrounds that may have coloured the pictures we frame.
One of the important aspects of this study is the value attached to women's own experiences. It was in the listening to them and in giving credence to their feelings and opinions that the span of the book expanded to cover macro-, meso- and micro-levels and external/institutional as well as local perspectives. It was while listening to the women that the divergence between their feelings and what the microfinance system provides to them first struck home, and this led to the motivation to ‘turn the telescope around’, or ‘to give voice to women's opinions’.
Through this book, if we manage to communicate women's perspectives, have their life stories read and have their group experiences understood as a first step, and later ensure that some of their needs and preferences get greater consideration in the designing of development programmes and policy formulation, and that at least some implementing NGOs take steps to address these concerns arising from the women, then we would have fulfilled our responsibilities in representing their concerns.
[Page xvii]With regard to the detailed case studies, all women were given a choice about their participation; out of the 12 who were contacted, 10 participated. The research was introduced to each woman personally. They already knew that Sampark worked in 20 villages (40 villages in 2007) in Koppal with 120 women's groups (156 by 2007) and provided a range of support for group formation, training in management of groups, skill training, credit linkages and linkages for government grants. They were informed that if Sampark was to make a positive impact on the lives of rural people, it needed to understand rural people better. As it was not possible to work with all the women covered by Sampark for an in-depth understanding of their lives, only a few had been approached for this purpose. It was important that women did not feel obliged to participate because they would need to commit time for discussions.
It was important that our discussions with women were not perceived as merely ‘getting information’ or the women ‘providing information’. The intention was to learn together about their lives through close mutual dialogue. This involved multiple visits to individual homes and farms and extended towards other family members too. If women felt a need to meet other participants, workshops were organised accordingly.
The women who participated are referred to as ‘research participants’ and as ‘women case study participants’. The names of all the women have been changed to protect their real identity. Later, most were more comfortable with their ‘real names’ and photographs being used; however, given the sensitivity of working with devadasis, the more ethical (and also conventional) option was chosen.
We believe that ethical research must return tangible benefits to the participants, which is aided by our long-term commitment to development and the intention to find ways of providing practical benefits to the local community from the research process. Several benefits accrued to the researchers, women participants and the local community.
During the period when we interviewed them frequently, the women became more emotionally attached both to the process of sharing as well as to the researcher, and reportedly missed the ‘friendly meetings’ when the frequency of interactions reduced after the data collection phase. The researchers consciously found the time to continue meeting the women, despite other work engagements. These processes of sharing emotions and joint learning from life stories of women led to the building of relationships between the researchers and the women and motivated both to take more positive action to improve their own and other women's lives. These relationships and common values provide a foundation for freedom and enabling of women's agency. One striking realisation is that women could benefit from consolidated learning from their own past experiences and discussion of future aspirations. It was evident that despite being marginalised economically, socially, culturally and through religion, none had dedicated their own daughters as devadasis. Their life stories included courageous decisions at different stages of their lives, whether it related to choice of partners, birth control measures or taking financial risks. The incidents in their lives reinforced a belief in the capacity of poor women to bring positive changes not only in their own lives but also in those of others in their community. Researchers and development agents need to take more serious cognisance of the agency of women and their potential for courageous and collective action.
The women claimed that they had benefited in several ways from participating in the research. The charts and diaries collected stayed with the women; the researchers only copied such information. [Page xviii]Not only were the findings shared in workshops but also spreadsheets were brought back and openly discussed. This called for a reciprocal responsibility to ensure tangible benefits to the women research participants, which was later fulfilled by obtaining grants for educating the poorest children, a credit fund for education, local organisation building and linkages for official credit for sustainable management of land and water resources.
Researchers and writers cannot escape from ethics even when applying a supposedly value-free research method. Whether at the moment of setting the research issue or when dealing with participant interactions, certain ethical choices are always present. Taking into account that development research forms part of the development agenda, it is necessary to decide how to balance the different expectations raised by the research process. Experience showed that compensating women individually for their cooperation in participating may have contradicted their own ethics and those of the facilitating NGO and researcher. An ethically acceptable solution to the dilemma could be found due to the NGO's institutional commitment, which allowed it to integrate the process of development research as a means for improving reciprocity between local and external actors through a better mutual understanding and efficient use of the capabilities and resources of all the actors involved. This in turn implies that research must select people and institutional partners who are willing and able to give continuity to the relationships.
Collaborative action between external and local actors is not, however, always synchronous or can be made so: there remained continuing divergences. The researchers used an NGO as a base; and there were emerging divergences in women's perspectives and those of the NGO. One concerned the realisation that the NGO emphasised financial empowerment over other types of empowerment; hence, certain issues were not addressed directly, such as gender differentials in agricultural wages, child marriage practices, health and hygiene or the caste discrimination practices followed in the villages.
The findings raise the question about the limits of microfinance. The NGO heeded this result and introduced education, mental health support and vocational training for women and their children, but encountered some resistance with respect to land-based income generating activities and sustainable agriculture. These raised a dilemma for the NGO: if they were to foster long-term ecological sustainability, this would demand working with the more endowed people in the villages, who controlled land ownership. The poor have a low ability to absorb productive credit and would need long time periods for impact and the development of new pathways. These issues were articulated and discussed within the NGO, which opted to continue to work with the marginalised sections, but also realised that this limited its potential for impact on livelihoods beyond the limited resources it could access for this target group via official and external agencies.
This book spans issues from macro- to micro-level and accords priority to women as agents of change in their own livelihoods. Their participation and cooperation arose over time. These women perceive their situation not as a closed world from which there is no exit but as a limiting situation, which they can nevertheless transform. The discussions with them have had the effect of providing more ‘liberating’ education, with women expressing their situations of being marginalised and then making efforts to release themselves from the financial and physical dominance that they face in their households.
[Page xix]While we have been writing this book, several studies covering SHGs have been conducted to understand group dynamics better. At the policy level, two of us were invited to examine empowerment impacts of microfinance policy and programmes and to help design microfinance programmes that enhance women's empowerment. We would like to thank the four private foundations who have extended support for livelihood initiatives for women's empowerment in Koppal: the Fondazione Pangea Onlus, Italy; Anuradha Foundation, USA; Volkart Vision India, New Delhi and Canadian High Commission, New Delhi. This helped honour the commitment to meet the expressed needs of poor women: education for children, skills training for employment or enterprise for school dropouts and community-based emotional counselling support through women's SHGs. These linkages have helped us experience trans-disciplinarity, that is, linking research and action in a mutually reinforcing learning cycle.3, , ,Notes
1. These principles are outlined by Pini (2003) in her feminist research methodology.
2. Smita is a founder member of Sampark, since 1991, and Jeyaseelan, Chidambaranathan and Prameela joined in 1994. So we have worked together for 14 years till now.
3. See Hurni et al., (2004) and Hirsch (2006) for detailed elaboration of the concept of trans-disciplinarity. While inter-disciplinarity refers to working together with different disciplines (for example, social, economic), trans-disciplinarity deals with the blurring and crossing of the researcher–participant boundaries.
Our first and deepest commitment is to 10 women in the villages of Koppal district whose lives and livelihoods we studied and all the rural women in various states of India who, despite their poverty, shared with us the wealth of information that we sought. They revealed the details of their poverty, troubles and concerns, coping strategies, ways and preferences about using money and experiences of groups and NGO-delivered credit. Studying the lives of poor women, especially the devadasis, who are dedicated to the deity and make sexual alliances with men for economic reasons, has been a depressing journey. Even women who were economically better off had problems; one lost her son, one her husband, while another faced domestic violence. These women were generous enough to share details about their own and their family's lives so that others could learn. Theirs is a debt we can only repay by helping others like them.
Dr Pat Richardson's technical guidance, Dr John Ritchie's insights on the current context of microfinance and the unstinting support of Professor Dr Urs Wiesmann, Professor Dr Hans Hurni and Dr Stephan Rist on livelihoods conceptual frameworks and social learning processes are acknowledged with gratitude.
We thank the Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Institute of Geography, University of Berne, for providing financial support for the fieldwork through its research programme, Social Learning for Sustainability and National Centre for Competence in Research-North-South (NCCR-NS). The research programmes were funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), whom we would like to thank for the financial support for the research and for some of the ensuing needs for development support in the research villages.
We wish to thank all colleagues at CDE and NCCR-NS, particulary Professor Dr Urs Wiesmann and Dr Stephan Rist who provided us with guidance and inputs and feedback on the book for their valuable guidance and suggestions in doing case studies and narrative analysis. We would like to thank them and others.
The Sampark team was open and flexible in providing all the information that the organisation had about the groups and their financial and non-financial operations. Access to the data of Sampark's Koppal office was facilitated by Nirmala, Rajshekhar, Akkamma, Iramma and Uma. We are thankful to each one of them for their assistance during this research. Roshni Menon helped us with the literature survey. Our heartfelt thanks also goes to Raju, Meenakshi, Banu, Saumya and Deepa for all the office assistance.
Language corrections and editing continued to be a major undertaking through the whole process, which were dealt by M. Rajshekhar, Saumya Premchander, Ratan Gopinath, Karuna Sivasailam and Jason Klinck, to whom we remain thankful.
[Page xxi]Part of the data in this book was collected during field visits for organisations engaged with supporting microfinance, namely Friends of Women's World Banking, CARE India and United Nations Office of Project Services/International Fund for Agricultural Development. These organisations not only provided us with all the grey data they could but also permitted the use of the information. The staff of NGOs/MFIs shared valuable insights on their experiences, dilemmas and inner conflicts in the implementation of microfinance programmes. We are grateful to all of them for being so open as the book has benefited greatly from their rich insights.
Over the past several years, we have been simultaneously engaged in both research and development work to enable the poor improve their livelihoods. It has changed the ‘normal’ family way of life. We could do this only because of the emotional encouragement and support from our families and we are immensely grateful to them.[Page xxii]
Appendix 1: Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs): Details and Impact Literature[Page 227]Field Visits
During the research period, several non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were visited for conducting impact studies, reviews and livelihoods and group assessments. The details are listed in Table A1.1.[Page 228]Table A1.1 Overview of Field Visits
The details of several visits made to groups, women and NGOs outside the study area, through conferences, workshops and group settings, is listed in Table A1.2.Table A1.2 Number of NGOs, Groups and Women Visited
These reviews of impact studies and field level discussions with a wide range of institutional and local stakeholders in microfinance helped clarify the divergences that existed in perceptions and perspectives, and thus formed the basis of the delineation of the research themes as outlined in Chapter 2.[Page 229]Literature Reviewed Indicators and Tools
During the research period, several impact studies were reviewed to get an overview of the aspects studied, the methodologies, tools and the indicators used by them for impact assessments. 20 impact studies, of which 18 were donor initiated, are listed in Table A1.3.[Page 230]Table A1.3 Review of Selected Microfinance Impact Assessment Studies
[Page 231]Many of the earlier studies used several participatory tools that helped to analyse one or more aspects of microfinance impact. A listing of the major tools is given in Table A1.4.
Table A1.4 Tools
- Internal learning systems
- Loan and savings use
- Action learning workshops
- Decision-making matrix
- Means test
- Gender division of labour and resources mapping
- Impact survey
- Mobility mapping
- Exit survey
- Happiness mapping
- Focus group discussions
- Caste discrimination mapping
- In-depth interviews
- Chapatti diagramming
- Impact survey
- Wealth ranking
- Client exit survey
- Pictorial diary
- Client satisfaction survey
- Client empowerment survey
- Life story interview
These tools were compiled from 69 studies, which ranged from impact studies of specific projects to methodological reviews. They included AFC (2005), AIMS (1998, 2001), Andharia et al. (2003), ASA (1999, 2000), Atkinson (2004), Baumgartner et al., (2000), Bayes (1999), Blank (1998), BRAC (1997, 1999), Burra et al. (2005), CASHPOR (2001), CCA (2000), Centre for Management Development (2003), CETZAM (1999, 2000), Chen and Snodgrass (1999), Cheston and Khun (2001), Cheston and Reed (1999), CMF (2001), Copestake (1996, 2003), CYSD (1996), Dasgupta (2007), Deshpande et al., (2003), FWWB (2001), Grameen Bank (1998), Guijit and Cornwall (1995), Harper (1998), ICMC and PRIZMA (2000), Jeyaseelan (2005), Johnson (2003), Malhotra (2006), Mayoux (1997, 1999, 2001, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c), Menon (2003), Murthy et al., (2002), MYRADA (2001), National Labour Academy-Nepal (2006), Nigam and Manowar (1998), Noponen (2003), Padia (2005), PRADAN (1997, 2006), Premchander (2003b, 2005, 2006), Premchander and Prameela (2007), Proshika (1998, 2002), Rajshekar (2007), Roche (1999), Sampark (2000, 2006a), Schürmann (2002), SHARE (2001), Singh (2006), Sinha and Patole (2003), Solution Exchange (2006), Srinivasan (2004), Srinivasan and Castro (2003), TBF (2002), UNDP (1997, 2002), Wilson (2004).NGOs in Koppal District
The NGOs working in Koppal district are listed in Table A1.5.
Table A1.5 List of NGOs in Koppal District S. No. Name of the NGO 1 Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation (BAIF) 2 Chetana Foundation 3 Ekalavya 4 Guru Shikashana 5 Institute for Rural Development and Education Society 6 Jnana Bharati Education Society 7 Mahila Samakya 8 Manju Shree 9 Olekar Education Society 10 Outreach 11 Pastoral Service Institute 12 Sampark 13 Samuha 14 Sarvodaya 15 SHARE 16 Swayam Krutha Sangha 17 VIKASA 18 Amma 19 Bimarao Grameen Abivirti Seva Sangha 20 Bapuji Grameen Abivirti Seva Sangha 21 Minority Rural Development SocietySource: Authors.
The last four NGOs started operations in Koppal in 2007. Two (Ekalavya and VIKASA) have closed their office in Koppal after the completion of Swashakti, a World Bank programme. Out of 21, seven NGOs (BAIF, Outreach, Manju Shree, Mahila Samakya, Amma, Bimarao Grameen Abivirti Seva Sangha and Minority Rural Development Society) work at district level and they do not have office in Koppal, the remaining 14 NGOs are working only in Koppal taluk.[Page 232]
Appendix 2: Livelihoods Frameworks[Page 233]Sustainable Livelihoods Frameworks
A study of any intervention's impact on people's livelihoods needs to recognize the broader context in which actors develop their livelihoods strategies. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) defines secure livelihoods as the existence of sufficient stocks and flows of food and cash to meet basic needs (Chambers and Conway 1992). It was developed through Department for International Development's (DFID's) field-based work at both the macro- and household-level of livelihoods. It has since been utilised in planning several development projects and for assessing development impacts (Farrington et al., 1999). Its key assumptions are that actors pursue a range of different livelihoods outcomes (for example, health, income, reduced vulnerability) by drawing on a range of assets as they pursue a variety of activities.
The approach identifies five types of capital assets: financial, human, natural, physical and social. It conceptualises improved livelihoods outcomes in terms of increased income, increased well being, reduced vulnerability, improved food security and/or more sustainable use of the natural resource base of an area. A diagrammatic presentation is given in Figure A2.1.Figure A2.1 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
However, this framework does not explain the perspectives of the actors and why they follow the strategies they do, which is aided by the actor-oriented perspective (AOP) framework.
The AOP framework has its origins in peasant and actor network theories, and uses rational economic theory as an entry point. It assumes that actors always try to do something that fulfils their livelihoods aims. This approach perceives actors as:
Actors in an arena of interdependent and interacting individuals or categories of actors. They interpret specific features of the ecosystem and the socio-economic and socio-cultural systems, and they act competently and rationally on the basis of their specific knowledge, as a function of their values, motives and expectations of utility. An understanding of regional dynamics and potential conflicts in rural development and environmental care must consequently be approached in connection with divergent strategies, perceptions and assessments of the respective individuals and collectives. (Kuenzi et al.,1998: 54)
It considers actors as individual households and also as groups within economic, socio-cultural, legal and ecological systems and their livelihoods strategies arising from their knowledge of these contexts as also from their value base and aspirations.1Figure A2.2 depicts this framework:Figure A2.2 AOP Framework
[Page 234][Page 235]The AOP framework, which lies alongside the SLF, prioritises the actors themselves and also provides conceptual links with social, ecological and political contexts. It goes beyond SLF in conceptualising actor groups as units that devise strategies together. However, the action theory frameworks can also neglect:
The orientations and preferences that inform whole sequences of action, the structures built from combinations of such sequences, the ways in which the actors themselves are configured. The action theory framework offers little purchase for establishing the patterns on which various actions converge and which they initiate and dynamically extend. It shines the analytical torch upon the strategies and interests and interactive accomplishments of individuals, and sometimes groups. While this yields important insights into how agents generate and negotiate certain outcomes, it offers no dividends on the machineries of knowing in which these agents play a part. Knorr Cetina (1999: 9)
Although this framework recognises the social and ethical dimension of action, it can leave the emotional or affective (psychological) dimensions relatively unexplored.
The Mandala is based on a home, which is used as a metaphor to study the broader, more abstract notion of a livelihoods system. It may employ different symbolisms in different cultures but is like a lens with nine focal points through which the actualities become more distinctly visible. The Mandala conceptualises livelihoods in nine squares, each denoting one aspect, as depicted in Figure A2.3.Figure A2.3 Rural Livelihood Systems Nine-square Mandala Framework
[Page 236]The bottom row represents its foundation. This includes the physical, emotional, knowledge and activity bases. The physical basis refers to all the resources, economic and natural, available, the accumulated wealth and remittances from migrant members, and so on. The physical basis includes the natural environment and resources, and knowledge and activity basis refers to the crafts, trades, skills and traditional knowledge of the actors themselves. The emotional basis encompasses the feelings, emotional attachments and the sense of belonging actors feel towards their home. The knowledge and activity basis refers to the crafts, trades, skills and traditional knowledge.
The middle row delineates the different spaces in society; Indian socio-economic space comprises the several caste hierarchies, the panchayat and relations with government, neighbourhoods. The family space deals with gender relations, seniority within generations, distribution of workload and finally the inner human or intimate space encompassing personal awareness, integrity and responsibility. The uppermost row deals with all the mental/collective perspectives that shape and guide actor strategies, including the collective, family and the individual orientations. While societal rules and family values govern general behaviour patterns, revolutionary change could originate from one strong leader only. The Mandala depicts the ‘outer’ and the ‘inner’, creating an awareness of both the physical and psychic constituents of all livelihoods systems. From the bottom to the top of the Mandala is the transition from the physical and emotional basis to the mental apex, making it a heuristic tool that recognises the multidimensional reality of a livelihoods system and alerts researchers/practitioners to certain conflicts which arise in development (Högger 2003).
The use of three frameworks allows for person-centred, multi-levelled and flexible approaches to help understand the complexity and diversity of rural livelihoods and also enable movement beyond rational economic thinking to in-depth analysis of inner realities of women and their experiences. All three approaches explicitly acknowledge that to minimise or avoid risk, actors tend to develop multiple strategies for their livelihoods. They take cognisance of the dynamic and holistic nature of the processes and structures that influenced and shaped livelihoods. Thus, the frameworks are potentially flexible, adaptive and relational.Notes
1. For different applications of AOPs across country contexts, see Kuenzi et al., (1998: 54), Ludi (2004), Messerli (2004) and Wiesmann (1998).
Amavase New moon night Amrith Amavase New moon night in February Appa Father Ashraya mane Shelter—a house given by the government Avaralli Hechu Rokka ithi He has lot of money Baananthana Recovery period after delivery, normally observed for 40 days Baddi Interest on loan Badigar Carpenter Baksa Box money Basava Jayanthi A festival in May Basavi The local term for devadasi, meaning a woman with no restriction for having sexual relations Beedi Local cigarette Bhagya Jyothi A government scheme, for free electricity to the poor families Billi muthu A chain of white pearls Bindi A decorative round spot worn on woman's forehead Block/Taluk A group of 40–80 villages, which form an administration unit of 6–8 panchayats Bund Soil and water conservation structures, usually 2–3 feet-high walls built of stone and soil Coolie Casual human labour Dai Local nurse and midwife Dalit People belonging to lower caste Dalit Seva Sangha A membership-based organisation of Dalits Dasar Hindu sub-caste Deepawali Festival of lights Deerga Avadhi Sala Long-term loan Devadasi Women who have been dedicated to the local deity and are not allowed to marry, but can have sexual alliances with men Dhalali Broker/a private lender Duddu, Rokka, Hana Money Finance Sala Short-term loan [Page 238] Galeamma Hindu goddess Ganga Kalyana Yojane A government scheme Gouda, Gowda Landlord/head of a village Gram Panchayat A group of 6–10 villages forming an administrative unit and having elected local representatives at village level Hammali Porter Hammali Sangha Porter's union Hani Hani Koodidare Halla, Thene Thene Koodidare Rashi Small drops of water make a mighty ocean Hechu Rokka Beku Need lot of money Hingari Late monsoon Holige Sweet made with flour and jaggery Huligemma Goddess Jamkhane A thick bedsheet or bedcover Janatha Mane House constructed as a part of government-subsidised scheme for people living below the poverty line Jangamaru Hindu sub-caste (grazing cattle and trading milk is the main occupation of these people) Jathre Mela, fair Janatha house A house built under government scheme Jhakammana kadaga A bangle worn for religious regions Jogamma Lady priest Jowar Millet Kaigada A loan with no interest on it; can be repaid whenever there is money in hand Kankana Thread tied during marriage around the bride/groom's forehead Kari kallu Black stone Karthik Amavase New moon night in December Kasuti Hand embroidery Keri Street Kowdis Local thick bedsheet Kuruba Hindu sub-caste (general caste of shepherds, rearing sheep and goats) Lagna maadidhane Arranged the marriages Lingayat General caste Luncha Commission Madar Hindu sub-caste (scheduled caste [SC]) Madhyama Avadhi Sala Medium-term loan Mahanavami Festival Mandala Universe [Page 239] Mannethina Amavase New moon night in July Manthras Charms Marata Hindu sub-caste (OBC) Mungada Cash advance without interest Mungari Early monsoon Muthu A chain made of white and red beads Naalige A pendant of a female goddess's tongue Nagar Panchami A festival to worship snake God Nammaduddu Our money Nanage Ondu Savira Rupai Sala Kodi Give me a loan of Rs 1,000 ($22.22) Nanna Maga Nanage Hola Iddahange My son is my biggest property, like land Novodaya school Subsidised school provided by the government for meritorious children Oddaru Stone cutter Oni Street Paddathis Practices Panchami A festival in August Panchayat A group of 6–10 villages forming an administrative unit and having elected local representatives Pinjar Sub-caste of Muslim Puja Worship Pujari Priest Rashi Wealth Rathikuli Family granary Reddy Hindu sub-caste (general caste) Rokka Money Rotti A bread, made with jowar flour Rupai Rupee Sajje Millets Sala Loan Sammandha Relationship Sampathu Wealth, asset Samsara Sexual relationship Santhe A local market Sarai Local alcohol SC keri Street of the SCs Shavkar Landlord/money lender in a village Stree Shakti Women's empowerment project funded by central government Sulagi A local derogatory term, meaning prostitute [Page 240] Taluk Panchayat A group of 6–10 panchayats forming an administrative unit and having elected the representatives at the taluk level Talwar Hindu sub-caste (scheduled tribes) Thali Pendant Ugadi New year celebrated by Hindu people Undi A sweet prepared with jaggery, groundnut, oil and rice Vathi Mortgage Vathi Sala Loans given against security of land, jewels, and so on. Vijayadashmi A Hindu festival in which people worship goddess Durga Vyapara Trading/business Yellu Amavase New moon night in January
References[Page 241]1999. Evaluation of Training Programme on Strategic Business Planning: A Review Report. Ahmedabad: Friends of Women's World Banking.and .AFC (Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd). 2005. Report on Impact Evaluation of Swashakti, MWCD. New Delhi: Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd.1994. A Field of One's Own. Gender and Land Rights in South Asia. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press..1999. Is Microfinance Reaching the Poor? An Overview of Poverty Targeting Methods. Luxembourg: ADA..AIMS (Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services). 1998. ‘Learning from Clients: Assessment Tools for Micro Finance for Practitioners’. Available online at http://www.mip.org (downloaded on 6 February 2003).AIMS (Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services). 2001. ‘Study Shows Strong Impact on SHARE Clients Credit for the Poor’. CASHPOR Newsletter. Available online at http://www.gfusa.org/gbrp/share.html (downloaded on 10 June 2002).2003. ‘Impact Assessment of NGOs Micro-credit Based Women Entrepreneurship: Methodological concerns. Enterprise Impact’. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/conference/Abstracts/Akhter.shtml (downloaded on 15 January 2003)..2003. ‘Learning to Improve Business Services for Rural Micro Enterprise. Enterprise Impact’. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/conference (downloaded on 22 March 2003), and .2000. Doing Critical Management Research. London: Sage Publications.. and .2003. ‘Area Networking Event by ANANDI, India. Ways forward in Impact Assessment and Livelihood Enhancement’, paper presented in conference on New Directions in Impact Assessment for Development: Methods and Practice, University of Manchester, Manchester, November 24–25., and .APMAS (Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society). 2001. SHG Movement in Adilabad, Cuddapah & Vizag Districts. Hyderabad: APMAS.APMAS (Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society). 2003. Minutes of the Meeting of the Advisory Group of APMAS, June 24, 2003. Hyderabad: APMAS.APMAS (Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society). 2005. A Study on Self Help Groups — Bank Linkage in Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad: APMAS.APMAS (Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhivruddhi Society). 2007. SHG Federation in India, A Perspective. Delhi: Access Development Services.1996. Land Reforms in India: A Survey of Policy, Legislation and Implementation. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.2008. Scoping Paper on Financial Inclusion — Consideration and Recommendations for UNDP. New Delhi: UNDP.ASA (Activists for Social Action). 1999. Annual Report, 1999–2000 ASA—Grama Vidiyal Spring of Hope. Tiruchirapalli: ASA.ASA (Activists for Social Action). 2000. Annual Report, 2000–2001: ASA—Grama Vidiyal Spring of Hope. Tiruchirapalli: ASA.[Page 242]2004. ‘Life Story Interview’, in Michael Beck S.Lewis, BrymanAlan and LiaoTimfuting (eds), The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, pp. 566–69. London: Sage Publications..1992. ‘The Sociology of Money’, The American Behavioral Scientist, 35(6): 678–93.and .2002. ‘Self Help Groups—A Novel Approach for Reaching and Empowering the Unreached and Underserved Poor in India. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgi-bin/summary.pl?id=88&language=E (downloaded on 6 February 2004).2003. ‘Labour Impact Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities of a Learning Approach’, paper presented at Conference on New Directions in Impact Assessment for Development: Methods and Practice, University of Manchester, UK, November 24–25. Available online at http://www.entepriseimpact.org.uk/conference/Abstracts/Barrientos.shtml (downloaded on 10 January 2004)..1995. The Missing Links: Financial Systems that Work for the Majority. New York: Women's World Banking..2001. ‘Challenging Ritual Caste Oppression’. Available online at http://www.wedo.org/news/Mar01/ritual.htm (downloaded on 18 January 2004)..2003. Bridging Divides for Social Change: Practice–Research Interactions in South Asia. London: Sage Publication..2000. Participatory Research on Rural Livelihood: Sharing Research Findings for Local Empowerment. Bangalore: Institute of Social and Economic Change, Monograph published by ‘Indo Swiss Project on Rural Livelihood Systems’., , and .2004. In Search of Sustainable Livelihood Systems: Managing Resource and Change. New Delhi: Sage Publications.and .1995. Finding the Middle Path: The Political Economy of Cooperation in Rural India. Boulder, CO: West View Press.and .1999. ‘Beneath the Surface: Microcredit and Women's Empowerment. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgi-bin/summary.pl?id=88&language=E (downloaded on 6 February 2004)..2006. ‘Rebuilding Social Capital in Post-conflict Regions: Women's Village Banking in Ayacucho, Peru and in Highland Guatamela’, in Jude L.Fernando (ed.), Microfinance Perils and Prospects, pp. 112–32. Oxon: Routledge.and .1997. ‘Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance Institutions: Experience from Latin America, Asia and Africa’, The Microfinance Network Occasional Paper No. 1, The Microfinance Network, Washington DC.and .1989. ‘Giving Women Credit: The Strengths and Limitations of Credit as a Tool for Alleviating Poverty’, World Development, 1(3): 1017–32..1999. ‘Institutional Determinants of Saving: Implications for Low-income Households and Public Policy’, Journal of Socio-Economics, 28(4): 457–73.Sherraden.1997. ‘The Global Economy and American Wages’, The New Republic, 19 May..2005. ‘Keynote Address at the Inauguration of Indian School of Microfinance’, Ahmedabad, 12 September.2006. We Are Poor but So Many: The Story of Self-employed Women in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.1988. Shramashakti: A Summary of the Report of the National Commission of Self Employed: Women and Women in the Informal Sector. Ahmedabad: SEWA., , , , and .2005. ‘Developmentalism as a Disciplinary Strategy in Bangladesh’, Modern Asian Studies, 39(2): 349–68., and .1998. Client Monitoring Systems for Microfinance Institutions: AIMS Assistance to the Workers Bank of Jamaica. Washington: AIMS.. [Page 243]1998. ‘Impact Assessment Cutting through the Complexity’, in PeterOakley, BrianPratt and AndrewClayton (eds), Outcomes and Impact: Evaluating Change in Social Development, pp. 82–97. UK: INTRAC..2009. ‘Borrower runs’, Journal of Development Economics, 2(88): 185–91.and .1998. ‘Banking with the Poor—SIDBI's Initiatives’, paper presented at Conference on Kick-starting Microfinance: A Challenge for the Indian Banks, Bankers Institute of Rural Development, Lucknow, October 26–28.and .BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee). 1997. Savings and Credit Guidebook. Dhaka: RDP, BRAC.BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee). 1999. Impact Assessment Study—I and II (CD-Rom). Dhaka: BRAC Research and Evaluation Division.BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee). 2002. The Pro-poor Microfinance Sector in South Africa. Johanesberg: Finmark Trust.2006. ‘We Sacrifice and Eat Less: The Structural Complexities of Microfinance Participation’, Human Organization, 65(1): 8–19.2001. Organisational Research Methods: A Guide for Students and Researchers. London: Sage Publications.and2006. ‘Disciplining the Developmental Subject: Neoliberal Power and Governance through Microcredit’, in Jude L.Fernando (ed.), Microfinance Perils and Prospects, pp. 64–88. Oxon: Routledge..2002. Poverty, Gender and Micro-credit: A Study of the Experience of Rashtriya Mahila Kosh. Delhi: Rashtriya Mahila Kosh..2005. Micro-credit, Poverty and Empowerment. Linking the Triad. UNDP. New Delhi: Sage Publications., and .CARE and Access. 2007. Microfinance Marketplace: A Resource Directory of Emerging MFIs in India. Delhi: CARE India.CARE and FAO. 2007. Moving from Micro-credit to Livelihood Finance: A Report Prepared by CARE India in Collaboration with FAO Livelihood Support Programme. Delhi: CARE India.CARE India. 1997. A Project Document on Credit Rotation for Empowerment and Development through Institution Building and Training (CREDIT). Delhi: CARE India.CARE India. 1999. A Project Document on Credit and Savings for Household Enterprises (CASHE). Delhi: CARE India.CARE India. 2000. Report on Participatory Mid Term Evaluation of CREDIT Project of CARE—Bihar, Ranchi. Delhi: CARE India.1998. ‘Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contributions Can We Make?’ paper presented at Natural Resources Advisers Conference, DFID, London, July..CASHPOR. 2001. ‘Study Shows Strong Impact on SHARE Clients Credit for the Poor. CASHPOR Newsletter’. Available online at http://www.gfusa.org/gbrp/share.html (downloaded on 15 April 2004).CCA (Canadian Cooperative Association). 2000. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit. Abstracts of Impact Evaluation Tools and Selected References’. Available online at http://www.microcreditsummit.org/pdfs/impactpaper_abstract.pdf (downloaded on 25 June 2003).Census of India. 2001. ‘Country Profile: Republic India’. Available online at http://www.apcdproject.org/countryprofile/india/india_intro.html (downloaded on 10 August 2005).Centre for Management Development. 2003. Concurrent Evaluation of Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana. Thiruvanthapuram: Centre for Management Development.CETZAM (The Christian Enterprise Trust Zambia). 1999. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit. Part II. Implementing Impact Assessments and Monitoring Systems: A Practitioner Perspective from Zambia’, paper prepared for the Microcredit Summit Meeting of Councils, Abidjan.CETZAM (The Christian Enterprise Trust Zambia). 2000. Understanding Impact: Experiences and lessons from the Small Enterprise Foundation's Poverty-alleviation Programme, Tshomisano. Tzaneen, South Africa: Small Enterprise Foundation. Bath, UK: Center for Development Studies, University of Bath.[Page 244]CGAP (Consultative Group for Assisting the Poor). 2002. Helping to Improve Donor Effectiveness in Microfinance: Microfinance Transparency and Reporting to Donors. Donor Brief No. 7, Washington DC.CGAP (Consultative Group for Assisting the Poor). 2007. ‘Beyond Good Interventions: Measuring the Social Performance of Microfinance Institutions’, in PrabhuGhate (ed.), Microfinance in India: A State of the Sector Report, Delhi: Access Development Services.1991. ‘Shortcut and Participatory Methods for Gaining Social Information for Projects’, in M.Cernea (ed.), Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development. pp. 513–37. New York: Oxford University Press..1992. ‘Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century’, IDS Discussion Paper No. 296, The Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton.and .2002. ‘Microcredit and Rural Poverty: The Evidence’, Economic and Political Weekly, XXV(3): 110–18.and .1997. ‘A Guide for Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services at the Individual Level’. Available online at http://www.mip.org/pdfs/aims/fin-52mc.pdf (downloaded on 2 January 2004).1999. ‘An Assessment of the Impact of SEWA Bank in India: Baseline Findings. USAID Microenterprise Development’. Available online at http://www.mip.org/pdfs/aims/brf26acs.pdf (downloaded on 20 September 2003).and .2001. ‘Managing Resources, Activities and Risk in Urban India: The Impact of SEWA Bank Executive Summary. USAID Microenterprise Development’. Available online at http://www.usaidmicro.org/pdfs/aims/India%20Core%201A%202%20Executive%20Brief.pdf (downloaded on 20 September 2003).and2002. ‘Empowering Women through Microcredit (Part 1/2)’. A Draft Paper Commissioned by the Microcredit Summit Campaign.and1999. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit’, Microcredit Summit Meeting of Councils, Abidjan, 24–26 June. Available online at http://www.microcreditsummit.org/impactpaperH.htm (downloaded on 25 September 2002).and .2001. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit. Part II. Implementing Impact Assessments and Monitoring Systems: A Practitioner Perspective from Zambia’, paper prepared for the Microcredit Summit Meeting of Councils, Abidjan., , , , , and .2002. Livelihoods of Devadasi Women and Sexual Health in the Villages of Koppal District. Bangalore: Sampark..2000. ‘Commercialization and Mission Drift: The Transformation of Microfinance in Latin America’. Available online at http://collab2.cgap.org/gm/document-1.9.2700/OccasionalPaper_05.pdf (downloaded on 8 February 2003).1994. Maximizing the Outreach of Microenter-prise Finance: An Analysis of Successful Microfinance Programs. USAID Program and Operations Assessment Report No. 10. Washington, DC: USAID., , , and .CMF (Centre for Microfinance). 2001. Preliminary Synthesis Report from the Asian Region Workshop on Micro Finance and Impact Assessment Methodology. Nepal: CMF.1997. Highlights and Recommendations of the Virtual Meeting of the CGAP Working Group on Impact Assessment Methodologies. Washington: AIMS.and1998. ‘Best Practice of Banking with the Poor: A Review of Asia-Pacific Experience in Implementing Banking with the Poor’. Conclusions and Recommendations Adopted at the Third Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop on Banking with the Poor, Brisbane, November 21–25., , and .1996. ‘Poverty-oriented Financial Service Programmes: Room for Improvement?’Savings and Development, 19(4): 417–36..2000. ‘Impact Assessment of Microfinance and Organizational Learning: Who Will Survive?’, Journal of Microfinance, 2(2): 36–45.. [Page 245]2002. ‘Inequality and the Polarizing Impact of Microcredit: Evidence from Zambia's Copperbelt’, Journal of International Development, 14(6): 743–55..2003. ‘Simple Standards or Burgeoning Benchmarks? Institutionalizing Social Performance Monitoring, Assessment and Auditing of Microfinance’, IDS Bulletin, 34(4): 54–65..Centre for Youth and Social Development (CYSD). 1996. ‘Improving Impact of Micro-finance on Poverty: An Action Research Programme (CYSD)’. Available online at http://www.cysd.org/ImpactAss_link.htm (downloaded on 5 May 2003).1998. Evaluation Frameworks for Development Programmes and Projects. London: Sage Publications..2003. ‘Tree of Dreams to Empowerment Strategy: Participatory Action Learning, Networking and Impact Assessment in Anandi, India, Enterprise Impact’. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/conference/Abstracts/Dand.shtml (downloaded on 5 January 2003)., , and .DANIDA (Danish International Development Assistance). 2004. Evaluation: Farm Women in Development: Impact Study of Four Training Projects in India. Denmark: Danish State Information Centre.2007. ‘Consolidated Reply in Response to Query on Collecting Evidence of Impact of Microfinance-experience’, raised by Smita Premchander, Sampark in Solution Exchange..1998. ‘Why Have Some Indian States Done Better than Others at Reducing Rural Poverty?’Economica, 65(2): 17–38.and2005. Virtue, Fortune and Faith: A Genealogy of Finance. London: University of Minnesota Press..1999. Social Exclusion: Towards an Holistic Understanding of Deprivation, Social Development Department. Development Studies Dissemination Note No. 2. London: DFID.1967. Social Aspects of Savings. Mumbai: Popular Prakasham Publishers.2003. Output and Impact Monitoring Study of KAWAD Project Agricultural Development and Rural Transformation. Bangalore: Institute for Social and Economic Change., , and .1971. ‘Role Relations and Conceptions of Neutrality in Interviewing’, in Billy J.Franklin and Harold W.Osborne (eds), Research Methods: Issues and Insights. pp. 400–07. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.DFID (Department for International Development). 2004. ‘India Country Plan. Partnership for Development’. Available online at http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/capindia.pdf (downloaded on 19 July 2006).1999. ‘Case Studies in Microfinance: Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Microfinance: Past, Present and Future—An Essay. Geocities’. Available online at http://www.geocities.com/salahuddin223/microfinance.html (downloaded on 5 March 2004)..1999. ‘Money, Trust and Culture: Elements for an Institutional Approach to Money’, Journal of Economic Issues, 33: 677–88.1998. Missing Persons: A Critique of the Social Sciences. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.and1995. India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.and .2002. India: Development and Participation. New York: Oxford University Press.and .1998. ‘Microfinance: A Means to What End?’Monday Developments, 16(17): 20–25..2001. ‘The Holy Grail of Microfinance: Helping the Poor and Sustainable?’Small Enterprise Development, 11(1): 45–58..EDA Rural Systems. 2003. Impact Assessment of Microfinance—Interim Findings from a National Study of MFIs in India. Lucknow: EDA Rural Systems Pvt. Ltd.EDA Rural Systems. 2006. Self Help Groups: A Study of the Light and Dark Sides. EDA Rural Systems.1998. ‘NGO Performance—What Breeds Success?’ in PeterOakley, BrianPratt, and AndrewClayton (eds), Outcomes and Impact: Evaluating Change in Social Development, pp. 104–14. UK: INTRAC..FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations). 2002. A Guide to Gender Sensitive Microfinance. Rome: Socio-economic and Gender Analysis Programme, FAO.[Page 246]1999. ‘Sustainable Livelihoods in Practice: Early Applications of Concepts in Rural Areas’, Natural Resource Perspective, 42(30): 100–14., , and .1994. The Myrada Experience—The Interventions of a Voluntary Agency in the Emergence and Growth of People's Institutions For the Sustained and Equitable Management of Micro-watersheds. Bangalore: MYRADA.2003. ‘Round Table: Microfinance: An Introduction by Srinivasan R and Sriram M.S.’, IIMB Review, 15(2): 52–86.2005. Why Sanghamithra is Different. Bangalore: MYRADA.2006a. ‘Introduction: Microcredit and Empowerment of Women: Blurring the Boundary between Development and Capitalism’, in Jude L.Fernando (ed.), Microfinance Perils and Prospects, pp. 1–244. Oxon: Routledge.2006b. ‘Microcredit and Empowerment of Women: Visibility without Power’, in Jude L.Fernando (ed.), Micro-finance Perils and Prospects, pp. 187–238. Oxon: Routledge.2004. ‘Owing and Being in Debt. A Contribution from the Northern Andes of Ecuador’, Social Anthropology, 12(1): 77–94..2002. Beyond Micro-credit: Putting Development Back into Micro-finance. New Delhi: Vistar Publications.and .1970. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Harmondsworth: Penguin..FWWB (Friends of Women's World Banking). 1997. Translating Dreams into Reality. Ahmedabad: FWWB.FWWB (Friends of Women's World Banking). 2001. Annual Report, 2000–2001. Ahmedabad: FWWB.FWWB (Friends of Women's World Banking). 2006. Consultation on Gender and Microfinance. Ahmedabad: FWWB.IFP (Institut Frangais de Pondicherry). 2004. Indebtedness Vulnerability to Bondage and Microfinance. Pondicherry: IFP.2007. How do Women in Mature SHGs Save and Invest their Money. Delhi: Access Development Services.and2000. ‘Do Anti Poverty Programmes Reach the Rural Poor in India?’, Oxford Development Studies, 28(1): 71–95..2003. ‘Vulnerability, Shocks and Persistence of Poverty—Estimates for Semi-arid Rural South India’. Available online at http://idpm.man.ac.uk/cprc/Conference/conferencepapers/Gaiha%20Raghav_Imai_REVISED2.pdf (downloaded on 19 May 2004).and1998. ‘The Evaluation of an Ongoing Educational Programme’, in PeterOakley, BrianPratt and AndrewClayton (eds), Outcomes and Impact: Evaluating Change in Social Development, pp. 115–22. UK: INTRAC..2003. ‘Microcredit in Rural India: An Evaluation’. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/conference/abstracts/garikipati.shtml (downloaded on 7 October 2003)..1962. ‘The Rotating Credit Association: A Middle Rung in Development’, Economic and Development and Cultural Change, 1(2): 241–63..1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books..2005. ‘Systematic Hierarchies and Systemic Failures: Gender and Health Inequities in Koppal District’, Conference Paper. Bangalore: ISEC. Downloadable from http://www.esocialsciences.com/Articles/displayArticles.asp?Article_ID (downloaded on 6 February 2007)., and .2003. ‘Back to the Basics: Potentials and Limitations of Socio-economic Field Methods in “Fuzzy Empirical Situations”’, paper presented at the Integrated Training Course of the NCCR North-South Program on Syndromes of Global Change, Centre for Development and Environment, Berne, July 15–25.2007. Microfinance in India: A State of the Sector Report. Delhi: Access Development Services..2002. The CASHPOR Financial and Technical Services (CFTS) Story. Mirzapur: CFTS..2003. ‘Round Table: Microfinance: An Introduction by Srinivasan R. and Sriram M.S.’, IIMB Review, 15(1): 52–86.. [Page 247]2005. Common Cents: Situating Money in Time and Place. Routledge: Taylor and Francis Group Ltd..1993. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. London: Harvard University Press..1996. ‘Who Takes the Credit? Gender, Power, and Control over Loan Use in Rural Credit Programmes in Bangladesh’, World Development, 24(1): 45–63.and .2005. Reinventing Accountability: Making Democracy Work for Human Development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.and .GOI. 2001. National Policy for the Empowerment of Women. Delhi: Department of Women and Child Development and Ministry of Human Resource Development.GOI. 2002. Five Year Plan 2002–2007. Dimensions and Strategies. Vol. I, II and III. New Delhi: Planning Commission and Government of India.GOI. 2003. All India Debt and Investment Survey 2002. Delhi. National Sample Survey Organisation, GOI. Available online at http://mospi.nic.in/nsso_4aug2008/web/nsso/reports.htm (downloaded on 7 August 2004).GOI. 2005. Agricultural Cooperation. Delhi: Ministry of Agriculture.GOI. 2007. ‘The Microfinancial Sector (Development and Regulation) Bill’. Available online at http://www.prsindia.org/bills.php (accessed on January 24 2008).GOI. 2008. ‘Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007–12) Document’. Available online at http://planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/welcome.html (downloaded on 7 August 2008).GOK (Government of Karnataka). 1999. Human Development in Karnataka 1999. Bangalore: Planning Department.GOK (Government of Karnataka). 2001. Task Force on Health and Family Welfare. Karnataka: Towards Equity, Quality and Integrity in Health. Focus on Primary Health Care and Public Health. Bangalore: Government of Karnataka.GOK (Government of Karnataka). 2002. District at a Glance, Koppal. Karnataka: District Statistical Office.GOK (Government of Karnataka). 2004. Human Development in Karnataka 2004. Bangalore: Planning Department.GOK (Government of Karnataka). 2006. Human Development in Karnataka 2006. Bangalore: Planning Department.1998. New Approaches to Participatory Impact Assessment. London: ActionAid..Grameen Bank. 1998. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving of Microcredit. Abstracts of Impact Evaluation Tools and Selected References’. Available online at http://www.microcreditsummit.org/pdfs/impactpaper_abstract.pdf (downloaded on 25 June 2003).1994. ‘Business Groups’, in N.J.Smelser and R.Swedberg (eds), The Handbook of Economics Sociology, pp. 454–57. New Jersey: Prince Town University Press..2002. ‘A New Approach in Evaluating Microfinance Institutions Performance. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk (downloaded on 06.02.004)..2006. ‘Women and Money: Lessons from Senegal’, Development and Change, 37(3): 549–70..2007. Staying Free from Bondage: Do Microfinance-led Strategies Work? Findings from Tamil Nadu, India. Geneva: ILO., , , and .1995. ‘Critical Reflections on the Practices of PRA’. PLA Notes.and .2006. ‘Redefininng Poverty. A New Poverty Line for India’, Economic and Political Weekly, XLI(25): 2534–41.and .1998. Profit for the Poor: Cases in Microfinance. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd..2002. Promotion of SHGs under the SHG-bank Linkage Programme in India. Mumbai: NABARD..1998. Value for Money: Impact of Small Enterprise Development. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.and1996. ‘Rural Credit Programs and Women's Empowerment in Bangladesh’, World Development, 24(4): 635–53., , and . [Page 248]1998. Poverty Assessment by Microfinance Institutions: A Review of Current Practices. Foundation for International Community Assistance Development Alternatives.and .2002. ‘Designing Microfinance from an Exit Strategy Perspective. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/rtf/hendricks-designing.rtf (downloaded on 12 February 2004)..2002. Impact Monitoring and Assessment: Instruments for Use in Rural Development Projects with a Focus on Sustainable Land Management, Volume 1: Procedure. Berne: Centre for Development and Environment and GTZ.and2006. ‘Gender and Transdisiplinarity in Research for Sustainable Development’, in SmitaPremchander and ChristineMueller (eds), Gender and Sustainable Development Berne: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 2, p. 364. Bern: Geographica Bernensia.2003). Understanding Rural Livelihood Systems as Complex Wholes. Delhi: Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation.. (2004. ‘Understanding Livelihood System as Complex Wholes’, in RuediBaumgartner and RuediHögger (eds), In Search of Sustainable Livelihood Systems, pp. 351–64. New Delhi: Sage Publications..1995. The Active Interview. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.and .2005. ‘The Impact of Microfinance on Decision-making Agency: Evidence from South India’, Development and Chang, 36(1): 75–102..1997. Impact Assessment Methodologies for Microfinance: A Review. Washington: AIMS..1996. Finance against Poverty. London: Routledge.and2004. Research for Mitigating Syndromes of Global Change: A Transdisciplinary Appraisal of Selected Regions of the World to Prepare Development-oriented Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 2, p. 468. Bern: Geographica Bernensia., and .ICMC and PRIZMA. 2000. ‘Executive Summary of Impact Survey of International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC) and PRIZMA Microfinance Programme in Bosnia and Herzengovina. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk (downloaded on 6 February 2004).IFAD. 2007. ‘Gender: Food Security, Poverty and Women: Lessons from Rural Asia’. Available online at http://www.ifad.org/gender/thematic/rural/rual_6.htm (downloaded on 10 October 2007).IIB Vision. 2007. ‘New Plans for Inclusive Banking. IIB Vision’, Indian Institute of Banking and Finance, 3(3): 7.IIHRD (Indian Institute for Human Research and Development). 2003. Impact Assessment Study of Rural Development Programme in Ramnathapuram Distcrit, Tamilnadu. Delhi: Ministry of Rural Development, GOI.IIMS Dataworks. 2007. ‘Invest India Incomes and Savings Survey 2007: Savings Priorities of India's High Income Groups’. Available online at http://www.iimsdataworks.com (downloaded on 11 January 2008).IIPO (Indian Institute of Public Opinion). 2005. Evaluation Report of Swayamsidha (IWEP). Delhi: Department of Women and Child Development.IIPS (International Institute for Population Sciences). 2002. ‘Reproductive and Child Health District Level Household Survey 2002. Round 2 Phase 1. Koppal’. Available online at http://www.rchindia.org/rep/kar/koppal/koppal.htm (downloaded on 11 July 2006).ILO (International Labour Organization). 2007. ‘Global Employment Trends for Women 2007: ILO Study Warns on the Feminisation of Working Poverty’. Available online at http://www.ilo.org/wow/Newsbriefs/lang-en/WCMS_082692/index.htm (downloaded on 12 December 2007).2006. ‘Further Reflections on the Ontology of Money: Responses to Lapavitsas and Dodd’, Economy and Society, 35(2): 259–78..1996. ‘Rescuing Gender from the Poverty Trap’, World Development, 24(3): 489–504.. [Page 249]1998. ‘Women and Poverty or Gender and Wellbeing?’Journal of International Affairs, 52(1): 67–81..1996. ‘Managing Credit for the Rural Poor: Lessons from the Grameen Bank’, World Development, 24(1): 79–89..2003. Poverty Mapping and Monitoring Using Information Technology: Learning and Perspectives from India. Consultancy Report for Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting (EGM) on Poverty Mapping and Monitoring Using Information Technology to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), United Nations, Bangkok. Bangalore: Indian Space Research Organisation. Available online at http://www.unescap.org/pdd/projects/pov_map/4b-India%20Poverty%20Mapping%20-%20Main%20Report.doc (downloaded on 19 July 2006).. and .1999. ‘Accounts and Accountability: Theoretical Implications of the Right-to-information Movement in India’, Third World Quarterly, 20(3): 603–22.and .2005. ‘Transforming the Lives of the Poor From Bitter to Better, Indian Bank's Special Unit for Microfinance, Usilampatti’. Available online at http://www.solutionexchange-un.net.in/mf/cr/res06090710.doc (downloaded on 15 September 2007)..1999. ‘Rural Poverty in India: Structure, Determinants and Suggestions for Policy Reform’. Available online at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN013137.pdf (downloaded on 6 February 2004)..2004. ‘Under-nutrition, Poverty and Growth in Rural India—A Regional Analysis’, ASARC Working Paper 2004–2. Canberra: Australian National University.and1997. Microfinance and Poverty Reduction. Oxford: Oxfam.and1999. ‘Gender and Microfinance: Guidelines for Good Practice’. Available online at http://www.gdrc.org/icm/wind/gendersjonson.html (downloaded on 25.05.2003)..2003. Gender Relations, Empowerment and Microcredit: Moving on from a Lost Decade. Extract of Impact Assessment of FINCA, completed for DFID. UK: University of Bath..2005. ‘Making MFIs and Financial Markets Work for Poor Women’, paper for the Consultation on Reclaiming Leadership of Women in Microfinance. Ahmedabad: FWWB..2003. ‘Round Table: Microfinance: An Introduction by Srinivasan R. and Sriram M.S.’, IIMB Review, 15(2): 52–86..2003. ‘Assessing the Wider Social Impacts of Microfinance Services: Concepts, Methods and Findings’, IDS Bulletin, 34(4): 106–14..2005. Inclusive Citizenship: Meanings and Expressions. London: Zed Books..1999. ‘Measuring Transformation: Assessing and Improving the Impact of Microcredit. Part III. Impact Evaluation Mechanism of the Association for Social Advancement (ASA) in Bangladesh’, paper commissioned by the Microcredit Summit Campaign for the 1999 Meeting of Councils..1997. Women and Rural Development. A Resource Guide for Organisation and Action. ISIS Women's International Information and Communication Service. Ahmedabad: Intermediate Technology Publications..1999. Rural Credit and Self-help Groups: Micro-finance Needs and Concepts in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications.2000. ‘Race and Wealth Inequality: The Impact of Racial Differences in Asset Ownership on the Distribution of Household Wealth’, Social Science Research, 29(12): 477–502.2002. ‘Financial Markets, Money and Banking’, Annual Review of Sociology, 28: 39–62.1936 and 1970. The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money. London and Basingstoke: Macmillan and Co. Ltd.1999. Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.. [Page 250]1985. ‘When People Don't Come First: Some Sociological Lessons from Completed Projects’, in M.Cernea (ed.), Putting People First: Sociological Variables in Rural Development, pp. 325–56. New York: Oxford University Press.1998. From Despondency to Ambitions: Women's Changing Perceptions of Self Employment: Cases from India and Other Developing Countries. England: Hants.2000. Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research (and .3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1998. ‘Patterns of Peasant Livelihood Strategies: Local Actors and Sustainable Resource Use’, Eastern and Southern African Geographical Journal, 8(2): 55–66., , and .2006. ‘Taking Banking Services to the Common Man-financial Inclusion: Commemorative Lecture on 2 December 2005’. Available online at http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS (downloaded on 5 January 2008)..2004. Information Systems and Nongovernmental Development Organisations: Advocacy, Organisational Learning, and Accountability. London: The Information Society.and2006. ‘Gender, Households and Poverty. Tracking Mediations of Macro Adjustment Programmes’, Economic and Political Weekly, XLI(20): 1989–98..2005. ‘Financial Derivations and the Rise of Circulation’, Economy and Society, 34(3): 404–27.and2004. Economic Analysis of Soil Conservation: Case Studies from the Highlands of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Berne: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Institute of Geography, University of Berne..1999. ‘Cooperation and Group Formation in Processing, Marketing and Transport’, PhD thesis. Durham: University of Dhurham..2005. ‘From Microcredit to Livelihood Finance’, Economic and Political Weekly, XL(41): 4416–419..1998. ‘Dhakka Starting Microfinance in India’. Workshop on Kick Starting Micro-finance: A Challenge for the Indian Banks, Bankers Institute for Rural Development, Lucknow, 26–28 October.., and .2007. ‘Microfinance and Technology’, in PrabhuGhate (ed.), Microfinance in India: A State of the Sector Report, pp. 131–48. Delhi: Access Development Services.and .2006. Rate and Reasons of Dropouts in Self Help Groups. New Delhi: Agricultural Finance Corporation..1999. Studying Group Dynamics: An Analysis of Microfinance Impacts on Poverty Reduction and Its Application in Peru. PhD Thesis. London: University of London..2000. ‘Christian Microenterprise Development, Counting the Cost and Building the Kingdom, Lookout Mountain, GA: Chalmer's Centre for Economic Development, Covenant College’. Available online at http://www.aerdo.org/pdf/christian_microenterprise.pdf (downloaded on 19 September 2005).1998. Rapid Credit Deepening and the Joint Liability Credit Contract: A Study of Grameen Bank Borrowers in Madhupur. Ph.D. Thesis. Brighton: University of Sussex..1997. ‘Impact Assessment and Women's Empowerment in Microfinance Programmes: Issues for a Participatory Action and Learning Approach’, background paper submitted to CGAP Virtual Meeting on Impact Assessment Methodologies in Microfinance Programmes..1999. ‘Microfinance and the Empowerment of Women. A Review of the Key Issues. ILO Social Finance Unit’, Working Paper No. 22, International Labour Organisation (ILO), Geneva..2001. ‘Impact Assessment of Microfinance: Towards a Sustainable Learning Process. EDIAIS Information Resources’. Available online at http://www.microfinancegateway.org/impact/method/iss11_1.htm (downloaded on 6 June 2002)..2003a. ‘Empowering Enquiry’, Enterprise Impact News, issue 16, January/February: 1–4..2003b. ‘Using Diagrams’, Enterprise Impact News, issue 22, August: 1–4..2003c. ‘Grassroots Action Learning’, Enterprise Impact News, issue 16, September: 1–4.. [Page 251]1998. ‘Getting the Framework Right: Policy and Regulation for Microfinance in Asia’. Available online at http://www.bwtp.org/publications (downloaded on 20 March 2003)., , and .2002. ‘Chronic Poverty in India: Overview Study. Manchester, UK: Chronic Poverty Centre’. Available online at http://www.eldis.org/go/display/?id=11189&type=Document (downloaded on 15 January 2008).and .2003. Impact Assessment Studies of Selected Microfinance Programmes around the World: An Overview and Analysis. Bangalore: Sampark..2004. Alternatives à la Culture sur brulis sur la Falaise Est de Madagascar: Stratégies en vue d'une gestion plus durable des terres. Berne: Centre pour le Dévelopment et l'Environnent (CDE), Institute de Géographie, Universitè de Berne, PhD Thesis..MHHDC (Mahbub ul Haq Human Development Centre). 2002. Human Development in South Asia 2002: Agriculture and Rural Development. Karachi: MHHDC.MicroSave Africa. 1998. ‘Beyond Basic Credit and Savings: Developing New Financial Service Products for the Poor’. Available online at http://www.undp.org/sum/MicroSave/ftp_downloads/MicroSavePaper2.pdf (downloaded on 2 June 2004).1996. ‘Discipline or Protecting the Poor? Avoiding the Social Costs of Peer Pressure in Micro-credit Schemes’, Journal of International Development, Special Issue, 8(2): 225–80.1996. Credit for the Poor in Bangladesh. Universities of Manchester and Reading Paper on Finance for Low-income Groups, Manchester: Institute fro Development Policy and Management., and .1998. ‘Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh, Harvard Institute of International Development and Hoover Institution, Stanford University’. Available online at http://www.wws.princeton.edu/~rpds/downloads/orduch_microfinance_poor.pdf (downloaded on 24 October 2003)..1999. ‘The Microfinance Promise’, Journal of Economics Literature, XXXVII(4): 1567–615..1996. ‘The Regional Rural Banks: India, the Policy and Institutional Background’, in PaulMosely and DavidHulmi (eds.), Finance against Poverty, pp. 157–79. London: Routledge..2000. ‘Microfinance and Poverty: Bolivia Case Study. USAID Microenterprise Development’. Available online at http://www.mip.org/pdfs/aims/microfinance_and_poverty.pdf (downloaded on 16 June 2003)..2004. ‘Is Good Policy Un-implementable? Reflections on the Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice’, Development and Change, 35(4): 639–71..2005. Cultivating Development. New Delhi: Vistar Publications..KRIBP Project Team. 2004. ‘Brokered Livelihoods: Debt, Labour Migration and Development in Tribal Western India’, Journal of Development Studies, 38(5): 59–88., , , , and1998. Poverty, Gender and Reproductive Choice. New Delhi: Ajaya Kumar Jain.and .SAPAP Research Team. 2002. ‘Towards Women's Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: Lessons from the Participatory Impact Assessment of South Asian Poverty Alleviation Programme in Andhra Pradesh, India, UNDP’. Available online at http://www.undp.org.in/report/wkspsclmblizn/ppt.htm (downloaded on 12 April 2003)., and with2005. Micro-credit, Poverty and Empowerment. Linking the Triad. New Delhi: Sage Publications., and .1999. ‘Use and Impact of Savings among the Poor in Tanzania’. Available online at http://www.undp.org/sum/MicroSave/ftp_downloads/UseTanzania.doc (downloaded on 24 December 2003)..MYRADA. 2001. The Myrada Experience: A Manual for Capacity Building of Self Help Groups. Bangalore: MYRADA.NABARD. 1998. Guidelines on Self Help Groups. Bangalore: NABARD.[Page 252]NABARD. 1999. Circular on Priority Sector Lending Special Programmes, April 1. Mumbai: NABARD. Available online at http://www.nabard.org/whats/mcirc2.htm (downloaded on 25 June 2003).NABARD. 2002. ‘Summary and Recommendations of the Task Force on Supportive Policy and Regulatory Framework for MicroFinance, 2002, National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development’. Available online at http://www.gdrc.org/icm/country/india-mftaskforce.html (downloaded on 16 April 2004).NABARD. 2007. ‘SHG Bank Linkage Programme in India’. Available online at http://www.nabard.org/pdf/highlights%200607.pdf (downloaded on 25 January 2008).2001. ‘Institutionalising Microfinance in India: An Overview of Strategic Issues’, Economic and Political Weekly, XXXVI(39): 399–404.2000. Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change. New York: Oxford University Press., , and .2001. ‘“Untouchability”: The Economic Exclusion of the Dalits in India’, paper presented at the International Council on Human Rights Policy, Geneva, January 24–25. Available online at http://www.ichrp.org/paper_files/113_w_07.pdf (downloaded on 19 July 2006).andNational Labour Academy-Nepal. 2006. ‘Impact Assessment and the Final Evaluation of Prevention and Elimination of Bonded Labour in South Asia (PEBLISA): Nepal Chapter’. Available online at http://www.solutionexchange-un.net.in/mf/cr/res06090707.doc (downloaded on 19 July 2006).1998. Impact Assessment Study of the Family Development Fund. Egypt: UNICEF.and2002. ‘Donors’ Support for Microcredit as Social Enterprise: A Critical Reappraisal’. United Nations University and World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), Discussion Paper No. 2002/127’. Available online at http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/dps/dps2002/dp2002-127.pdf (downloaded on 25 April 2003)..2003. ‘The Internal Learning Susytems for Participatory Assessment of Micro Finance’, Small Enterprise Development, 12(4): 45–53..2001. ‘Growth Strategies and Poverty Reduction. Asia and Pacific Forum on Poverty’. Available online at http://www.adb.org/Poverty/Forum/pdf/osmani.pdf (downloaded on 19 May 2004).1994. The New World of Micro Enterprise Finance—Building Healthy Financial Institutions for the Poor. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.. and .2003. ‘Mainstreaming Microfinance: Bridging the NGO–Banker Divide. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgi-bin/summary.pl?id=348 (downloaded on 10 February 2004)..2005. ‘Social Mobilization and Micro-credit for Women's Empowerment: A Study of the DHAN foundation’, in NeeraBurra, Joy DeshmukhRanadive and K.Murthy (eds), Micro-credit Poverty and Empowerment Linking the Triad, pp. 161–99. Delhi: Sage Publications..2005. ‘PEBLISA project’, presentation made at a Workshop on 8–9 September, at Delhi, International Labour Office..2005. ‘Awareness, Access, Agency: Experience of Swayam Shikshan Prayog in Microfinance and Women's Empowerment’, in NeeraBurra, Joy DeshmukhRanadive and K.Murthy (eds), Micro-credit Poverty and Empowerment Linking the Triad, pp. 200–44. Delhi: Sage Publications.2006. ‘Diffusion of Development’, Economic Political Weekly, XLI(19): 1766–72..2006. ‘Toward a Theory of Community-based Enterprise’, Academy of Management Review, 31(2): 309–28.and .2003. ‘Feminist Methodology and Rural Research: Reflections on a Study of an Australian Agricultural Organisation’, Sociologia Ruralis, 43(4): 418–33..2004. ‘Credit Programmes for the Poor and Seasonality in Rural Bangladesh’, Journal of Development Studies, 39(2): 1–24.and . [Page 253]1999. ‘Beyond Twin Defects: Emotions of the Future in the Organisation of Money’, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(4): 1091–1109.Planning Commission, Government of India. 2001. Report of the Working Group on Rural Poverty Alleviation Programmes for the Tenth Five-year Plan 2002–2007. TFYP WG Report No. 81/2001. New Delhi: The Planning Commission.2006. ‘Unknown: Extent, Distribution and Trend of Global Income Poverty’, Economic and Political Weekly, XLI(22): 2241–247.and .PRADAN. 1997. From Self Help Groups to Community Banking: The PRADAN Project for Empowerment of Women. Bangalore: Comunicación for Development and Learning (CDL).PRADAN. 1998. ‘Income, Expenditure and Social Sector Indicators of Households in Rural and Urban India’, paper prepared as part of the MIMAP-India Project sponsored by the International Development Research Center, Ottawa. Available online at http://web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-S/10288316670india_pov.pdf (downloaded on 19 May 2004).PRADAN. 1999. Minutes of the Meeting of NABARD Workshop on SHGs Organized by PRADAN-Lohardaga. Bihar: PRADAN.PRADAN. 2006. History and Programme Highlights. Delhi: PRADAN.1999. Reality and Reflections on Gender and Leadership for Natural Resources Management. Voicing Issues for Empowerment Women Series (VIEWS) No. 4. Bangalore: Sampark..2000. Report of the Workshop for the Design of CREDIT—III Project, Bastar. Report prepared for CARE India Delhi. Bangalore: Sampark..2002. ‘Forum: Whose Parameters, Whose Standards? Evaluating the Performance of Savings and Credit Groups Through External Parameters Only Could Be a Self-defeating Process’, News Reach, 2(7): 8–13..2003a. ‘Learning from Impact Assessments: Does Understanding Women's Perspectives Change Microfinance Programmes?’, paper presented at workshop in Manchester, November 24–25. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/Premchander.pdf (downloaded on 19 May 2004)..2003b. ‘NGOs and Local MFIs—How to Increase Poverty Reduction through Women's Small and Micro-enterprises’, Futures, 35(4): 361–78..2004. ‘Pugnacious Poverty in Bangladesh’, News Reach, 3(5): 22–24..2005. ‘Competing Perspectives of Women and Micro-finance Institutions: Rethinking Organisational Forms and Capacity Building’, Mainstream, XLIII(16): 11–12..2006. ‘Exploring the Meaning of Money: A Study of the Impact of Microfinance in Koppal District of India’, a poster about the PhD may be found online at http://www.nccr-north-south.unibe.ch/publications/Infosystem/on-line%20Dokumente/Upload/11_premchander.qxp_s.pdf.2006. Gender and Sustainable Development. Berne: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 2, p. 364. Bern: Geographica Bernensia.and2003. ‘In Search of Water: Natural Resource Degradation Leading to a Livelihoods Crisis in Koppal District, Karnataka, India’, Mountain Research and Development, 23(1): 19–23. Available online at http://www.mrd-journal.org/issue.asp?Issue_ID=34 (downloaded on 25 May 2004)., and .2007. ‘Empowering Women through Microfinance: A Policy and Programme Review. Delhi: Care India’. Available online at http://www.careindia.org/ManagePublications/VisitPublicationDetail.aspx?SectionID=114 (downloaded on 20 October 2007).and .Proshika. 1998. Participatory Impact Assessment of Proshika's Development Interventions: Proshika Group Members' Perceptions and Their Analysis of the Impact of Development Interventions on Their Lives in General and on the Lives of the Rural Women in Particular. Dhaka: Proshika.Proshika. 2002. Study of Impact of Proshika Micro-credit Programmes on Employment and Income Generation. Study carried out by Shamsul Hoque Mondal. Dhaka: Proshika.[Page 254]1993. ‘The Prosperous Community—Social Capital and Public Life’, The American Prospect, 13: 35–42.2000. ‘Microfinance as an Instrument of Poverty Alleviation: An Overview’, paper presented at a conference on The Potential and Limitations of Economic Initiatives in Grassroots Development: Current Issues and Asian Experiences, INASIA and CDF, Dhaka, November 27–30.Jr.1999. ‘Poor Women's Access to Economic Gain from Grameen Bank Loans’, Working Paper No. 9/12. Dhaka: National Centre for Development Studies.2003. ‘Designing Secondary Institutions of Self-help Groups (SHGs) (engaged in savings and credit services)’, paper for discussion at APMAS workshop of 20–21 June..2004a. Self Help Groups—a Critique. Hyderabad..2004b. ‘User Owned and Controlled Organizations in the Field of Financial Services’, paper written for Micro-finance India 2008, 24–26 February..2005a. ‘Do Federations Have a Role in Financial Intermediation?’ paper written for Microfinance India 2008, 24–26 February..2005b. ‘Reclaiming Women's Leadership in Microfinance’, paper presented at the FWWB Conference on Reclaiming Women's Leadership in Microfinance, Ahmedabad, September 8–9..2005c. ‘Micro-credit and Women's Empowerment: The Lokadrusti Case’, in NeeraBurra, Joy Deshmukh-Ranadive and Rajani K.Murthy (eds), Micro Credit, Poverty ands Empowerment, pp. 245–85. New Delhi: Sage Publications..2005. ‘Microcredit and Women's Empowerment: A Case Study of SHARE Micro-finance Limited’, in NeeraBurra, Joy DeshmukhRanadive and K.Murthy (eds), Microcredit Poverty and Empowerment Linking the Triad, pp. 116–60. Delhi: Sage Publications..2007. ‘Aberration or Synecdoche: Reflections on the Microfinance Suicides of Andhra Pradesh’. Available online at http://www.fracturedearth.org/?p=234 (downloaded on 20 October 2007)..2000. Role of Non-economic Motivation. Anand: Institute of Rural Management., and .2003. ‘Round Table: Microfinance: An Introduction by SrinivasanR., and SriramM.S.’, IIMB Review, 15(2): 52–86..2004. ‘Emerging Rural Leadership and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. Evidence from Two South Indian Villages’, in R.Baumgartner and R.Hogger (eds), In Search of Sustainable Livelihood Systems: Managing Resources and Change, pp. 298–315. New Delhi: Sage Publications., , and .2005. ‘Introduction: Linking the Triad’, in NeeraBurra, Joy DeshmukhRanadive and Rajani K.Murthy (eds), Micro Credit, Poverty and Empowerment, pp. 322–56. New Delhi: Sage Publications.and .2002. ‘Social Capital, Microfinance and the Politics of Development’, Journal of Feminist Economics, 8(1): 1–24.2006. ‘Social Capital, Microfinance, and the Politics of Development’, in Jule L.Fernando (ed.), Microfinance Perils and Prospects, pp. 89–111. Oxon: Routledge.1999. ‘Institutional Take-off or Snakes and Ladders: Dynamics and Sustainability of Local-level Organisations in Rural Bangladesh’, INTRAC Occasional Papers Series (30). Oxford, UK: INTRAC.and .RBI (Reserve Bank of India). 1954. All India Credit Survey. Bombay: RBI.RBI (Reserve Bank of India). 2003. ‘All India List of NBFCs Including RNBCs, to Whom Certificate of Registration under Section 45 IA of RBI Act, 1934 Have been Issued by the Reserve Bank of India to Hold/Accept Deposits from Public (Position as on 30 July 2003)’. Available online at http://www.rbi.org.in/index.dll/39179?OpenStoryTextArea?fromdate=09/20/03&todate=09/20/03&s1secid=0&s2secid=0&secid=7/0/0&archivemode=0 (downloaded on 20 September 2003).[Page 255]RBI (Reserve Bank of India). 2007a. Circular on Master Circular on Micro Credit, RBI/2007–08/38, RPCD.MFFI.BC.No.08/12.01.001/2007–08, 2 July. Mumbai: RBI.RBI (Reserve Bank of India). 2007b. Circular on Microfinance—Joint Fact-finding Study with the Banks, RBI 2006–07/185, RPCD.CO.Plan.BC.No. 34/04.09.22/2006–07, 22 November. Mumbai: RBI.RBI (Reserve Bank of India). 2007c. ‘All India List of NBFCs Including RNBCs to Whom Certificate of Registration under Section 45 IA of RBI Act, 1934 Have been Issued by the RBI to Hold/Accept Deposits from Public (Position as on March, 2007)’. Available online at http://www.rbi.org.in/commonman/English/Scripts/NBFCs.aspx (downloaded on 20 January 2008).2003. ‘Status of SHG Federations in Andhra Pradesh’, paper presented at Workshop on SHG Federation Organised by NIPCCD, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Abhuvrudhi Society, Hyderabad, March 24–25.and2006. ‘Annual Policy Statements for the Year 2005–06. Mumbai: Reserve Bank of India’. Available online at http://www.sadhan.org/circular/Crdt%202005-06.doc (downloaded on 15 January 2006)..1997. Microfinance: A Panacea for Poverty? Development Research Briefings. Dublin: University College Dublin..2002. Jobs, Gender and Small Enterprises Actors Affecting Women Entrepreneurs in Micro and Small Enterprises. Geneva: International Labour Organisation.and1995. ‘Non-governmental Organisations and Rural Poverty Alleviation. Overseas Development Institute’. Available online at http://www.ratingfund.org/ (downloaded on 10 January 2004).and .2007. ‘Moving from Sustainable Management to Sustainable Governance of Natural Resources: The Role of Social Learning Processes in Rural India, Bolivia and Mali’, Journal of Rural Studies, 23(1): 23–37. Available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VD9-4JKYTK4-3-3&_cdi=5977&_user=10&_orig=browse&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2007&_sk=999769998&view=c&wchp=dGLbVtz-zSkzk&md5=e63b563e526bf85ed2468fbe247ae601&ie=/sdarticle.pdf (downloaded on 10 March 2007)., , , , and .1995. ‘The Paradigm Shift in Microfinance: A Perspective from HIID’, Development Discussion Paper No. 510, Harvard Institute for International Development, Massachusetts, Cambridge..2001. The Microfinance Revolution: Sustainable Finance for the Poor: Lessons from Indonesia. Washington: The World Bank..1999. Impact Assessment for Development Agencies: Learning to Value Change. Oxford: Oxfam, GB and Novib..2000. Transforming the Rural Asian Economy: The Unfinished Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.and .1996. ‘Microcredit Interest Rates’, Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest, Occasional Paper No. 1. Washington, DC: World Bank.1995. A Basic Guide to Evaluation for Development Workers. Oxford: Oxfam..2000. The Poor and Their Money. Delhi: Oxford University Press..2002. ‘Innovative Approaches to Delivering Microfinance Services: The Case of VSSU, West Bengal. Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgibin/summary.pl?id=88&language=E (downloaded on 4 February 2004).and .2007. Self-help Co-operative and Microfinance. Ahmedabad: FWWB.and .Sampark. 2000. Participatory Mid Term Evaluation of CREDIT Project of CARE Bihar, Ranchi. Bangalore: Sampark.Sampark. 2003. Mid-term Impact Assessment Study of CASHE Project in Orissa (A Study conducted for CARE India). Bangalore: Sampark.Sampark. 2006a. Development of the Capacity of the Future Generation: Children's Education through Sustainable Improvement of Livelihoods of Underprivileged Families in Villages of Koppal, North Karnataka, India. project progress report. Bangalore: Sampark.[Page 256]Sampark. 2006b. Development of the Capacity of the Future Generation: Children's Education through Sustainable Improvement of Livelihoods of Underprivileged Families in Villages of Koppal, North Karnataka, India. Project Progress Report. Bangalore: Sampark.SBH (State Bank of Hyderabad). 2004. Koppal District Annual Credit Plan (2004–2005). Koppal: Lead Bank Office.2003. ‘Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in India: Effectiveness and Efficiency of Economic and Social Policies of the Centre and the States’. PhD Proposal Berne: Centre for Development and Environment, Institute of Geography, University of Berne. Available online at http://www.nccr-north-south.unibe.ch/othermedia.asp?Context=JACS&ContextID=7&refTitle=South+Asia&SearchText=Schmid%2C+Juan+Pedro+&SearchCategory=%25&submit=Search%21 (downloaded on 20 October 2003).2002. Participatory Impact Monitoring of Self-help Groups and Watersheds, A Users' Handbook. Bangalore: MYRADA..SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). 2007. An Era of Innovation: Thirty Years of SDC's Involvement with Rural Finance in India. Gurgaon: EDA Rural Systems.1996. Overview of Studies on the Impact of Microenterprise Credit. Washington: Assessing the Impact of Micro enterprise Services (AIMS).and2000. ‘Informal Finance: Origins, Evolutionary Trends and Donor Options’. IFAD Rural Finance Working Paper Series, No. A3, 1999 (Revised February 2000). Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgi-bin/summary.pl?id=88&language=E (downloaded on 4 February 2004).1981. ‘Public Action and the Quality of Life in Developing Countries’, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 43(20): 287–319..1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press..2005. Reflections on the Right to Development. London: Sage Publications., and .Sharan. 2000. Power to Urban Poor through Thrift and Credit Groups: A Sharan Model. Delhi: Sharan.SHARE. 2000. ‘Growing Stronger With Our Members, Alternative Finance’. Available online at http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk/cgi-bin/summary.pl?id=88&language=E (downloaded on 6 February 2004).SHARE. 2001. ‘Study Shows Strong Impact on SHARE Clients. Credit for the Poor. CASHPOR Newsletter’. Available online at http://www.gfusa.org/gbrp/share.html (downloaded on 22 July 2002).2005. ‘Indian Women Pioneer Informal Justice Courts, Women's e-News’. Available online at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/357/context/archive (downloaded on 10 January 2006)..1998. ‘Promoting Women's Self Help Groups: Lessons from an Action Research Project of India’ Working Paper. Anand: Institute of Rural Management, Anand.2006. ‘Microfinance Institutions in Andhra Pradesh: Crisis and Diagnosis’, Economic and Political Week, XLI(20): 1959–963.2003a. ‘Appraising the Poverty Outreach of Microfinance: A Review of the CGAP Poverty Assessment Tool’, Imp-Act Occasional Paper No. 1, CGAP and the World Bank, Washington DC..2003b. ‘Designing Impact Assessment Systems to Improve Understanding and Impact’. Available online at http://www.ids.ac.uk/impact/publicationsguidelines.html (downloaded on 15 December 2003)..2006. PEDO's SHG Programme Impact Assessment. A Draft Report. Jaipur: Centre for Microfinance. Available online at http://www.solutionexchange-un.net.in/mf/cr/res06090701.pdf (downloaded on 11 September 2007).2003. Poverty Reduced through Microfiannce at SHARE Microfin Ltd.: Impact Assessment Study. Hyderabad: SHARE..2006. Summary Responses of Query on Impact Assessment of Microfinance Initiative. Bangalore: Sampark.[Page 257]2003. ‘Poverty Assessment—Combining Multiple Dimensions of Poverty with a ‘standard’ Poverty Line. Enterprise Impact’. Available online at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/sinha.pdf (downloaded on 16 November 2003).and .2001. ‘The Role of Central Banks in Microfinance in Asia and the Pacific: Country Study for India’. Available online at http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Central_Banks_Microfinance/Country_Studies/default.asp (downloaded on 25 March 2004)..Solution Exchange. 2006. Summary Responses of Query on Impact Assessment of Microfinance Initiative. Bangalore: Sampark.Solution Exchange. 2007a. Summary Responses of Query on Collecting Evidence of Impact of Microfinance—Experiences. Bangalore: Sampark.Solution Exchange. 2007b. Consolidated Reply in Response to Query on SHG Federations as Vehicles for Social Change. Delhi: Solution Exchange.2003. India—Sustainable Microfinance for the Informal Sector. Washington: Office of Microenterprise Development.and .2004. ‘Organisational Development Interventions for Change Management in RRBs’, presentation made at Conference on Dare to Share Fair, SDC, Berne, February..1990. ‘Peer Monitoring and Credit Markets’, World Bank Economic Review, 4(3): 351–66..2003. What is Money? Four Perspectives from Management and Beyond. University of Massachusetts, Amherst.2003. ‘Poverty among Social and Economic Groups in India in the Nineteen Nineties’, Working Paper 118. Available online at http://www.cdedse.org/pdf/work118.pdf (downloaded on 19 May 2004).and .1999. ‘Some NGO Dilemmas in Reaching the Poorest with Microfinance’, Search Bulletin, XIV(1): 73–78..TBF (The Bridge Foundation). 2002. Annual Report 2002. Bangalore: TBF.2007. Social Performance in Development Interventions—Giving Life to Organsiation's Mission. Delhi: United Nations Solution Exchange. Available online at http://www.solutionexchange-un.net.in/mf/Events/res111007-07.pdf (downloaded on 15 October 2008).2007. Speech on Financial Inclusion—the Indian Experience by Smt. Usha Thorat, Deputy Governor, RBI at the Whitehall Place, RBI, Mumbai, 19 June..2005. ‘Microfinance in India: Sectoral Issues and Challenges’. Theme paper at the High Level Policy Conference on Microfinance, New Delhi, India, May 3–5.1999. Women and Power: Fighting Patriarchies and Poverty. New York: Zed Books Ltd., , , , and .2003. ‘Development Hegemonies and Local Outcomes: Women and NGOs in Low Income Countries’, in E.Kofman and G.Young (eds), Globalization: Theory and Practice, pp. 1–19. London: Continuum., , andUNDP. 1997. Human Development Report, 1997. New York: Oxford University Press.UNDP. 1999. Financial Services for the Rural Poor: Users' Perspectives. Study Conducted by Prompt.UNDP. 2002. Human Development Report 2002. New York: Oxford University Press.UNDP. 2004. Human Development Report 2004. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). 2002. National Micro Finance Support Development Project (IFAD Loan 538-in UNOPS Project IND/00/FOI) 2002 Supervision Mission Report. Malaysia: UNOPS.United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). 2003. North East Development Project (ind00fo1-IFAD Loan No. 538-in) 2003 Review Mission Report. Malaysia: UNOPS.1997. ‘Poverty, Human Development and Financial Services’. Occasional Paper No. 25. New York: UNDP.[Page 258]2003. ‘Round Table: In Microfinance: An Introduction by Srinivasan and Sriram’, IIMB Review, 15(2): 52–86..2004. ‘Decentralised Governance in a Case Society: Implications for Dalit Empowerment’, Indian Journal of Social Development, 5(1): 356–453..2004. ‘The New Economy and Social Risk: Banking the Poor?’Review of International Political Economy, 11(2): 356–86..1998. Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Africa: Conceptual Framework and Case Studies from Kenya. Berne: Centre for Development and Environment, Institute of Geography, University of Berne..2003. The New Microfinance. An Essay on the Self-help Movement in India. Delhi: Catholic Relief Services India..2004. Optimising Self Help Groups. Note sent out to prepare bids for a study of SHGs in three States of India. Calcutta: Catholic Relief Services..1999. ‘Learning from Failures in Microfinance: What Unsuccessful Cases Tell Us About How Group-based Programmes Work’, The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(1): 17–42..2001. Are You Poor Enough?—Client Selection by Microfinance Institutions. Nairobi: MicroSave-Africa.and .2006. ‘The Darker Side to Microfinance: Evidence from Cajamarca, Peru’, in Jude L.Fernando (ed.), Micro-finance Perils and Prospects, pp. 154–71. Oxon: Routledge..1992. ‘Successful Rural Finance Institutions’, World Bank Discussion Paper No. 150, The World Bank, Washington, DC..2001. ‘A Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects’. Available online at http://www.ebbf.org/aspiritu.htm (downloaded on 15 February 2004).1999. ‘Outsiders and Self-empowerment’, in Townsend, Janet, EmmaZapata, JoannaRowlands, PilarAlberti, and MartaMercado (eds), Women and Power: Fighting Patriarchies and Poverty, pp. 41–61. New York: Zed Books Ltd.and .1989. ‘The Social Meaning of Money: Special Monies’, American Journal of Sociology, 95(2): 342–77.1993. ‘Making Multiple Monies’, in R.Swedberg (ed.), Explorations in Economic Sociology, pp. 193–212. New York: Sage Foundation.1994. The Social Meaning of Money. New York: Basic Books.1998. ‘Payments and Social Ties’, Sociological Forum, 11(3): 481–95.2000. ‘Fine Tuning the Zelizer View’, Economy and Society, 29(3): 756–88.2005. The Purchase of Intimacy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.2003a. ‘Models of Rural Finance Institutions’, Invited lead paper for the International Conference on Best Practices in Rural Finance..2003b. ‘Rural Finance & Agricultural Credit: Past Experiences, Lessons Learnt And Practical Examples’, presentation at Inter Cooperation, Berne, August 11..2004. ‘Wider Impacts of Microfinance Institutions: Issues and Concepts’, Journal of International Development, 16(3): 301–30.and
About the Authors[Page 263]
Smita Premchander is the founder and secretary of Sampark and has 25 years of experience in development work. She has been a trainer and consultant for gender, microfinance and micro-enterprise—both in India and internationally. Her expertise relates to evaluation and design of effective and pro-poor development projects, spanning grassroots development, organisational and programme issues and policy change. She completed a short term assignment with the International Labor Office (ILO), Geneva, as a specialist in Impact Evaluation for Job Creation and Enterprise Development. She has completed about 19 impact and evaluation studies combining both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, for different agencies such as United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Delhi; Enterplan, UK; ILO, Delhi and Geneva; Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Berne, Switzerland; FAO of the United Nations, Bangkok; United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), Bangkok; United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Malaysia, Traidcraft, UK; Department for International Development (DFID), Bangladesh and Delhi; Swiss Development Corporation, Delhi; CARE India, New Delhi; Novib, Netherlands; National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), Bangalore and Anand; World Bank, Washington and Universities of Sterling, Durham and Swansea, UK. She has worked in most states in India, including Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Assam, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
V. Prameela is a micro enterprise and livelihood specialist with 15 years of experience and has conducted various impact and evaluation studies. She has worked as a livelihood and micro-enterprise consultant for national and international clients of International Labor Organization such as (ILO), CARE–India (Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh); FAO of the United Nations, Bangkok; Christian Aid, New Delhi; World Bank and NDDB, Bangalore and UNOPS, Malaysia. She also works as a trainer and counsellor in enterprise development and conducted several enterprise development-training programmes for both front line staff and directly for women at the grassroots level. She is working with Sampark, an NGO based in Bangalore and coordinates projects on rural livelihood; running day care non-formal education centres for children of migrant families and community-based mental health programmes. She is also involved in developing proposals and fund-raising.
M. Chidambaranathan is a development professional engaged in consultancy and grassroots- based projects through an NGO based in Bangalore. His areas of expertise include sustainable rural livelihood systems, microfinance, people's organisations, gender and leadership, natural resource management and social learning process. The nature of assignments he has conducted over 15 years [Page 264]for both national and international agencies span research, participatory impact and evaluation studies, designing impact monitoring systems, training NGO staff, strategy planning for development projects, fund-raising and coordination of field-based poverty reduction and women's empowerment projects. He is author/co-author for more than 15 articles published in national and international journals.
L. Jeyaseelan has Masters' degree in Social Work and has been engaged with development projects for over 15 years. His areas of expertise include children's education, microfinance, enterprise development and capacity building of people's organisations. Currently he is working with Sampark, an NGO based in Bangalore as a programme manager for its rural development project in Koppal. Here he has been involved in managing programmes such as microfinance, micro-enterprise, health, children's education, vocational training and development of people's institutions. He was involved in several participatory research and impact evaluation studies conducted for both national and international agencies. He also writes which have been articles, published in journals and reports.