Motivating your Secondary Class

Books

Maurice Galton, Susan Steward, Linda Hargreaves, Charlotte Page & Tony Pell

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Secondary truancy rates as a percentage of ‘sweep’ sample over five years 3
    • 1.2 Decline in teacher status ratings from two surveys 4
    • 1.3 Achievement mastery motivation: Year 7 to Year 9 11
    • 1.4 Academic satisfaction motivation: Year 7 to Year 9 12
    • 1.5 Pro-school motivation: Year 7 to Year 9 13
    • 1.6 Correlation of pro-school motivation with attainment: Year 7 to Year 9 14
    • 1.7 Liking English: Year 6 to Year 9 15
    • 1.8 Liking mathematics: Year 6 to Year 9 17
    • 1.9 The decline in liking science: Year 6 to Year 9 19
    • 1.10 Active participation: Year 7 to Year 9 23
    • 1.11 Anti-boffin sub-culture: Year 7 to Year 9 24
    • 1.12 Change in anxiety over the school year 26
    • 1.13 Change in girls' anxiety over the school year: Year 7 to Year 9 26
    • 1.14 Change in extroversion over the school year 27
    • 1.15 Attitudes in cooperative group working: Year 7 to Year 9 29
    • 1.16 Liking group work: Year 7 to Year 9 30
    • 1.17 Quality of the group-working environment: Year 7 to Year 9 31
    • 2.1 Percentage of interactions: pre and post transfer 47
    • 2.2 Percentage of questions before and after transfer 47
    • 2.3 Percentage of statements before and after transfer 48
    • 4.1 Time on task in groups and not in groups 88
    • 4.2 Incidence of partial distraction or ‘cods’ in group-working and non-group-working organizations 89
    • 4.3 Observations of sustained interactions in group and non-group settings 90
    • 4.4 Open dialogue in groups and not in groups 90
    • 4.5 Relationships between sustained interactions and high cognitive dialogue during group work 92
    • 4.6 Time on task of pupil types when working in groups and not in groups 94

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Characteristics of the four pupil types 33
    • 2.1 Five Transfer Bridges (1997-present) 51
    • 3.1 The relationship between seating and working arrangements in the classroom (pre-National Curriculum) 64
    • 3.2 Measures used to assess pupils' performance 70
    • 3.3 Progress in English by topic and by gender (SDs in brackets) 72
    • 3.4 Progress in mathematics by task demand and by gender (SDs in brackets) 73
    • 3.5 Progress in science by topic and by gender (SDs in brackets) 75
    • 4.1 Main categories used to observe pupils' classroom behaviour 86
    • 4.2 Time on task and pupil types 87
    • 4.3 Group-work and non-group-work interactions by pupil type: how groups smooth out imbalances in participation 95

    Introduction: Motivating Pupils in the Secondary Classroom

    This book seeks to address issues that for the most part do not impact on the public debate about the success or otherwise of the nation's secondary schools. In a system where the quality of a school is mainly judged by its performance on national tests, little heed is paid to the older, more experienced teachers who argue that it is the current curriculum, and all that goes with it, that has a demotivating effect on pupils' willingness to learn, and that this situation has worsened over the last decade. Such strictures are generally viewed by critics of the present state system of schooling as excuses for poor teaching.

    Rather than take the view that success in examinations and tests is sufficient motivation in itself, we would argue that in today's schools pupils, while recognizing that they need to do well academically in order to improve their life chances, nevertheless engage with the curriculum with little enthusiasm. This attitude to learning can have powerful negative effects on teachers, since when they attempt to get their pupils to use their new-found knowledge to extend their understanding of a topic, pupils are apt to ask, ‘Is this on the syllabus? Do I need it to get the required grade?’. When the answer to both questions is ‘No’, then pupils often show little enthusiasm for undertaking further work. Anecdotal evidence from admission tutors at universities suggests that similar attitudes carry over into higher education.

    Much of the research evidence on which these arguments are based has been carried out by the authors in studies undertaken in the Faculty of Education at the University of Cambridge. These include several studies of transfer and a major study of group work, the SPRinG (Social Pedagogic Research into Group Work) Project which was part of a national initiative designed to focus on aspects of contemporary pedagogy in English classrooms. We acknowledge the help of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) who funded much of this research but we also drew on support from the then Department for Education and Skills (DfES), the National Union of Teachers (NUT) and Creative Partnerships for funding other studies which provided relevant data.

    Although the book is conceived as whole, rather than as an edited volume, various members of the research team at Cambridge have taken responsibility for individual chapters. As such, whenever future writers refer to specific content from the book we would suggest that the appropriate author should be cited. Thus the first chapter by Tony Pell mounts the case for the alternative thesis that at secondary level in particular, the poor performance of English pupils relative to students in other comparable countries is a direct consequence of the limited vision provided by the current Key Stage 3 curriculum and the restrictions placed upon classroom practitioner by the pressure to ‘teach for the tests’ so as to do well in the league tables. Having established the urgent case for reform, the following three chapters look at some key factors that might bring about improvements in pupil motivation. In Chapter 2 we focus on the transfer of pupils from primary into secondary school arguing that these first impressions largely determine later attitudes. In Chapter 3 a case for the increased use of group work rather than whole-class instruction is put forward, not only on the grounds that pupils prefer to work collaboratively but also because there is evidence that when measures of attainment require pupils to demonstrate understanding and a capacity for problem solving rather than memorization, pupils do better in groups.

    Chapter 4 looks at the aspect of communication, whether it takes place between pupils in groups or as part of class discussion with the teacher, and the links between talking and learning. Extended forms of discourse, so important in helping pupils to think critically, also have a major influence on motivation. This is because when the class engages in prolonged discussion it signifies a different relationship between the teacher and the pupils; one where both are co-learners, in contrast to the Government's preference for whole-class interactive teaching, delivered at pace, where the inference is that the teacher (because s/he is more knowledgeable) retains control of the learning. Chapter 5 then looks at the way in which various school cultures, particularly those of the core subject disciplines can either hinder or enhance cooperation in the classroom, while in Chapter 6 we examine case studies of teachers who have managed to resist the current trend and maintain high levels of pupil motivation. In the final chapter we look at the comprehensive school as an organization and suggest ways in which the system should change to make the teachers' task of sustaining pupil motivation easier. As an indication of what is possible, we look at the way that certain artists who work in schools set about the task of motivating pupils to renew their interest in learning.

    We must acknowledge the help received from a number of colleagues who either collaborated with us on various research projects or provided wise advice. First, our gratitude goes to the late Jean Rudduck, who co-directed some of the transfer studies and also to the late Donald McIntyre whose observations and suggestions were always pointed and accurate. Both are sorely missed. We must thank John Gray and John MacBeath who were at various times co-directors of projects. Elsewhere, our appreciation goes to Peter Blatchford and Peter Kutnick who co-directed the SPRinG (Social Pedagogic Research into Group Work) Project. We must also acknowledge the crucial role played by Sally Roach, our secretary for several of these key projects. Not only did she sort out the idiosyncrasies of a manuscript where different members of the team were responsible for drafting various chapters, but acted as the all-important link between the researchers and the schools and proved an excellent sleuth when it came to ferreting out obscure references for the literature review.

    Finally our thanks go to the schools and to the teachers who allowed us to sit in their classrooms and gave up time to collaborate with us on various aspects of the research. Their involvement and commitment demonstrate that the desire to improve the lives of their pupils is still the major reason why teachers are prepared to work such long hours and to subject themselves to such high levels of stress. Such teachers live for those ‘magic moments’ when ‘the penny finally drops’ and the pupil's puzzled countenance is replaced by a satisfied look of recognition. Sadly, because of the dominance of the present ‘performance’ culture in our schools such moments are not as frequent as they should be. If pupils are once more to learn to love learning for its own sake rather than for its economic potential, then we are going to need more of these magic moments and hopefully, this book can make a small contribution to bringing these about.

    MauriceGalton
  • Appendix A Details of the Attitude and Motivation Inventories Used in the Study

    Motivation items

    Motivation questionnaires used a 5-point response scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

    Pre-Test Motivation Items
    1. I am doing well in most subjects.
    2. I work hard to please my parents.
    3. I am pretty confident about doing the tasks I am set.
    4. I do my best to get the highest level in the SATs.
    5. I try to learn as much as I can.
    6. I can write really well in English.
    7. I need to work hard to get to university.
    8. I like to start new, more difficult work.
    9. I would say that I am a really hard worker.
    10. I feel proud when I get good marks.

    Achievement mastery motivation: 1, 3, 5, 6, 9

    Academic satisfaction motivation: 2, 4, 7, 8, 10

    Post-Test Motivation Items
    1. I am doing well in most subjects.
    2. I would say I mess-about a lot at school.
    3. I work hard to please my parents.
    4. I am pretty confident about doing the tasks I am set.
    5. Learning in school is a bit of a bore.
    6. I do my best to get the highest level in the SATs.
    7. I try to learn as much as I can.
    8. I can write really well in English.
    9. I need to work hard to get to university.
    10. I like to start new, more difficult work.
    11. I am often in trouble at school.
    12. I would say that I am a really hard worker.
    13. I don't do much homework.
    14. I feel proud when I get good marks.
    15. I don't write any more than I have to.
    16. No matter what, I always do my best.

    Achievement mastery motivation: 1, 4, 7, 8, 12

    Academic satisfaction motivation: 3, 6, 9, 10, 14

    ‘Anti’-school motivation: 2, 5, 11, 13, 15, 16 (Reverse the scoring for the first five items to get ‘pro’-school motivation)

    Subject attitudes

    Subject attitude questionnaires used a 5-point response scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

    Liking English Items
    1. I like English more than any other school subject.
    2. I hate spelling tests.
    3. English is a good subject for everybody to learn.
    4. I like talking rather than writing.
    5. We are finding out new things all the time in English lessons.
    6. We should have fewer English lessons.
    7. I like trying to spell out new words.
    8. I like writing my own stories.
    9. Sometimes, English is boring.
    10. I like to listen to people who speak really well.
    11. I always look forward to English lessons.
    12. I should like to be given a dictionary as a present.
    13. Learning English makes me think better.
    14. Writing long sentences is very hard.
    15. I seem to get tired easily in English lessons.
    16. I should like to get a job where I can use all I know about English.

    Reversed scoring is used for items 2, 4, 6, 9, 14 and 15.

    Liking Mathematics Items
    1. I like maths more than any other school subject.
    2. Now we have computers, we don't need so much maths.
    3. I like doing maths projects.
    4. We should have fewer maths lessons.
    5. I would rather work out a sum myself than use a calculator.
    6. Sometimes, maths is boring.
    7. I like to watch maths programmes on TV.
    8. I should like to get a job where I can use all I know about maths.

    Reversed scoring is used for items 2, 4 and 6.

    Liking Science Items
    1. I like science more than any other school subject.
    2. Science is good for everybody.
    3. Too much money is spent on science.
    4. I don't like doing experiments.
    5. It is easy to find out new things in science lessons.
    6. I often do science experiments at home.
    7. In an experiment, I like finding out what happens myself.
    8. Sometimes, science is boring.
    9. School science clubs are a good idea.
    10. I like telling my teacher what I have done.
    11. I like to watch science programmes on TV.
    12. I like finding out why an experiment works.
    13. We should have fewer science lessons.
    14. Science makes me think.
    15. I am always reading science stories.
    16. I should like to be given a science kit as a present.
    17. I should like to be a scientist.

    Reversed scoring is used for items 4, 8 and 13.

    Item 3 is not used in computing an aggregate total.

    Peer relationship items

    The questionnaire used a 5-point response scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

    Peer Relationship Items
    1. If I don't like someone, I won't work with them.
    2. I like working with friends all the time.
    3. I like to make my point of view.
    4. I have lots of ideas to share with others.
    5. Its ‘cool’ not to be too smart.
    6. Others are always winding me up.
    7. I keep quiet about my own ideas.
    8. I have some really close friends.
    9. I usually follow the others and do what they do.
    10. I would say I am a popular person.

    Active participation: 3, 4, 7 (reversed)

    Anti-boffin sub-culture: 1, 2, 5, 9

    Personality items

    The questionnaire used a two point response scale of Yes/No.

    Personality Items
    1. Do you like team games?
    2. Do you always feel under pressure?
    3. Do you like going to parties?
    4. Do lots of things annoy you?
    5. Would you like parachute jumping?
    6. Do you find it hard to get to sleep at night because you are worrying about things?
    7. Do you often feel life is very dull?
    8. Can you let yourself go and enjoy yourself a lot at a lively party?
    9. Do you ever feel ‘just miserable’ for no good reason?
    10. Do you think others often say nasty things about you?
    11. Do you have lots of friends to go with at school?
    12. Are tour feelings rather easily hurt?
    13. Do you often feel ‘fed-up’?
    14. Would you call yourself happy-go-lucky?

    Anxiety items: 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13

    Extraversion items: 1, 3, 8, 11

    Working in groups items

    The questionnaire used a 5-point response scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree.

    Working in Groups Items
    1. I like to share what I know with others in the group.
    2. Learning is more interesting in groups.
    3. We should help others in the group if there is a problem.
    4. If we don't all agree, we should look for common ground.
    5. Groups encourage you to work hard.
    6. I get more work done when in a group.
    7. We should all have a say in the decisions made.
    8. Group work is fun.
    9. To get a job done in the group you have to work together.
    10. You get to think more in groups.

    Attitudes to co-operative working: 1, 3, 4, 7, 9

    Liking group-work: items 2, 5, 6, 8, 10

    Quality of group working items

    The questionnaire used a 5-point response scale ranging from always, nearly always, sometimes, only now and again, to never in reply to the question ‘Does this happen in your class?’.

    Quality of Group Working Environment Items
    1. We take turns when talking.
    2. There is interrupting or cutting off.
    3. We are sensitive to the needs of others.
    4. We discuss things and do not argue.
    5. We get on well together.
    6. We are well organised.

    Appendix B NFER (National Foundation of Educational Research) Conversion from Levels to Points

    A typical pupil at the end of primary, Year 6 should reach Level 4 and at the end of lower secondary Year 9, Level 5. A year's progress therefore equals 2 NFER points.

    Level 3 = 21
    Level 3+ = 23
    Level 4− = 25
    Level 4 = 27
    Level 4+ = 29
    Level 5− = 31
    Level 5 = 33
    Level 5+ = 35
    Level 6− = 37
    Level 6 = 39
    Level 6+ = 41

    Bibliography

    Adhami, M., Johnson, D. and Shayer, M. (1997) Does CAME Work? Summary report on Phase 2 of the Cognitive Acceleration in Mathematics Education, CAME, Project. In Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics Day Conference, Bristol, 15 Nov. 1997. London: BSRLM, 26–31.
    Ajegbo, K. (2007) Diversity and Citizenship: Curriculum Review. London: DfES.
    Alexander, R. (2008) Towards Dialogic Teaching: rethinking classroom talk (
    4th edn.
    ). Thirsk, North Yorkshine: Dialogos.
    Alexander, R. (2001) Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons in Primary Education. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Alexander, R. (2004) Still no pedogogy? Principle, pragmatism and compliance in primary education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 34 (1): 7–33.
    Alexander, R. (2006) Towards Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking Classroom Talk. York: Dialogos.
    Alexander, R., Doddington, C., Gray, J., Hargreaves, L. and Kershner, R. (eds.) (2009) The Cambridge Primary Review Research Surveys. London: Routledge.
    Alexander, R., Willcocks, J. and Kinder, K. (1989) Changing Primary Practice. London: Falmer Press.
    Anderson, L. and Burns, R. (1989) Research in Classrooms: The Study of teachers, teaching and instruction. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    Antony, E. (1974) The Syndrome of the Psychologically Invulnerable Child, in Anthony, E. and Koupernick, C. [Eds] The Child in His Family: Children at Psychiatric Risk. New York: Wiley.
    Association for Science Education (ASE) (1979) Alternatives for Science Education. Hatfield: ASE.
    Audit Commission (2002) Getting in on the Act: Provision for Pupils with Special Educational Needs – The Natural Picture. London: HMSO.
    Baines, E., Blatchford, P. and Kutnick, P. (2003) Changes in grouping practices over primary and secondary school, International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 9–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900071-5
    Baker, K. (1993) The Turbulent Years: My Life in Politics. London: Faber & Faber.
    Bantock, J. (1971) “Towards a popular theory of education”, in R.Hooper (ed.), The Curriculum: Context, Design and Development. London: Oliver & Boyd.
    Barnard, H. (1966) A History of English Education. London: University of London Press.
    Barnes, D. and Todd, F. (1977) Communication and Learning in Small Groups. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Barnes, M. (2000) “Effects of dominant and subordinate masculinities on interactions in a collaborative learning classroom”, in J.Boaler (ed.), Multiple Perspectives on Mathematics Teaching and Learning. London: Ablex.
    Barrett, G. (1986) Starting School: An Evaluation of the Experience. Final Report to the AMMA, CARE. Norwich: University of East Anglia.
    Benn, C. and Simon, B. (1970) Halfway-There. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Berliner, D. (2002) “Learning about learning from expert teachers”, International Journal of Educational Research, 37 (6): 1–37.
    Berliner, W. (2004) “Heaven knows why they are miserable now”, The Guardian, April.
    Bernard, B. (1991) Fostering Resilience in Kids: Protective Factors in Family, School and Community. San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development.
    Bernstein, B. (1996) Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Blatchford, P., Kutnick, P., Macintyre, H. and Baines, E. (2001) The Nature and Use of within-class Groupings in Secondary Schools. Final Report to Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). London: ESRC.
    Bloom, B. (1976) Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Boaler, J. (2008) Promoting “relational equity” and high mathematics achievement through an innovative mixed ability approach. British Educational Research Journal, 34 (2): 167–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920701532145
    Boaler, J. (1997a) When even the winners are losers: evaluating the experiences of top set students, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29 (2): 165–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002202797184116
    Boaler, J. (1997b) “Setting, social class and the survival of the quickest”, British Educational Research Journal, 23 (4): 575–95.
    Boaler, J. (1997c) “Reclaiming school mathematics: the girls fight back”, Gender and Education, 9 (3): 285–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540259721268
    Boaler, J. (2008) “Promoting “relational equity” and high mathematics achievement through an innovative mixed-ability approach”, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (2) 167–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920701532145
    Boaler, J., Wiliam, D. and Brown, M. (2000) “Students' experience of ability grouping: disaffection, polarisation and the construction of failure”, British Educational Research Journal, 26 (5): 631–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713651583
    Bradshaw, J., Sturman, L., Vappula, V., Ager, R. and Wheater, R. (2007) Achievement of 15-year Olds in England: PISA 2006 National Report. Slough: NFER.
    Brinton, B., Fujiki, M. and Higbee, J. (1998) “Participation in cooperative learning activities by children with specific language impairment”, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 1193–206.
    Brofenbrenner, U. (1979) The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brophy, J. (1999) “Research on motivation in education: past, present and future”, in T.C.Urdan (ed.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement, Volume 11: The Role of Context. Stamford, CT: Jai Press.
    Brown, A. (1997) “Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters”, American Psychologist, 52 (4): 399–413.
    Carroll, J. (1963) “A model for school learning”, Teachers College Record, 64: 723–33.
    Cefai, C. (2008) Promoting Resilience in the Classroom: A Guide to Developing Pupils' Emotional and Cognitive Skills. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Cockcroft, W.H. (1982) Mathematics Counts. Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Teaching of Mathematics in Schools under the Chairmanship of Dr. W.H. Cockcroft. London: HMSO.
    Cohen, E. (1994) “Restructuring the classroom: conditions for productive small groups”, Review of Educational Research, 64 (1) 1–35.
    Cohen, J. (1988) Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Applebaum Associates.
    Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S. and Souberman, E. (eds.) (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
    Condly, S. (2006) “Resilience in Children: a review of the literature with implications for education”, Urban Education, 41 (3): 211–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0042085906287902
    Cooper, P. (2008) “Series editor's foreword”, in C.Cefai (ed.), Promoting Resilience in the Classroom: A Guide to Developing Pupils' Emotional and Cognitive Skills. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Coopersmith, S. (1967) The Antecedents of Self-esteem. San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman & Co.
    Covington, M.V. (1992) Making the Grade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cowie, H. and Rudduck, J. (1988) School and Classroom Studies. London: BP Educational Service.
    Cowie, H., Smith, P., Boulton, M. and Laver, R. (1994) Cooperation in the Multi-ethnic Classroom. London: David Fulton.
    Crowther (1959) 15 to 18: The Report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England). London: HMSO.
    Currie, C., Gabhainn, S.N., Godeau, E., Roberts, C., Smith, R., Currie, D., Pickett, W., Richter, M., Morgan, A. and Barnekow, V. (eds) (2008) Inequalities in Young People's Health. HSBC International Report from the 2005/2006 survey. World Health Organization (online). Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/assets/InformationSources/Publications/Catalogue/20080616_1
    Curtis, P. (2008) “Academies criticised for expelling 10,000”, The Guardian, 25 June.
    Dainton Report (1968) Enquiry into the Flow of Candidates in Science and Technology into Higher Education. London: HMSO.
    Damon, W. and Phelps, E. (1989) “Critical distinctions among three approaches to peer education”, International Journal of Educational Research, 13 (1): 9–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0883-0355%2889%2990013-X
    Dawes, L., Mercer, N. and Wegerif, R. (2000) Thinking Together: a programme of activities for developing thinking skills at Key Stage 2. Birmingham: Questions Publishing.
    Delamont, S. and Galton, M. (1986) Inside the Secondary Classroom. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.
    Demetriou, H., Goalen, P. and Rudduck, J. (2000) “Academic performance, transfer, transition and friendship: listening to the student voice, International Journal of Educational Research, 33 (4): 425–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2800%2900026-4
    Dent, R. and Cameron, R. (2003) “Developing resilience in children who are in public care: the educational psychology perspective”, Educational Psychology in Practice, 19 (1): 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736032000061170
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2007) Getting Back on Track: Pupils Who Make Slow Progress in English, Mathematics and Science in Key Stage 3. London: DCSF.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008a) Truancy Sweeps. Available at: http://dcsf.gov.uk/schoolattendance/truancysweeps/index.cfm.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2008b) Major Reforms to School Accountability Including an End to Compulsory National Tests for Fourteen Year Olds. Available at http://dcsf.gov.uk/pns/DisplayPN.cgi?pn_id=2008.
    DfEE (1998) The National Literacy Strategy: A Framework for Teaching. London: DfEE.
    DfEE (2001a) Key Stage 3 National Strategy. Framework for teaching mathematics: Years 7, 8 and 9. London: DfEE publications.
    DfEE (2001b) Key Stage 3 National Strategy. Framework for teaching English: Years 7, 8 and 9. London: DfEE publications.
    DfEE (2001c) Key Stage 3 National Strategy. Framework for teaching science: Years 7, 8 and 9. London: DfEE publications.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003) Raising Standards and Tackling Workload: A National Agreement. London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004a) Removing the Barriers to Achievement. London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004b) A National Conversation About Personalised Learning. Nottingham: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004c) Pedagogy and Practice: Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools. London: DfES.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2006) Science and Innovation Investment Framework 2004–2014: Next Steps. London: HMSO.
    Dewey, J. (1916) Democracy and Education. New York: Macmillan.
    Doyle, W. (1983) “Academic work”, Review of Educational Research, 53: 159–99.
    Dutch, R. and McCall, J. (1974) “Transition to secondary: an experiment in a Scottish comprehensive school”, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 44 (3): 282–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1974.tb00781.x
    Dweck, C. (1986) “Motivational Approaches Effecting Learning”, American Psychologist, 41: 1040–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040
    Eccles, J., Alder, T. and Meece, J. (1984) Sex differences in achievement: A test of alternate theories, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 (1): 26–43.
    Eccles, J. and Midgley, C. (1989) “Stage/environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents”, in R.Ames and C.Ames (eds), Research on Motivation and Education: Goals and Cognition. New York: Academic Press.
    Edwards, A.D. (1987) “Patterns of power and authority in classroom talk”, in B. M.Mayor and A. K.Pugh, (eds) Language, Communication and Education. London: Routledge.
    Edwards, A.D. (1980) “Patterns of power and authority in classroom talk”, in P.Woods (ed.), Teacher Strategies: Explorations in the Sociology of the School. London: Croom Helm.
    Edwards, D. and Mercer, N. (1987) Common Knowledge and the Development of Understanding in the Classroom. London: Routledge.
    English, E., Hargreaves, L. and Hislam, J. (2002) “Pedagogical dilemmas in the National Literacy Strategy: primary teachers' perceptions, reflections and classroom behaviour”, Cambridge Journal of Education, 32 (2): 276.
    Entwistle, N.J. (1973) “Personality and academic attainment”, in H.J.Butcher and H.B.Pont (eds), Educational Research in Britain, 3. London: University of London Press.
    Entwistle, N.J. (1977) “Strategies of learning and studying: recent research findings”, British Journal of Educational Studies, 25: 225–38.
    Entwistle, N.J. and Wilson, J.D. (1977) Degrees of Excellence: The Academic Achievement Game. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Eysenck, H.J. (1972) “Personality and attainment: an application of psychological principles to educational objectives”, Higher Education, 1: 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01956880
    Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S.B.G. (1969) Personality Structure and Measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S.B.G. (1975) Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Junior and Adult). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
    Fairbrother, R. (2008) “The validity of the Key Stage 3 science tests”, School Science Review, 89: 107–13.
    Farivar, S. and Webb, N. (1991) Helping Behavior Activities Handbook: Cooperative Group Problem Solving in Middle School Mathematics. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA.
    Flanders, N. (1970) Analysing Teacher Behaviour. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Fontana, D. (1977) Teaching and Personality. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Frean, A. (2007) “Less than half of teachers have degree in subject”, The Times, 19 July.
    Freidson, E. (2001) Professionalism: The Third Logic. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Gage, N. (1978) The Scientific Basis for the Art of Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Galton, M. (1989) Teaching in the Primary School. London: David Fulton.
    Galton, M. (2007) Learning and Teaching in the Primary Classroom. London: SAGE. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212950
    Galton, M. (2008) Creative Practitioners in Schools and Classrooms. Final Report of the Project: The Pedagogy of Creative Practitioners in Schools, University of Cambridge: Faculty of Education.
    Galton, M. and MacBeath, J. (2008) Teachers under Pressure. London: Sage.
    Galton, M. and Patrick, H. (1990) Curriculum Provision in the Small Primary School. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Galton, M. and Willcocks, J. (eds) (1983) Moving from the Primary School. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Galton, M. and Williamson, J. (1992) Group work in the Primary Classroom. London: Routledge.
    Galton, M., Gray, J. and Rudduck, J. (2003) Transfer and Transitions in the Middle Years of Schooling (7–14) Continuities and Discontinuities in Learning. Research Report RR443. Nottingham: DfEE Publications.
    Galton, M., Simon, B. and Croll, P. (1980) Inside the Primary Classroom. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Gamoran, A. (1992) “Is ability grouping equitable? Synthesis of research”, Educational Leadership, 50 (1): 11–17.
    Gill, B., Dunn, M. and Goddard, E. (2002) Student Achievement in England: Results in Reading, Mathematics and Scientific Literacy among 15-year-olds from OECD PISA 2000 Study. London: The Stationery Office.
    Gillies, R. (2003) “Structuring cooperative group work in classrooms”, International Journal of Educational Research, 39, 35–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900072-7
    Gillies, R. (2004) “The effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students during small group learning”, Learning and Instruction, 14: 197–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752%2803%2900068-9
    Gillies, R. and Ashman, A. (eds) (2003) Cooperative Learning: The Social and Intellectual Outcomes of Learning in Groups. London: Routledge Falmer.
    Good, T. and Brophy, J. (2002) Looking in Classroom. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Gorwood, B. (1986) School Transfer and Curriculum Continuity. London: Croom Helm.
    Goswami, U. and Bryant, P. (2007) Children's Cognitive Development and Learning (Primary Review Research Survey 2/1a), Cambridge: University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Retrieved December 12, 2008 at http://www.primaryreview.org.uk
    Hamer, J. (2001) Key Stage 3 Grouping and Statutory Assessment. London: QCA.
    Hall, C., Thomson, P. and Russell, L. (2007) “Teaching like artists: the pedagogic identities and practices of artists in schools”, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28 (5): 605–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690701505466
    Hargreaves, A. and Tickle, L. (eds) (1980) Middle Schools: Origins, Ideology and Practice. London: Harper & Row.
    Hargreaves, D.H. (1967) Social Relations in the Secondary School. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203001837
    Hargreaves, D.H. (1982) The Challenge for the Comprehensive School. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Hargreaves, L. and Galton, M. (2002) Transfer from the Primary Classroom: 20 years on. London: Routledge Falmer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203451045
    Hargreaves, L., Cunningham, M., Everton, T., Hansen, A., Hopper, B., McIntyre, D., Oliver, C., Pell, T., Rouse, M. and Turner, P. (2007) The Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession: Views from Inside and Outside the Profession. Evidence Base for the Final Report of the Teacher Status Project. Research Report 831B. London: DfES.
    Hattie, J. (2005) “The paradox of reducing class size and improving learning outcomes”, International Journal of Educational Research, 43 (6): 387–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2006.07.002
    Haylock, D. (2001) Mathematics Explained for Primary Teachers,
    2nd edn.
    London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
    Hirst, P.H. (1968) “The Contribution of Philosophy to the Study of the Curriculum”, in J.F.Kerr (ed.), Changing the Curriculum. London: University of London Press, pp. 39–62.
    Holt, J. (1984) How Children Fail. London: Penguin.
    Hope, C. (2008) “Metropolitan police chief calls for an end to targets imposed by the government”, Daily Telegraph, 19 June.
    House of Commons (2008a) Testing and Assessment. Volume I. Report together with formal minutes of the House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee. HC Paper 169-I. London: The Stationery Office.
    House of Commons (2008b) Testing and Assessment. Volume II. Oral and written evidence to the House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee. HC Paper 1 69-II. London: The Stationery Office.
    House of Lords (2006) Science Teaching in Schools. Report with evidence of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee. HL Paper 257. London: The Stationery Office.
    House of Lords (2007) Science Teaching in Schools: Follow-up. A Report with evidence of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee. HL Paper 167. London: The Stationery Office.
    Howe, C. and Mercer, N. (2007) Children's Society Development Peer Interaction and Classroom Learning (Primary Review Research Survey 2/1b), Cambridge: University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education. Retrieved December 12, 2008 at http://www.primaryreview.org.uk
    Hoyle, E. (2008) “Changing perceptions of teaching as a profession: personal reflection”, in D.Johnson and R.Maclean (eds) Teaching, Professionalization, Development and Leadership. Berlin: Springer.
    Ireson, J. and Hallam, S. (2001) Ability Grouping in Education. London: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221020
    Ireson, J., Hallam, S., Hack, S., Clark, H. and Plewis, I. (2002) “Ability grouping in English secondary schools: Effects on attainment in English, mathematics and science”, Educational Research and Evaluation, 8 (2): 299–318.
    Ireson, J., Hallam, S. and Hurley, C. (2005) “What are the effects of ability grouping on GCSE attainment?”, British Educational Research Journal, 31 (3): 443–58.
    Ivinson, G. and Murphy, P. (2006) “Boys don't write romance”, in M.Arnot and M.Mac an Ghaill (eds), The Routledge Falmer Reader in Gender and Education. London: Routledge Falmer.
    Jeffrey, B. and Woods, P. (2003) The Creative School: A Framework for Success, Quality and Effectiveness. London: Routledge Falmer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203437223
    Johnson, D. and Johnson, F. (2000) Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Joncas, M. (2008) “TIMMS 2007 sampling weights and participation rates”, in J.F.Olson, M.O.Martin and I.V.Mullis (eds), TIMMS 2007 Technical Report. Boston, MA: Boston College.
    Kagan, S. (1988) Cooperative Learning: Resources for teachers. Riverside, CA: University of California Press.
    Kelly, A. (ed.) (1981) The Missing Half-girls and Science Education. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Kelly, A. (ed.) (1987) Science for Girls?Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Kelly, A., Whyte, J. and Smail, B. (1987) “Girls into science and technology: Final Report”, in A.Kelly (ed.) Science for Girls?Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 100–12.
    Kinchin, I. (2004) “Is teacher innovation on the verge of extinction?”, School Science Review, 86: 315.
    Kingsley-Mills, C., McNamara, S. and Woodward, L. (1992) Out from Behind the Desk: A Practical Guide to Group Work Skills and Processes. Glenfield: Leicestershire County Council Publications.
    Kulik, J. and Kulik, C. (1992) “Meta-analytic findings on grouping programs”, Gifted Child Quarterly, 36: 73–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001698629203600204
    Kutnick, P., Hodgkinson, S., Sebba, J., Humphreys, S., Galton, M., Steward, S., Blatchford, P. and Bains, E. (2007) Pupil Grouping Strategies and Practice at Key Stage 2 and 3. Research Report 796, Nottingham: DfES Publications.
    Kutnick, P. and Mason, I. (1998) “Social life in classrooms: towards a relational concept of social skills for use in classrooms”, in A.Campbell and S.Muncer (eds), The Social Child. Hove: The Psychology Press.
    Kutnick, P., Blatchford, P. and Baines, E. (2002) “Pupil groupings in primary school classrooms: sites for learning and social pedagogy?”, British Educational Research Journal, 28 (2): 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920120122149
    Kutnick, P., Blatchford, P., Clark, H., MacIntyre, H. and Baines, E. (2005a) “Teachers' understandings of the relationship between within-class (pupil) grouping and learning in secondary schools”, Educational Research, 47 (1): 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188042000337532
    Kutnick, P., Hodgkinson, S., Sebba, J., Humphreys, S., Galton, M., Steward, S., Blatchford, P. and Baines, E. (2006) Pupil Grouping Strategies and Practices at Key Stage 2 and 3: Case studies of 24 Schools in England. London: DfES.
    Kutnick, P., Sebba, J., Blatchford, P., Galton, M. and Thorp, J. with MacIntyre, H. and Berdondini, L. (2005b) The Effects of Pupil Grouping: Literature Review. Research Report 688. Nottingham: DfES Publications.
    Lacey, C. (1970) Hightown Grammar School. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Lahelma, E. and Gordon, T. (1997) “First day in secondary school: learning to be a “professional pupil””, Educational Research and Evaluation, 3 (2): 119–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1380361970030202
    Lawrence, D. (1981) “The development of self-esteem questionnaire”, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51: 245–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1981.tb02481.x
    Lawton, D. (1975) Class, Culture and the Curriculum. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Light, P., Buckingham, N. and Robbins, A. H. (1979) The conservation task as an interactional setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 49, 304–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1979.tb02430.x
    Lou, Y., Abrami, P., Spence, J., Poulsen, C., Chambers, B. and d'Apollonia, S. (1996) “Within class groupings: a meta analysis”, Review of Educational Research, 66 (4): 423–58.
    Louis, K. and Marks, H. (1998) “Does professional community affect the classroom? Teachers' work and student experiences in restructured schools”, American Journal of Education, 106 (40): 532–75.
    MacBeath, J. and Galton, M., with Steward, S., MacBeath, A. and Page, C. (2006) The Cost of Inclusion: A Report Commissioned by the National Union of Teachers Concerning Inclusion in Schools. London: NUT and Cambridge: Faculty of Education.
    MacBeath, J. and Galton, M. with Steward, S., Page, C. and Edwards, J. (2004) A Life in Secondary Teaching: Finding Time for Learning. Report for the National Union of Teachers. Cambridge: Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge.
    MacBeath, J., Gray, J., Cullen, J., Frost, D., Steward, S. and Swaffield, S. (2007) Schools on the Edge: Responding to Challenging Circumstances. London: Paul Chapman.
    Mansell, W. (2008a) “Pass mark for GCSE is forced down”, Times Educational Supplement, 24 October.
    Mansell, W. (2008b) “England joins the elite for maths and science”, Times Educational Supplement, 12 December.
    Marsh, H. (1989) “Age and Sex Effects in Mutiple Dimensions of Self-concept: Pre-adolescence to early adulthood”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81: 417–30.
    Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S., Gonzalez, E.J. and Chrostowski, M.J. (2004) TIMSS 2003 International Science Report. Boston, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Centre, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
    Martin, M.O., Mullis, I.V.S. and Foy, P. (2008) TIMMS 2007 International Science Report. Boston, MA: Boston College.
    Matthews, B. (2004) “Promoting emotional literacy, equity and interest in KS3 science lessons for 11–14 year olds: the “Improving Science and Emotional Development Project””, Journal of Science Education, 26 (3): 281–308.
    Mayall, B. (2007) Children's Lives Outside School and their Educational Impact. Primary Review Research Survey 8/1. Cambridge: Primary Review. Also available at http://www.primaryreview.org.uk.
    Mayer, C. (2008) “Britain's mean streets”, Time, 26 March.
    Measor, L. and Woods, P. (1984) Changing Schools: Pupils Perspectives on Transfer to a Comprehensive. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Mercer, N. (1995) The Guided Construction of Knowlegde: Talk Amongst Teachers and Learners. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    Mercer, N. (2000) Words and Minds: How We Use Language to Think Together. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203464984
    Mercer, N., Dawes, L., Wegerif, R. and Sams, C. (2004) Reasoning as a scientist: ways of helping children to use language to learn science. British Educational Research Journal, 30 (3), 359–377.
    Mercer, N. and Littleton, K. (2007) Dialogue and the Development of Children's Thinking: A Sociocultural Approach. London & New York: Routledge.
    Millar, R., Leach, J., Osborne, J. and Ratcliffe, M. (2003) “Towards evidence-based practice: using diagnostic assessment to enhance learning”, Teaching and Learning Research Briefing, 1 (June). Available at: http://www.tlrp.org.
    Miller, C. (1986) “Puberty and person-environment fit in the classroom”, in P.Lee [Chair] Decision Making Fit at Early Adolescence: A Developmental Perspective. An American Educational Research Association (AERA) Symposium, San Francisco, April.
    Morrison, L. and Matthews, B. (2006) How Pupils Can be Helped to Develop Socially and Emotionally in Science Lessons. Pastoral Care, March 2006.
    Mortimore, P., Sammons, P., Stoll, L.D. and Ecob, R. (1988) School Matters: The Junior Years. Wells: Open Books.
    Mroz, M., Smith, F. and Hardman, F. (2000) “The discourse of the literacy hour”, Cambridge Journal of Education, 30 (3) 379–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057640020004513
    Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O. and Foy, P. (2005) TIMSS 2003 International Report on Achievement in the Mathematical Cognitive Domains. Boston, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Centre, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
    Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O. and Foy, P. (2008) TIMSS 2008 International Mathematics Report. Boston, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Centre, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
    Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Gonzalez, E.J. and Chrostowski, M.J. (2004) TIMSS 2007 International Mathematics Report. Boston, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Centre, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
    Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Kennedy, A.M. and Foy, P. (2007) PIRLS 2007 International Report, IEA'S Progress in International Reading Literacy in Primary Schools in 40 Countries. Boston, MA: TIMSS and PIRLS International Study Centre, Lynch School of Education, Boston College.
    Murphy, P. and Gipps, C. (1996) Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys. London, The Falmer Press in association with UNESCO Publishing.
    Musgrove, P.H. (1968) “The contribution of sociology to the study of the curriculum”, in J.F.Kerr (ed.), Changing the Curriculum. London: University of London Press. pp. 79–95.
    Nardi, E. and Steward, S. (2003) “Is mathematics T.I.R.E.D.? A profile of quiet disaffection in the secondary mathematics classroom”, British Educational Research Journal, 29 (3): 345–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920301852
    National Union of Teachers (NUT) (2006) Memorandum by the National Union of Teachers. In Science Teaching in Schools. Report with Evidence of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee. HLPaper 257 (Written evidence pp. 81–3). London: The Stationery Office.
    New Vision Group (2008) Combating disadvantage and the academies programme. London: The New Vision Group.
    Noddings, N. (1992) The Challenge to Schools. New York: Teachers' College Press.
    Noddings, N. (2005) “What does it mean to educate the whole child?”, Educational Leadership (September): 8–13.
    North Yorkshire County Council in conjunction with Dialogos (2006) Talk for Learning: Teaching and Learning through Dialogue (DVD/CD pack).
    Ofsted (1998) Secondary Education 1993–7: A Review of Secondary Schools in England. London: The Stationery Office.
    Ofsted (2004) Special Educational Needs and Disability: Towards Inclusive Schools. London: Ofsted.
    Ofsted (2005) Managing Pupil Behaviour. London: Ofsted.
    Ofsted (2006) Creative Partnerships: Initiative and Impact. London: Ofsted.
    Opportunity “2000” (1996) How Employers Can Attract Girls into Science Education. Available at: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/orgs/opp2000/chap3.htm.
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2004a) Messages from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD.
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2004b) Learning for Tomorrow's World: First Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD.
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2007) PISA 2006. Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World Volume 1: Analysis. Paris: OECD.
    Osborne, J., Erduran, S., Simon, S. and Monk, M. (2001) “Enhancing the quality of argument in school science”, School Science Review, 82 (301): 63–70.
    Osler, A. and StarkeyH. (2005) Changing Citizenship: Democracy and Inclusion in Education. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Oversby, J. (2006) Memorandum by Dr. John Oversby. In Science Teaching in Schools, Report with Evidence of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee. HL Paper 257 (Written evidence, pp. 188–91). London: The Stationery Office.
    Ozolins, U. (1979) Lawton's refutation of a working class curriculum”, Melbourne Working Papers, University of Melbourne.
    Palincsar, A. and Herrenkohl, L. (1999) “Designing collaborative contexts: lessons from three research programs”, in A.O'Donnell and A.King (eds), Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Paton, G. (2008) “Four-year degrees for weak students”, Daily Telegraph, 12 June.
    Pedley, R. (1963) The Comprehensive School. Hamondsworth: Penguin.
    Pell, T., Galton, M., Steward, S., Page, C. and Hargreaves, L. (2007) “Group work at Key Stage 3: solving an attitudinal crisis among young adolescents?”, Research Papers in Education, 22 (3): 309–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671520701497571
    Pollard, A. (1985) The Social World of the Primary Classroom. London: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Pringle, E. (2008) Artists' Perspectives. Provocation stimulus papers for Implementing Creative Learning. An Investigative Seminar for Creative Partnerships, 13 February, London.
    Putnam, J., Markovchick, K., Johnson, D. and Johnson, R. (1996) “Cooperative learning and peer acceptance of pupils with learning disabilities”, Journal of Social Psychology, 136: 741–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1996.9712250
    Raney, K. (2003) Art in Question. London: Continuum.
    Ravet, J. (2007) “Making sense of disengagement in the primary classroom: a study of pupil, teacher and parent perceptions”, Research Papers in Education, 22 (3): 333–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02671520701497589
    Rees, P. and Bailey, K. (2003) “Positive exceptions: learning from students who beat the odds”, Educational and Child Psychology, 20 (4): 21–49.
    Resolution (2008) High Court Judge Warning on Family Breakdown, News Release 5 April. Available at: http://www.family and http://parenting.org/inthePress.
    Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L., Clark, A., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. and Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2009) Collabrative reasoning: a dialogic approach to group discussions. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39 (1), 29–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057640802701952
    Rogers, C. (1994) “A common basis for success”, in P.Kutnick and C.Rogers (eds), Groups in Schools. London: Cassell. pp. 144–64.
    Rosenshine, B. (1979) “Content, Time and Direct Instruction”, in P.Peterson and H.Walberg (eds), Research on Teaching Concepts: Findings and Implications. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
    Rosenshine, B., Meister, C. and Chapman, S. (1996) “Teaching students to generate questions: a review of intervention studies”, Review of Educational Research, 66 (2): 181–221.
    Royal Society (RS) (2007) The UK's Science and Mathematics Teaching Workforce: A “State of the Nation” Report, 2007. London: RS.
    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) (2008a) The Five-decade Challenge: A Wake Up Call for UK Science Education?London: RSC.
    Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) (2008b) Downing Street Demands Reversal of Catastrophic Decline in School Science Exam Standards. Press Release, 27 November, Available at: http://www.rsc.org/AboutUs/News/PressReleases/2008/November10Petition.asp.
    Rudduck, J. (2003) “Managing institutional and personal transitions: developing the work in schools”, in M.Galton, J.Gray and J.Rudduck (eds), Transfer and Transitions in the Middle Years of Schooling (7–14): Continuities and Discontinuities in Learning. London: DfES. (pp. 75–102).
    Rudduck, J. and Flutter, J. (2004) How to Improve Your School: Giving Pupils a Voice. London: Continuum.
    Rudduck, J., Chaplin, R. and Wallace, G. (1996) School Improvement: What Can Pupils Tell Us?London: David Fulton.
    Ruddock, G., Sturman, I., Schagen, I., Styles, B., Gnaldi, M. and Vappula, H. (2004) Where England stands in the trends in international science and mathematics study (TIMSS) 2003. National Report for England for the DfES. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research.
    Rutter, M. (1993) “Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms”, in J.Rolf, A.Masten, D.Cicchetti, K.Nüchterlein and S.Weintraub (eds), Risk and Protective Factors in Development of Psychopathology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Schools Council (1972) Education in the Middle Years. Working paper No 2. London: Evans-Methuen.
    Sharan, Y. and Sharan, S. (1992) Expanding Cooperative Learning through Group Investigation. New York: Teachers' College Press.
    Shayer, M. (2008) Teenagers' Learning “dumbed down”. BBC News (online). Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/l/hi/education/7692843.stm.
    Shayer, M. (2006) Children are falling behind in maths and science. ESRC The Edge. 21 (March), 28.
    Shayer, M. and Adey, P. (1981) Towards a Science of Science Teaching. London: Heinemann.
    Simon, B. (1981) “Why no pedagogy in England?”, in B.Simon and W.Taylor (eds), Education in the Eighties: The Central Issues. London: Batsford. pp. 124–45.
    Sinclair, J. and Coulthard, J. (1975) Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English Used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford University Press.
    Slavin, R. (1983) “When does cooperative learning increase student motivation?”, Psychological Bulletin, 94 (3): 429–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.3.429
    Slavin, R. (1987) “Ability grouping and student achievement in elementary schools: a best evidence synthesis”, Review of Educational Research, 57: 293–336.
    Slavin, R. (1990) “Achievement effects of ability grouping in secondary schools: a best evidence synthesis”, Review of Educational Research, 60 (3): 471–99.
    Slavin, R. (1995) Cooperative Learning. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Smith, D. (2006) School Experience and Delinquency at Ages 13 to 16. University of Edinburgh.
    Smith, F., Hardman, F., Wall, K. and Mroz, M. (2004) “Interactive whole-class teaching in the national literacy and numeracy strategies”, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (3): 395–412.
    Smith, L. (1996) “The social construction of rational understanding”, in A.Tryphon and J.Vonèche (eds), Piaget-Vygotsky: The Social Genesis of Thought. Psychology Press.
    Spelman, B. (1979) Pupil Adaptation to Secondary School. Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Educational Research.
    Stoll, L. and Louis, K. (eds) (2007) Professional Learning Communities: Divergence, Depth and Difficulties. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Stoll, L., Stobart, G., Martin, S., Freeman, S., Freedman, E., Sammons, P. and Smees, R. (2003) Preparing for Change: Evaluation of the Implementation of the Key Stage 3 Pilot Strategy. London: DfES.
    Talk for Learning: teaching and learning through dialogue (DVD/CD pack), North Yorkshire County Council in conjunction with Dialogos, July 2006, ISBN 978-0-9546943-4-0 http: http://www.robinalexander.org.uk/dialogos.htm#TDTmike.smit@northyorks.gov.uk.
    Terwel, J. (2003) “Cooperative learning in secondary education: a curriculum perspective”, in R.Gilles and A.Ashman (eds), Cooperative Learning: The Social and Intellectual Outcomes of Learn in Groups. London: Routledge Falmer.
    Tharp, R. and Gallimore, R. (1988) Rousing Young Minds to Life: Teaching, Learning and Schooling in Social Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Thompson, P., Hall, C. and Russell, L. (2006) An arts project failed, censored or …? A critical incident approach to artist-school partnerships, Changing English, 13 (1): 29–44.
    Tomlinson, S. (2005) Education in a Post-welfare Society. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Vygotsky, L.S. (1934/1986) “An experimental study of the development of concepts”, in A.Kozulin (ed.), Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Vygotsky, L. (1935/1978) “Interaction between learning and development”, in M.Cole, V.John-Steiner, S.Scribner and E.Souberman (eds), Vygotsky, Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Mental Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Warrington, M. and Younger, M. (2006) Raising Boys' Achievement in Primary Schools: Towards an Holistic Approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Watkins, C. (2003) Learning: A Sense-makers Guide. London: Institute of Education for Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).
    Watkins, C. (2005) Classrooms as Learning Communities: What's in It for Schools?London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203390719
    Watts, J. (ed.) (1977) The Countesthorpe Experience. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Webb, N. (1985) “Student interaction and learning in small groups: A research summary”, in R.Slavin, S.Sharan, S.Kagan, S.Hertz-Lazarowitz, N.Webb, and R.Schmuck (eds), Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn. New York: Plenum Press. 147–72.
    Webb, N. (1989) “Peer interaction and learning in small groups”, International Journal of Educational Research, 13: 21–39.
    Webb, N. and Farivar, S. (1994) “Promoting helping behavior in cooperative small groups in middle school mathematics”, American Educational Research Journal, 31: 369–95.
    Webb, R. and Vulliamy, G. (2006) Coming Full Circle? The Impact of New Labour's Education Policies on Primary School Teachers' Work. London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).
    Webb, N. and Mastergeorge, A. (2003) “Promoting effective helping behaviour in peer directed groups”, International Journal of Educational Research, 39 (1–2): 79–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900074-0
    Webb, N., Baxter, G. and Thompson, L. (1997) “Teachers' grouping practices in 5th grade science classrooms”, The Elementary School Journal, 98 (2): 91–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461886
    Webb, N., Franke, M.L., Ing, M., Chan, A., Tondra, D., Freund, D. and Battey, D. (2008) “The role of teacher instructional practices in student collaboration”, Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33: 360–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.05.003
    Wedell, K. (2005) “Dilemmas in the quest for inclusion”, British Journal of Special Education, 32 (1): 3–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0952-3383.2005.00363.x
    Werner, E. (1990) “Protective factors and individual resilience”, in S.Meisels (ed.), Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Werner, E. and Smith, R. (1992) Overcoming the Odds: High-risk Children from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Cornell University Press.
    Wikipedia (2008) Ernest Rutherford (online). Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Rutherford (accessed 16 April 2008).
    Wilkinson, J. and Canter, S. (1982) Social Skills Training Manual: Assessment, Programme, Design and Management of Training. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
    Wiliam, D. and Bartholomew, H. (2004) “It's not the school but which set you're in that matters: the influence of ability grouping practices on student progress in mathematics”, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (2): 279–94.
    Willms, J.D. (2003) Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation. Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD Publishing.
    Wood, D. (1998) How Children Think and Learn. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Youngman, M. (1978) “Six reactions to school transfer”, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 48: 280–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1978.tb03014.x
    Youngman, M. and Lunzer, E. (1977) Adjustment to Secondary School. Nottingham: School of Education.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website