Moral Development and Reality: Beyond the Theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman explores the nature of moral development, social behavior, and human interconnectedness. By comparing, contrasting, and going beyond the works of pre-eminent theorists Lawrence Kohlberg and Martin Hoffman, author John C. Gibbs addresses fundamental questions: What is morality? Can we speak validly of moral development? Is the moral motivation of behavior primarily a matter of justice or of empathy? Does moral development, including moments of moral inspiration, reflect a deeper reality?   Moral Development and Reality elucidates the full range of moral development from superficial perception to a deeper understanding and feeling through social perspective-taking. Providing case studies and chapter questions, Gibbs creates a unique framework for understanding Kohlberg’s and Hoffman’s influential contributions.    

“The Good” and Moral Development: Hoffman's Theory

“The good” and moral development: Hoffman's theory

Our exploration of moral development shifts in this chapter from the right to the good. In particular, we shift from a concern with how we grow beyond superficial moral judgment to a concern with how we grow beyond superficial moral feeling and from cognitive sources of moral motivation such as justice or reciprocity to affective sources such as benevolence or empathy. Accordingly, our conception of moral motivation will expand. Moral motivation derives not only from cognitively constructed ideals of reciprocity but as well from what Nel Noddings (1984) called an “attitude …for goodness” (p. 2) and what Carol Gilligan (1982) claimed1 was a distinctly feminine “voice” that urges responsible caring. Nancy Eisenberg ...

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