The success or failure of empires, nation-states, and city-states often rests on the relationship between bureaucracy and politicians. In this provocative and timely volume, editor Ali Farazmand examines the myriad relationships between politicians and bureaucrats and how they affect modern governance. This book is organized around the major themes of professionalism, bureaucracy, governance, and the relationship between career bureaucrats/higher civil servants and political appointees/politicians under presidential and parliamentary systems. After introducing the basic elements of bureaucracies in Part I, the book discusses the relations between bureaucrats and politicians in presidential systems in Part II as well as in parliamentary systems in Part III. This original and up-to-date book will fill a gap in the literature on the relationship between bureaucrats and politicians in modern governance and public administration. It can be used as a primary or supplementary text at the undergraduate and graduate level for those interested in public administration, comparative public policy, political science, and government.
Chapter 3: Professionalism in Bureaucracy: Some Comparisons Based on the Indian Case
Professionalism in Bureaucracy: Some Comparisons Based on the Indian Case
Fred W. Riggs (1994b) contends that the American bureaucracy harbors an exceptional degree of professionalism and that this professionalism is responsible for the stability of the American presidential system. The objective of this chapter is, first, to formulate some conceptual and operational hypotheses based on Riggs's arguments and, then, to put these hypotheses to test in a comparative setting.
For the purpose of testing, I have selected India as a case study. The use of India as a testing ground is justified on several grounds: First, India has one of the world's most complex and developed public service systems. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it served ...