Modern Classroom Assessment offers an applied, student-centered guide to the major research-based approaches to assessment in today's modern classroom. Rather than simply list basic assessment formats with a few examples, as many textbooks do, award-winning professor and scholar Bruce Frey's book fully explores all five key approaches for teacher-designed assessment—Traditional Paper-and-Pencil, Performance-Based Assessment, Formative Assessment, Universal Test Design, and Authentic Assessment —while making abstract concepts and guidelines clear with hundreds of real-world illustrations and examples of what actual teachers do. Offering a variety of engaging learning tools and realistic stories from the classroom, this text will give any reader a strong foundation for designing modern assessments in their own classrooms.

Understanding Scores from Classroom Assessments

Understanding scores from classroom assessments

Looking Ahead in this Chapter

There are many ways to create scores, and different types of scores have different meaning. Groups of scores can be summarized and described with descriptive statistics. This chapter presents a variety of methods for understanding and producing assessment scores.


After studying this chapter, you should be able to

  • Produce and interpret a variety of types of scores including item scores and subscale scores
  • Identify the characteristics of objective scores and subjective scores
  • Compute and interpret descriptive statistics
  • Apply an understanding of the normal curve
  • Work with real-world classroom data to produce and interpret scores

“How full of error is the judgment of mankind! They wonder at results when they are ignorant of the reasons.”

Metastasio (1698–1782), Italian Poet

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