Media and Terrorism: Global Perspectives
Publication Year: 2012
Have the media contributed to exacerbating the political, cultural and religious divides within Western societies and the world at large? How can media be deployed to enrich, not inhibit, dialogue? To what extent has the media, in all its forms, questioned, celebrated or simply accepted the unleashing of a ‘war on terror’? Media and Terrorism brings together leading scholars to explore how the world's media have influenced, and in turn, been influenced by terrorism and the war on terror in the aftermath of 9/11. Accessible and user-friendly with lively and current case studies, it is a perfect student text and is an essential handbook on the dynamics of war and the media in a global context.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 2: Terror, War and Disjunctures in the Global Order
- Chapter 3: Media, War and Information Technology
- Chapter 4: Public Diplomacy versus Terrorism
- Chapter 5: Propaganda and Terrorism
- Chapter 6: Terrorism and Global Popular Culture
- Chapter 7: Hollywood, the CIA and the ‘War on Terror’
- Chapter 8: Terror, Culture and Anti-Muslim Racism
- Chapter 9: Pictures and Public Relations in the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict
- Chapter 10: South Asia and the Frontline of the ‘War on Terror’
- Chapter 11: Covering Terrorism in Russian Media
- Chapter 12: Wikileaks and War Laws
- Chapter 13: Television and Immigration in France
- Chapter 14: The ‘War on Terror’ in Arab Media
Introduction and editorial arrangement © Des Freedman and Daya
Kishan Thussu 2012
Chapters © contributors 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011930101
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-0158-9 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, India, Chennai
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CRO 4YY
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
About the Editors[Page vii]
Des Freedman is Reader in Communications and Cultural Studies in the Department of Media and Communications, Goldsmiths, University of London. He is the co-author (with James Curran and Natalie Fenton) of Misunderstanding the Internet (forthcoming 2012), author of The Politics of Media Policy (Polity, 2008) and The Television Policies of the Labour Party, 1951–2001 (Frank Cass, 2003) and co-editor (with Daya Thussu) of War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (Sage, 2003). He is a co-editor of the SAGE journal Global Media and Communication and a member of the research team in the Goldsmiths Leverhulme Media Research Centre.
Daya Kishan Thussu is Professor of International Communication and Co-Director of India Media Centre at the University of Westminster in London. He is the Founder and Managing Editor of the SAGE journal Global Media and Communication. Among his main publications are: Electronic Empires (Arnold, 1998); International Communication – Continuity and Change, second edition (Arnold, 2006); War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (co-edited with Des Freedman; Sage, 2003); Media on the Move – Global Flow and Contra-flow (Routledge, 2007); News as Entertainment (Sage, 2007); and Internationalizing Media Studies (Routledge, 2009). He is series editor for two Routledge book series: Internationalizing Media Studies and Advances in Internationalizing Media Studies.
Notes on Contributors[Page viii]
Jim Baumann, PhD, is Assistant Professor in the Communication Department at St. Ambrose University, Iowa. His research interests include the adoption of emerging mediated communication technologies, communication theory and the political economy of communication. He received his doctorate from the School of Communication Studies at Bowling Green State University, Ohio, in 2009, where his dissertation investigated the social, economic, technological and application issues facing the public during the digital television transition in the United States. He is co-author with Oliver Boyd-Barrett and David Herrera of Hollywood and the CIA (Routledge, 2011).
Oliver Boyd-Barrett, PhD, is Professor of Journalism at Bowling Green State University, Ohio, and author/editor of 20 books and over 120 scholarly articles. Books include The International News Agencies (SAGE, 1980); Contra-Flow in Global News (with Daya Thussu; John Libbey, 1992); Education Reform in Democratic Spain (with Pamela O'Malley; Routledge, 1995); The Globalization of News (with Terhi Rantanen; SAGE, 1998); Communications Media, Globalization and Empire (John Libbey, 2006); News Agencies in the Turbulent Era of the Internet (Government of Catalonia, 2010); Hollywood and the CIA (with David Herrera and Jim Baumann; Routledge, 2011).
Christian Fuchs is Professor of Media and Communication Studies at Uppsala University, Sweden. He is editor of tripleC – Cognition, Communication, Cooperation: Open Access Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society and board member of the Unified Theory of Information Research Group (UTI). His research interests are critical theory, critical theory of the media and the internet, critical political economy of the media and communication, media and society and critical information society studies. He is author of Internet and Society: Social Theory in the Information Age and Foundations of Critical Media and Information Studies. Website: http://fuchs.uti.at.
David Herrera is a graduate student at the Missouri School of Journalism in Columbia, Missouri. His research interests include First Amendment law, mass communication theories and normative media theory. He worked as a web producer at the Detroit Free Press after graduating from Bowling Green State University, Ohio, where he studied journalism and popular culture. He is [Page ix]co-author, with Oliver Boyd-Barrett and Jim Baumann, of Hollywood and the CIA (Routledge, 2011).
Dahr Jamail is an independent journalist and author whose stories have been published with Al-Jazeera English, The Independent, the Nation, the Sunday Herald in Scotland, The Guardian, Foreign Policy in Focus and Le Monde Diplomatique. On radio as well as television, Jamail reports for Democracy Now!, has appeared on Al-Jazeera, the BBC and NPR, and numerous other stations around the globe. He was the recipient of the Lannan Foundation Writing Residency Fellowship in 2008. He is the author of, most recently, The Will to Resist: Soldiers Who Refuse to Fight in Iraq and Afghanistan (Haymarket, 2009) and Beyond the Green Zone: Dispatches from an Unembedded Journalist in Occupied Iraq (Haymarket, 2007).
Lena Jayyusi is Associate Professor at the College of Communication and Media Sciences at Zayed University, United Arab Emirates, and non-residential Senior Research Fellow at Muwatin: The Palestinian Institute for the Study of Democracy in Ramallah, Palestine. She has taught at Wellesley College, the University of Connecticut at Storrs and Cedar Crest College in Pennsylvania, where she was Chair of the Department of Communication Studies from 1990 to 1994. She worked between 1995 and 2002 in Palestine, doing research on Palestinian media discourse, and serving as a Senior TOKTEN consultant for the UNPD in Jerusalem and as Director of the Oral History Program at Shaml: The Palestinian Diaspora and Refugee Center. She is author of Categorization and the Moral Order (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984), which was translated into French (Economica, 2010). She has two edited volumes currently in press: Jerusalem Interrupted: Modernity and Colonial Transformation 1917 – the Present (Interlink Publishing) and A Reader in Media and Democracy (a Muwatin publication, in Arabic). She is currently preparing two original volumes: Praxiologies (a collection of studies in practical reasoning and communicative action) and a manuscript on Palestinian national discourse during the Oslo years.
Gholam Khiabany teaches in the School of Media, Film and Music at the University of Sussex. He is the author of Iranian Media: The Paradox of Modernity (Routledge, 2010), and co-author of Blogistan (with Annabelle Sreberny (I.B.Tauris, 2010).
Justin Lewis is Head of the School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University. Before going to Cardiff in 2000 he worked for 12 years at the University of Massachusetts. He has written many books and articles about media, communication and politics. Recent books include Climate Change and[Page x]the Media (co-edited with Tammy Boyce; Peter Lang, 2009) and The Rise of 24 Hour News Television (co-edited with Stephen Cushion; Peter Lang, 2010).
Jake Lynch is Director of the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Sydney and a pioneer in the emerging research field of Peace Journalism. He is also Secretary General of the International Peace Research Association. Before taking up an academic career, Lynch spent many years as a professional journalist, having worked as a presenter on BBC World television news; Political Correspondent for Sky News and Sydney Correspondent for The Independent.
Tristan Mattelart is Professor of International Communication at the Department of Culture and Communication of the University of Paris 8. His works include La mondialisation des médias contre la censure: Tiers monde et audiovisuel sans frontières (2002) and Médias, migrations et cultures transnationales (2007), as well as different articles and chapters published in English. In 2009, he coordinated a special issue of the electronic journal tic&société on ‘ICTs and diasporas’. Currently, he is heading an international research project funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) on ‘Media and migration in the Euro-Mediterranean space’.
Annabel McGoldrick is studying for her PhD at the Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Sydney, researching audience responses to Peace Journalism. She is also a qualified psychotherapist in private practice. She worked for many years in journalism, most recently as a reporter for SBS World News Australia, in Sydney. She chaired the Reporting the World meetings for professional journalists in London, and has facilitated training workshops for editors and reporters in many countries including Indonesia and the Philippines.
David Miller is Professor of Sociology at the University of Bath, the co-founder of Spinwatch (http://www.spinwatch.org) and the editor of Powerbase (http://www.powerbase.info), a wiki-based collaborative guide to power networks. His recent books include Neoliberal Scotland: Class and Society in a Stateless Nation (co-edited with Neil Davidson and Patricia McCafferty; Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010); A Century of Spin – How Public Relations Became the Cutting Edge of Corporate Power (with Willian Dinan; Pluto, 2008); Thinker, Faker, Spinner, Spy: Corporate PR and the Assault on Democracy (edited with William Dinan; Pluto, 2007); Tell Me Lies: Propaganda and Media Distortion in the Attack on Iraq (editor; Pluto, 2003).
Toby Miller works at the University of California, Riverside. He has written and edited more than 30 books and published articles in more than 100 journals [Page xi]and special collections. He runs a podcast, which can be found on iTunes under culturalstudies. Website: http://www.tobymiller.org.
Stig A. Nohrstedt is Professor at the School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences at Örebro University, Sweden. His research interests include war and conflict journalism and journalistic ethics. He is the co-editor with Rune Ottosen of Journalism and the New World Order: Gulf War, National News Discourse and Globalization (Nordicom, 2001); U.S. and the Others: Global Media Images on ‘The War on Terror’ (Nordicom, 2004); and Global War – Local Views: Media Images of the Iraq War (Nordicom, 2005). He is editor of Community Risks – Towards the Threat Society? (Nordicom, 2011).
Rune Ottosen is Professor at Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway. He has written extensively on media coverage of conflicts. He is co-editor with Stig Arne Nohrstedt of Journalism and the New World Order: Gulf War, National News Discourse and Globalization (Nordicom, 2001); Global Media Images on ‘The War on Terror’ (Nordicom, 2004); and Global War – Local Views: Media Images of the Iraq War (Nordicom, 2005). Ottosen is leader in the Norwegian Association of Press and Media History and was President of the Norwegian Non-fiction Writers and Translator Association 2001–2005.
Greg Philo is Professor of Communications at Glasgow University and Research Director of the Glasgow University Media Group. His interests are in the area of the media and cultural reception and past research has centred on media presentations of industrial disputes and trade unionism, the economy, war, race and migration. Recent research includes ESRC, UKERC and other externally funded projects on political advertising, images of health and illness as well as risk, climate change, food scares and media presentations of international conflict, crime, sentencing policy and impacts on public belief. His books include Message Received (Longman, 1999), (with David Miller), Market Killing (Longman, 2001) and (with Mike Berry), Israel and Palestine – Competing Histories (Pluto, 2006) and More Bad News from Israel (Pluto, 2011).
Alex Russell has taught statistical and research methods in the University of Sydney's School of Psychology for five years. He is regularly in demand as a statistical advisor to research firms, marketing agencies and other educational institutions devising methodologies and reporting on quantitative and qualitative research. He is currently completing his PhD in Psychology at the University of Sydney, examining taste and smell perception, with an emphasis on wine expertise.
Rizwaan Sabir is a doctoral researcher in the School of Applied Social Sciences, University of Strathclyde, where he is researching British and Scottish [Page xii]government policy toward Muslims and Islam since 9/11, with a particular focus on counter-terrorism, propaganda and race-relations.
Danny Schechter is the editor of the New York-based media issues network http://Mediachannel.org. He is a blogger, author, filmmaker and troublemaker. He developed his techniques as a news dissector while a master's student at the London School of Economics during the Vietnam War. He is a graduate of Cornell University, has an honorary PhD from Fitchburg College and was a Nieman Fellow in journalism at Harvard University. His blog appears daily at http://NewsDissector.com and his latest film on the financial crisis as crime story, Plunder: The Crime of Our Time, is available though http://PlundertheCrimeofourtime.com. He contributes opinion commentaries to the Al Jazeera English http://website.Comments to email@example.com.
Philip Seib is Professor of Journalism and Public Diplomacy, Professor of International Relations and Director of the Center on Public Diplomacy at the University of Southern California. He studies linkages between media and war and terrorism, as well as public diplomacy issues. He is author or editor of numerous books, including Headline Diplomacy: How News Coverage Affects Foreign Policy; Beyond the Front Lines: How the News Media Cover a World Shaped by War; Broadcasts from the Blitz: How Edward R. Murrow Helped Lead America into War; New Media and the New Middle East; The Al Jazeera Effect: How the New Global Media Are Reshaping World Politics; Toward a New Public Diplomacy: Redirecting U.S. Foreign Policy; Global Terrorism and New Media; and the forthcoming Real-Time Diplomacy: Politics and Power in the Social Media Era. He is the series editor of the Palgrave Macmillan Series in International Political Communication, co-editor of the Palgrave Macmillan Series in Global Public Diplomacy and co-editor of the journal Media, War, and Conflict.
Olga Smirnova, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Journalism of Moscow State University. She is also the Deputy Dean and the Chair of Center for Gender and Media Studies. Her academic interests include journalism in Russia, digital divide and mass media and gender studies in mass media. She is editor of six research monographs and has authored more than 50 articles and book chapters.
Helga Tawil-Souri is Assistant Professor in the Department of Media, Culture, and Communication at New York University. Her research considers issues of globalization, media technologies, cultural expressions, and their relationship to economic and political change in the Middle East. She has published work on Arab and Palestinian broadcasting industries and cinema, internet development, [Page xiii]video games, checkpoints and cultural/political spaces of resistance. She is also a photographer and documentary filmmaker.
Elena Vartanova is Professor, Dean and Chair in Media Theory and Media Economics at the Faculty of Journalism, Moscow State University. Her research interests include post-Soviet transformation of Russian media; media economics, information society and media systems in Nordic countries. Vartanova is author and editor of many books on Russian and Nordic media systems, information society and media economics. She has also published more than 100 research articles in Russian academic journals.
Milly Williamson is a Senior Lecturer in Film and Television Studies at Brunel University. She is the author of a number of articles on representations of Muslims in the media and of the film studies monograph The Lure of the Vampire (Wallflower, 2005).
Edited volumes are collaborative projects and we are fortunate to have been able to work with leading academics and journalists from different countries to provide a global spotlight on the complex relationship between terrorism and its mediation. We are deeply indebted to all our contributors as well as grateful to our colleagues in our respective departments for making this collection possible. Our gratitude too for Mila Steele at SAGE for her enthusiastic support for the project. Finally, we thank our families for their patience during our periods of absence.and