NEW TO THIS EDITION: A new chapter on discourse analysis offers students techniques for analyzing the language in texts. New content on psychological impact of social media shows that there are often negative consequences to using social media. Increased coverage of technology and social media helps readers apply time-tested analysis techniques to the latest media. Updated examples from popular culture bring theory to life. New drawings and photo images illustrate concepts and enhance the visual attractiveness of this book. New material addresses generational differences and presents to students how each generation interacts with media differently, particularly the millennials. New discussions by thinkers who have made major impacts on popular culture, such as Daniel Chandler on semiotic codes Michel Foucault on change in cultures Mark Gottdiener on sign vehicles in semiotic theory Guy Debord on the Society of the Spectacle Mark Thompson et al on Marx's neglect of egalitarian political culture Marcel Danesi on myth and popular culture Ernest Kris on the Oedipus Complex Sigmund Freud on the purposes of jokes Clotaire Rapaille on the new “Global code” Teun van Dyk on discourse analysis and ideology Wolfgang Iser on reception theory KEY FEATURES: End-of-chapter study resources help students practice media analysis and focus on and retain important topics. Vivid applications from popular culture link theory to practice through teaching games and activities that show readers how to apply theories and concepts to various kinds of texts. A comprehensive glossary serves as a ready reference for students.

Techniques of Interpretation

Techniques of Interpretation
Part I Techniques of interpretation
Arthur Asa Berger

Semiology is the term used for the science of signs explicated by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. A different science of signs, semiotics, was first elaborated by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. Semiotics is the term now generally used to refer to both systems. Both are concerned with how meaning is generated in “texts” (films, television programs, and other works of art). In this chapter, after a discussion of the most essential semiotic concepts and some related concerns, semiotic concepts are applied to an episode of a television program. Codes, formulas, and the “language” of television are then addressed.

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