The decennial International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that took place in Cairo in 1994 has been described as historic and revolutionary. It rejected top-down demographically driven population control programs, emphasizing instead reproductive health and rights for women, and for men. This volume explores the ideas and institutions that framed the Cairo consensus and traces their trajectories sixteen years down the line. Why were Third World feminists profoundly critical of the Cairo consensus and process? How has the health of people around the world been affected by neo-liberal economic policies? The intervening years have also seen the global rise of anti-feminisms and fundamentalisms targeting women's bodies and rights. What have these meant for women's rights, including reproductive rights?
The book presents detailed case studies ranging from India and China, to Egypt, Africa and Latin America, as well as overarching themed essays. With data, reasoned arguments and passion, all the chapters reveal the fault lines in thinking about population issues that do not challenge neo-Malthusian ideas. With the ongoing financial and climate crisis, such population ideas are once again coming onto centrestage, indicating the need for critical awareness.
This book contains essays by leading scholars across the world, brought together in one place for the first time. From the politics of abortion and immigration to rising levels of fundamentalist violence and sex selective abortions, the volume explores a range of issues from several vantage points. It offers startling new insights into these issues by linking them to neo-liberal economic policies that have profoundly shaped health globally.
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Population, Health, and Gender in Neo-Liberal Times
- Chapter 2: A Decade and More after Cairo: Women's Health in a Free Market Economy
- Chapter 3: Liberal Ends, Illiberal Means: National Security, “Environmental Conflict,” and the Making of the Cairo Consensus
- Chapter 4: The Politics of Abortion: A Note
- Chapter 5: An Entangled Skein: Neo-Malthusianisms in Neo-Liberal Times
- Chapter 6: Neo-Liberal Development and Reproductive Health in India: The Making of the Personal and the Political
- Chapter 7: A Decade after Cairo in Latin America: An Overview
- Chapter 8: Redefining and Medicalizing Population Policies: NGOs and Their Innovative Contributions to the Post-Cairo Agenda
- Chapter 9: Structural Adjustment, Impotence, and Family Planning: Men's Voices in Egypt
- Chapter 10: What Has Happened in Africa since Cairo?
- Chapter 11: Reproductive Health, Family Planning, and HIV/AIDS: Dangers of (Dis)Integration in Tanzania and Uganda
- Chapter 12: China's Population Policies: Engendered Biopolitics, the One-Child Norm, and Masculinization of Child Sex Ratios