Marketing – The Retro Revolution
The rise of retro has led many to conclude that it represents the end of marketing, that it is indicative of inertia, ossification and the waning of creativity. Marketing — The Retro Revolution explains why the opposite is the case, demonstrating that retro-orientation is a harbinger of change and a revolution in marketing thinking. In his engaging and lively style, Stephen Brown shows that the implications of today's retro revolution are much more profound than the existing literature suggests. He argues that just as retro-marketing practitioners are looking to the past for inspiration, so too students, consultants and academics should seek to do likewise.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction: Looking Back to See Ahead
- Chapter 1: Remembering Marketing: The Future is History
Part I: Putting the ‘Con’ into Concept
- Chapter 2: Reviewing Marketing: The Defective Vision of Theodore Levitt
- Chapter 3: Redeeming Marketing: The Spiritual Side of Trade
- Chapter 4: Reconfiguring Marketing: The Greatest Sham on Earth
Part II: Downsizing Strategy
- Chapter 5: Repositioning Marketing: Ballyhoo's Who
- Chapter 6: Representing Marketing: The Secret of the Black Magic Box
- Chapter 7: Replanning Marketing: If Ever a Whiz of a Swiz There Was
Part III: Fixing the Mix
© Stephen Brown 2001
First published 2001
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Recuperating Marketing: On Commencing a Course of Retro Shock Treatment[Page iv]
Many years ago, when I was a pustular and malodorous adolescent, I had a deeply disgusting habit. Despite what you might think, this trait did not entail libidinal fantasies, anorakish obsessions or proficiency on the air guitar, though my virtuoso interpretation of ‘Stairway to Heaven’ was something to behold.It Still is.
My teenage fixation, rather, revolved around advertising. Sad, simple-minded sociopath that I was – and remain – I used to concoct imaginary advertising slogans for equally imaginary products.1 Most of these were predicated on bad puns or atrocious wordplay and, fortuitously, I forgot to found an archive. The only one that I can remember was for a brand of bananas called ‘No’. The campaign, as you've probably already guessed, was based on the old song, ‘Yes, we have No bananas’. The twist, however, was that I adapted it to specific consumer segments – Noel bananas for the Christmas market, Noh bananas for stage struck aesthetes, Nob bananas for the aspirant upper classes, Now bananas for time-pressed executives, Noah bananas for fundamentalists, apocalyptics and ark-building seafarers, etc. Modesty forbids, you understand, but I like to think that my yellow-packs anticipated the no-brand, own-label bonanza of the late seventies, albeit my elaborate plans for celebrity endorsement involving the then big-time rock band, Yes, weren't so much ahead of their time as a banana skin to oblivion.2
Suitably emboldened by my big bananas campaign, I decided that instead of going to university, I'd make my name in copywriting. So, I rang up a marketing agency on spec, to see if they'd give a long-haired, wispy-bearded, painfully shy teenager some much-needed careers advice, which they kindly agreed to do.3 Ever astute, I arrived at their offices [Page v]wearing my best biker jacket, adhesive tattoos, gold-plated earrings and Black Sabbath-emblazoned crash helmet. (I didn't actually own a motorbike, of course, just the leathers and accessories, but that is by the by.) After trying and failing to engage me in polysyllabic conversation, they decided to test me out. They told me about a client who was planning to open a chain of carry-out pizza parlours, selling single slices like they did in the States. I don't know whether it was a real or a hypothetical client – probably the latter – but I beavered away on the campaign over the weekend.
What I came up with was a concept called Pizza in our Time, based on a Second World War theme. The television ads used the famous footage of Neville Chamberlain returning from Munich: ‘I have in my hand a piece of pizza.’ The menu included items like Blitzkrieg Pizzas, Bismarck Pizzas, Panzer Pizzas, Vichy Pizzas, Pizzas on the River Kwai, the Sands of Pizza Jima, Pizzola Gay. There were utility pizzas, iron ration pizzas, spam and powdered egg pizzas, Battle of the Bulge pizzas. American-style pizzas were over spiced, over priced and over here. Japanese pizzas had bamboo shoots under the crust. Italian pizzas came with extra-runny sauce. Home deliveries were made by von Ryan's Express Pizza; take-aways comprised the Pizza Escape; and those with extra, chilli-peppered toppings became Where Pizzas Dare. I seriously considered a concentration camp design for the retail outlets, but because the ovens might put some people off, I opted for an operations room scenario (bandit pizzas at two o'clock, kind of thing). I also suggested future diversification options into sandwiches – wolf pack submarines, naturally – and foreign cuisine. Careless tacos cost lives. I even offered a number of alternative advertising slogans: ‘Your pizza needs you’; ‘We shall eat them on the beaches’; ‘Never in the field of pizza baking has so much been sold, to so many, by so few … at only 45 pence a slice!’
When I went back to the agency on Monday morning, they were appalled. Truly appalled. The head honcho gave me a stern lecture about the need for preparatory market research, the preferences of consumers, the importance of marketing planning, budgeting, floorspace-to-sales ratios, customer throughput indices, the differing economics of cafeteria-style versus carry-out catering operations, the principles of targeting, positioning, outlet location and on and on and on. I think I even heard the word ‘Kotler’ for the first time, though maybe I've introjected it in retrospect. Suffice it to say, I was completely traumatized by this reaction. I now realize that it was done for my own good, to encourage me to study, to go to university, to get a proper grounding in marketing before trying again. But it didn't feel like that at the time.
I also now realize that the concept I came up with – juvenile though it was – is an example of retromarketing, as is this act of recalling and representing it. Retro, indeed, seems to be everywhere these days. Old-style [Page vi]styling is de rigueur in numerous product categories: motorcycles, coffee makers, cameras, radios, refrigerators, telephones, toasters, perfumes and promos for Pentium processors, to name but a few. Retro is apparent across the various components of the marketing mix, from pseudo-antique packaging and repro retail stores to on-line auctions, which represent a hi-tech throwback to pre modern pricing practices. In addition to the cyber-souk, the recent rapid rise of heritage centres, mega-brand museums and festival shopping malls suggests that retroscapes are taking their place in the marketing pantheon alongside brandscapes, servicescapes, mindscapes and more besides.4
Retro, however, is not confined to ‘mainstream’ marketing endeavour. As I write this preface, ABBA, Tom Jones and Santana – seventies icons one and all – dominate the popular music industry. Meanwhile, the soundtrack from Gladiator, a sword and sandals epic, is defeating all comers in the classical charts. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, a twenty-first-century take on Tom Brown's Schooldays, is Britain's best-selling hardback book; Angela's Ashes, Frank McCourt's memories of the good old, bad old days in 1930s Limerick, ranks high in the paper-back listings; Mission Impossible 2, a remake of a remake of a seventies television series, is packing them in at the multiplexes; The Thomas Crown Affair, Brosnan and Russo's update of McQueen and Dunaway's 1970 classic, occupies prime slot in the sell-through video market; Lara Croft's archaeological adventures in Tomb Raider II, the Final Conflict are leading the charge at the nation's Playstations; and, those classics of children's television, Pinky and Perky, Bill & Ben and The Woodentops, are all set for a merchandise-spinning return to our screens.
In Milan and Paris, moreover, this year's look is remarkable, not simply because it is retro (as it was last year and the year before that), but because it pick ‘n’ mixes several time periods at once. Seventh Avenue follows suit, as does the remainder of ‘Neo’ York. Kiss Me Kate is the Emmy-winning toast of Broadway; the nostalgia of Norman Rockwell and Walker Evans is on show in the art galleries of SoHo; Wall Street is wallowing in a dotcom bubble bath, while the ghost of panics past (class of 1929) prepares to pull the plug. On the other side of the Great Divide, Seattle is rocked by ‘68-style retro riots, groups of anti-capitalist protesters bound together by the Internet, as are down-town Davos and central London. Even the suburban sticks are not exempt, since south-east England's projected population growth is set to be met by the abandonment of mock-Tudor executive estates, with their faux-Victorian interiors, and the building of neo-Georgian terraces instead, complete with retro-stucco decorative detailing. Sixties-style regional planning, to be sure, is only to be expected from retro politicians, such as Tony I'm-Backing-Britain Blair, though he is not alone. Wild Bill Clinton rebuilt JFK's Camelot, concupiscence included; his putative successors squabble over the Reagan mantle; Jörg Haider brings [Page vii]a hint of National Socialism to Austria; Vladimir Putin is a cold war warrior of old; and, as rapidly escalating petrol prices testify, the Middle Eastern oil czars are doing a 1973 on the western world.
Retro, then, is all around. Retro religious beliefs abound, both new age and bible belt. Retro diseases, such as leprosy, malaria, polio and TB, are back with an anti-antibiotic vengeance. Retro feminists reclaim Barbie, Miss World and romantic fiction, whilst complaining of retro sexism in retro auto commercials. Retro traditions and identities are invented anew (e.g. the Ulster-Scots) and ancient rights of ethnic self-determination duly demanded. Retro consumerists are hijacking bill-boards, subverting advertising slogans and boycotting twenty-first-century sweatshop operators. Barter, we are told, is back. Dead celebrities hawk heritage brands. Shopping channels are postmodern medicine shows. Store loyalty cards are latter-day Green Shield stamps. Grocery retailers reintroduce home deliveries (postmodern equivalents of the boy on a bicycle), and good old-fashioned imperial measures (for those who haven't had sufficient time to come to terms with decimalization). Ford produces a special edition Ka, in ‘any colour as long as it's black’. Oil of Olay claims to combat the ‘seven signs of ageing’, a Rosser Reevesque slogan if ever there was one (he must be turning five ways in his grave). The for-mash-get-Smash Martians are reanimated in light of their high placing in a ‘Greatest Adverts of all Time’ opinion poll. The Onion, an American satirical magazine, reports that retromarketers are running out of pasts: retro rationing a possibility! The Guardian publishes a retro hit parade, where the seventies still top the charts, though the eighties are about to be re-released. Art Nouveau, evidently, is the next big thing – coming soon to bed linen, place mats and fridge magnets near you – just the way it was in the 1970s (as neo-Art Nouveau), the 1930s (as Art Deco) and the 1890s (as a revival of the Pre-Raphaelites' medieval revival). Maybe we should call it neo-neo-neo-neo-Art Nouveau. Or, Mart Nouveau, come to think of it.
Thirty years on from Alvin Toffler's Future Shock, it seems that we are not only living in a time of Retro Shock – retro schlock, rather – but retro retroism is also in fashion. That is to say, we are engaged in a reflexive retro debate about the roots of today's retro marketing revival.5 We are told, for example, that la mode retro was big in France during the 1970s; ten years later, nostalgia swept all before it in Japan; and Australia surfed the nostalgia tsunami in the decade just past. In Britain, the turning point came in 1985, when Levi's ‘Laundrette’ – a retro ad. for the company's classic 501s, featuring Nik Kamen's retro boxer shorts and Marvin Gaye's immortal ‘I Heard it Through the Grapevine’ – was broadcast for the first time and sent sales rocketing by 800%. In the United States, the epochal shift also occurred during the mid-1980s, largely on account of the New Coke débâcle. When the world's biggest brand was forced to bring back the original, the classic, the once and [Page viii]future Coke – and sell it with a retro message6 – it became clear that heritage was building up a head of steam. Fifteen years later, the retro loco is still clattering through the station, whilst new-and-improved marketers wait patiently at the crossroads, hoping it will pass.
In this regard, the pessimists amongst us might be inclined to conclude that today's retromarketing mindset is indicative of inertia, intellectual bankruptcy and the waning of creativity. Certainly, it is very much in keeping with marketing's so-called ‘mid life crisis’, a widespread sense that our subject has ground to a halt and is being bypassed by newer, sexier concepts.7 It is my belief, however, that the complete opposite is the case. Retro is a harbinger of revolutionary change, a long overdue return to the roots of the discipline, to a time before the ‘modern’ marketing paradigm held insidious, invidious sway. This argument will be elaborated as the present exercise unfolds, but for the meantime it is sufficient to refer, in suitably retro research fashion, to Karl Marx's Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Now, everyone is familiar with the essay's famous opening line, that history repeats itself, the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce, and its oft recycled aphorism about men who make history, ‘but not under circumstances of their own choosing’. The latter remark, however, is followed by the hirsute one's claim that:
The tradition of all the dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brain of the living. And just when they seem engaged in revolutionizing themselves and things, in creating something entirely new, precisely in such epochs of revolutionary crisis they anxiously conjure up the spirits of the past to their service and borrow from them names, battle slogans and costumes in order to present the new scene of world history in this time honoured disguise and this borrowed language. Thus Luther donned the mask of Apostle Paul, the Revolution of 1789 to 1814 draped itself alternately as the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and the Revolution of 1848 knew nothing better than to parody, in turn, 1789 and the revolutionary tradition of 1793 to 1795. In like manner, the beginner who has learnt a new language always translates it back into his mother tongue.8
This book, in a nutshell, is about the mother tongue of marketing. It is predicated on the simple premise that the future of marketing lies in its past. It contends that just as today's retromarketing practitioners are looking over their shoulders for inspiration, so too students, consultants and academics should seek to do likewise. It maintains that marketing's history contains practices, precepts and pointers that can help us plot a new, twenty-first-century course for our field. Lest there is any misunderstanding, however, it must be stressed that this book is not a how-to-do-it manual for prospective retromarketers, although historically minded managers might find some of it of interest. Nor does it claim to be encyclopaedic, though the text contains copious examples of [Page ix]retromarketing practices, principles, postulates and pursuits. Nor, for that matter, does the book pretend to be marketing à la mode, since its cutting-edge retro exemplars are sure to be superseded by the time this volume is published (albeit that should imbue them with an appropriately antiquated patina).
In keeping, rather, with its resolutely retro ethos, the present book consists of a root, a rummage, a riffle (who said ransack?) through the hidden records, dusty archives and secret files of the marketing discipline. It relies upon retro-research procedures of the pre-scientific era; principally, aphorism, anecdote, aside and autobiography, all wrapped up in extended essay format. As such, it comprises a kind of New Historicist hypertext,9 a past times grab-bag, where proper historical method is less important than improper historical accident, ‘fancy that’ and strange-but-true. It is written in retro rococo, the exaggerated, hyperbolic, totally over-the-top literary style that characterized marketing discourse before ‘scientific’ discretion dominated the discipline (for that reason alone, the book is best read in small doses). It is predominantly Anglo-American in emphasis, partly on account of my personal peregrinations in recent years, but mainly because of the basic, if curiously overlooked, fact that marketing is quintessentially American.10 (And don't let relationship marketers tell you otherwise.) It focuses on people – renowned practitioners of times past – rather than impersonal environmental or organizational forces, the escape clauses that have served marketers so well in the past (‘the environment changed’; ‘organizational barriers to implementation’ and so on). It tries to appeal to general readers, while providing nourishment for postmodern theorists (in the notes) and marketing students (pedagogic appendix) alike. It engages with most of the topics contained in mainstream marketing textbooks – concept, strategy, mix, etc. – but in a deliberately provocative and hopefully challenging manner. It aims to antagonize and entertain in equal measure. The intense irritation and occasional outrage you'll feel are deliberately induced. Well, that's my excuse and I'm sticking to it (until such times as I can think of a better one).
Above all, this book contends that there is an alternative to the ‘modern’ marketing concept, an alternative that has always been there but has been consistently ignored in marketing's headlong, headstrong, headless-chickenesque flight into the future. The future, as we shall see, is history and, if nothing else, retromarketing reminds us of Marshall McLuhan's mid-sixties truism, that it is sometimes necessary to look back in order to see ahead.11 Whether this academic imperative represents a Revolution, in the ‘capital letter’ sense of the word, is not for me to decide. What I can say, after Benjamin,12 is that ‘revolution’ originally carried commercial connotations. The word was coined by medieval furriers to describe the process of turning over and examining the underside of a pelt, prior to purchase. This book examines the [Page x]underside of modern marketing's moth-eaten hide and discovers that we have been preoccupied with the wrong side, the back side, the reverse side for fortysomething years. It is time, I firmly believe, to turn the pelt again, to shake marketing's magnificent mane and take pride in our brightly coloured covering.Is There a Taxidermist in the House?
However, as I look back on writing a book about looking back – the book that lies ahead of you – I appreciate that it couldn't have been composed without extensive back-up and unstinting encouragement. Rosemary Nixon of Sage supported this venture at every stage, as did her esteemed colleague Kiren Shoman. Thank you both. I'm also deeply indebted to Hope Schau (Temple University, Philadelphia) and Anthony Patterson (University of Ulster) who helped gather some of the retro raw material contained herein, though the innumerable stylistic infelicities are my own, my very own. Once again, Sharon Malcolm prepared the excellent diagrams, for which I am very grateful. Last but not least, I appreciate the (im)patience and (mis)understanding I've received from my wife, Linda, and daughters, Madison, Holly and Sophie, who suffered while I struggled to write in an academic yet accessible style. Maybe next time.August 2000
Rewriting Marketing: Pedagogic Appendix[Page 204]
‘Oh yeah, you're the postmodern guy. Tell me, how do you teach that stuff?’ You know, if I've heard that question once, I've heard it a thousand times. The funny thing is, however, I have never had a problem when I present ‘that stuff to students, be they post- or under-graduate. On the contrary, I find that they get it right away, that they know where I'm coming from, that ‘that stuff makes a semblance of sense to them. Now, I wouldn't for a moment claim to be more in touch with today's students than the scientifically minded marketing majority. It seems to me, nevertheless, that if we live in a postmodern world, as many maintain, then postmodern marketing perspectives may be more pertinent than the ‘modern’ paradigm that continues to hold sway in our field. If, moreover, contemporary marketing is characterized by a retrospective orientation, as the present book has sought to show, then the new-and-improved, onward-and-upward ethos that dominates traditional Kotlerite textbooks is completely out of kilter with twenty-first-century commercial practice.
As Marketing – The Retro Revolution has been written for a general audience – titter ye not! – I feel obliged to include some appropriately pedagogic material or approximations thereof. Instead of resorting to a carefully chosen collation of case studies (their narratological appeal notwithstanding), I'd like to reflect on the preceding eleven chapters, plus preface. Not only is this more in keeping with postmodern reflexivity, but it also gives me a chance to address some of the issues (deliberately) omitted from the foregoing essay. The hope, therefore, is that my reflexive ruminations might provide the starting point for class or seminar discussion. In this regard, please bear in mind that Marketing – The Retro Revolution is a fairly broad-brush treatment. I'm well aware that the topics I raise are more nuanced than the present volume pretends. I appreciate, furthermore, that there's a world of difference between the modern marketing paradigm, as it is ordinarily portrayed in BFBAMs, and how marketers behave on a day-to-day basis. APIC, [Page 205]nonetheless, is presented as the marketing ideal, the way marketing should be, the condition that marketing practice must aspire to. The aim of this book is to challenge the Kotlerite ideal and to posit an equally idealized replacement. TEASE, in other words, is a normative alternative to APIC and thus portrays marketing, not as it is, but as it ought to be.
To begin at the beginning, I suspect that the preface will have offended quite a few readers. The majority of these will doubtless be affronted by the thought of my air guitar antics (albeit the double-necked tennis racket was my actual adolescent axe of choice). But for those who persevered, the key academic issue is Americanization. My contention that marketing is quintessentially American is sure to be contested. We are regularly informed, are we not, that all sorts of marketing practices went on prior to the emergence of modern marketing in the Eisenhower era.1 Long, in fact, before the colonization of the United States of America. Josiah Wedgwood, the medieval guilds, the ancient Greeks, neolithic flint-knappers and the lapis lazuli tradespersons of pre-cuneiformed Mesopotamia, have all been plausibly posited as proto-marketing pioneers. Modern marketing, moreover, is not exclusively North American, as the Relationship Marketing paradigm (Scandinavia), the Postmodern Marketing paradigm (France), and several other nationally inflected variants remind us (British pragmatics, Irish poetics, German isolationism, Japanese indifference, etc.). Indeed, it can be convincingly contended that each and every organization possesses its own idiosyncratic marketing modality or, if one really wants to take it to the limit, that every individual commercial decision comprises a unique instantiation of marketing mores.
I'm not disputing either of these temporal (premodern marketing) or spatial (different Ps for different places) arguments. At the same time, however, I think there is something special about the Barnumesque marketing that emerged in the late nineteenth century and the customer-orientated paradigm that erupted in the post-war epoch. I suspect that most non-marketing people associate marketing with the United States of America.2 I believe that the sheer ubiquity of marketing nowadays has blinded us to the fact that it comes from America. Yes, marketing has become universalized, in much the same way as the movie industry is now Hollywoodized, fast food is McDonaldized, theme parks and heritage centres are Disneyfied and the soft drinks business is Coca-Colonized. Such is its omnipresence, that we even project it backwards in time in order to convince ourselves that marketing has always been with us and thus represents some kind of innate human trait. Personally, I very much doubt that Josiah Wedgwood considered himself a marketing man – the concept simply didn't exist – let alone our friendly neighbourhood flint-knapping Neanderthal. Indeed, even when allowances are made for academic anachronism and twenty-first-century ubiquity, I would submit that marketing still retains a distinctively American cast.
[Page 206]Discussion Questions. Can American marketing imperialism be stopped? Should it be stopped? What's the most effective way of stopping it? Why hasn't it been stopped before now?
Chapter 1 is an attempted tour d'horizon of retromarketing. It identifies three different types of retro, seeks to account for the recent retro outbreak and suggests that a retro stance can be taken on marketing theory and thought. Each of these assertions is debatable in itself (are there any other forms of retro? have important explanatory factors been omitted? is it legitimate to infer that the rise of retro has implications for marketing thought?). But the issue that I want to focus on is definitional. In Chapter 1, I avoid giving a definition of retromarketing, arguing that it is pointless.3 Now, I won't deny that an agreed definition of retro – like an agreed definition of ‘brands’, ‘internationalization’, ‘involvement’, ‘marketing’ etc. – would be convenient, but marketing's record in this area suggests that it's unlikely to happen, unless all manner of arbitrary decisions concerning retro/not-retro are imposed upon the material. Where, for example, does retro begin? The seventies, the sixties, the nineteenth century, the day before yesterday? How many parts of the marketing mix – assuming it is possible to agree on the make-up of the mix – must be included before the retro designation is officially bestowed on a product or service? Does a completely new product with ye-olde advertising count? What about ye-olde services with a contemporary promotional twist?
That said, I suspect most people see retro in decadal terms – the seventies, the fifties, the twenties, etc. – and, indeed, decadal temporal schemata are very popular in our field.4 Decades, to be sure, are somewhat arbitrary cultural constructs in themselves (when did the sixties really begin?) and are subject to the sorts of gross stereotyping we noted in our discussion of retroscapes in Chapter 8. What's more, they too come complete with definitional imponderables. How much of a ‘cooling off period is necessary before a decade is revivable? Are we ready for a nineties comeback, for yet another round of retro? Will the pick ‘n’ mix decade be back before we have finished picking it clean?
Discussion Questions. What is the function of marketing definitions? As none has ever been agreed upon, except on a short-term basis, why do we continue to pursue the definitional chimera? Is it purely a pragmatic matter or, as Foucault would have us believe, are there important political dimensions to inclusion and exclusion? Discuss the suggestion that there have been so many seventies revivals since the seventies that they have lasted longer than the original decade.
In Chapter 2, we returned to the primal scene of the ‘modern’ marketing paradigm. Theodore Levitt, to be sure, wasn't solely responsible for the [Page 207]post-war marketing revolution. The pioneering contributions of Drucker, Keith and McKitterick played an important part in the transformation, as many commentators have observed. One suspects, however, that the canonization of the latter three has more to do with marketing's desire to manufacture heroic antecedents – the rhetoric of mainstream texts requires a cadre of champions, great men, free thinkers and misunderstood geniuses – than with the impact their publications had at the time (Drucker's was a throw-away remark, for example, and McKitterick's paper appeared in an obscure volume of conference proceedings). The same cannot be said for ‘Marketing Myopia’, an award-winning paper that appeared in a highly regarded journal and proved controversial from the outset. It is surely no exaggeration to state that ‘Marketing Myopia’ was an intellectual watershed and, given its enduring influence, that a deconstructive critique is long overdue. Pulling a classic paper apart doesn't mean the end of marketing civilization as we know it, nor is it a traitorous act. Quite the opposite, in fact. It is only by reading against the grain and turning conventional wisdom on its head, as Levitt himself was wont to do, that we can better appreciate a classic's importance.
Aside from its close reading of a marketing classic, Chapter 2 makes a couple of debatable points. The first of these is that the 1950s was an anti-marketing decade, an era when marketers and advertisers were held in fairly low esteem. Although there is plenty of anecdotal evidence to this effect, there is no way of proving the point, or of categorically refuting it. In a situation where interpretation is all and the evidence is ambivalent, much depends on what the investigator seeks to find. Ambivalence, I believe, is the operative word here, because the standing of marketing is always somewhat ambivalent, a paradoxical combination of attraction and repulsion. With this in mind, it can be contended that an attraction-rejection dialectic exists, where marketing's social standing waxes and wanes with the passage of time. Certainly, it helps account for the situation in the 1920s, whereby Barton strove valiantly to render marketing respectable, and the latter-day plunge in marketing's esteem, on account of the vociferous critiques of the no-logo contingent.
A rhythmic reading is also relevant to the other main point at issue in Chapter 2. It was argued that Levitt's great achievement involved repositioning the consumer in marketing's cosmology. By situating the consumer at the centre of our conceptual universe, he effectively redefined what it means to be marketing orientated, what qualifies as marketing, the activities that warrant the appellation ‘marketing’. If it's not consumer-centric, then it's not marketing. QED. This is as close to a proper paradigm shift (in the Kuhnian sense) as a pre-paradigmatic discipline like marketing gets. However, it is important to appreciate that highly sophisticated marketing activities went on before Levitt's modern marketing revolution. What's more, the customer still figured [Page 208]prominently in this pre-Copernican epoch, albeit not at the centre, not as the point of departure, not as the supreme court of marketing appeal (pardon my mongrel metaphors). The issue, therefore, is where exactly does the consumer/customer stand relative to the marketing system? Purely for the purposes of discussion, I would submit that a cyclical process is again at work. In the inter-war era, as Marchand shows, marketers portrayed themselves as the consumer's partner, a dependable friend who could always be turned to for honest advice. They were equals, in other words, rather than the consumer-master/marketer-slave posture posited by Levitt. At the start of the twentieth century, however, marketing ruled the roost, marketers called the shots, a marketer-master/ consumer-slave situation obtained. Caveat emptor and si populus vult deciperi, decipatur (if the people want to be deceived, let them) were the marketing maxims of the time.5 The first half of the cycle, then, swings from marketing on top, through equal standing, to consumer on top. In the post ‘Marketing Myopia’ epoch, furthermore, we have witnessed a gradual reinstatement of consumer-marketer equality (most notably in the rapidly fading Relationship Marketing paradigm) and the closing of the circle at the very end of the century, when cries of ‘forget the customer’ and ‘ignore the customer’ are increasingly heard. Caveat emptor, once again, is our retro motto of choice.
Discussion Questions. Consider the Consumer Situation Cycle. Does it withstand close scrutiny? Identify the causes of the cycle, if any. What is its driving force? How does it relate to the waxing and waning of marketing's social standing?
The main matters arising in Chapter 3 are belief systems in general and magic in particular. The latter, to be sure, erupts at several points in the book, Chapter 6 especially, but it's best to consider it within the broader context of spirituality. Outsiders, neutral observers and the great marketing unwashed – that is, the precious few who have not been indoctrinated into the APIC mindset – cannot help but be struck by the prevalence of ‘magical’ appeals in marketing and advertising. Our critics, moreover, often employ magically inflected terms of derision: witch doctors, hocus pocus, jiggery pokery, mumbo jumbo and so forth. In fact, one of the most celebrated Marxist critiques of marketing, by Raymond Williams, memorably described it as ‘the magic system’.6 Yet marketers themselves are strangely reluctant to mention the M word in polite company and, although there are one or two published papers on magical marketing, the supernatural is conspicuous by its absence from mainstream marketing discourse. Why should this be?
Well, the obvious answer relates to the negative connotations that the term ‘magic’ conveys (from an academic marketing perspective, I hasten to add). For good or ill, magic is irredeemably associated with conjuring, [Page 209]card tricks, sleight of hand, sword-swallowing, sawing scantily clad assistants in half, top hats infested with doves, rabbits or silk scarves, and the applause-inducing abracadabras of Paul Daniels, David Copperfield, David Blaine and so on. Worse, the term is tainted with irrationality, anarchy, new ageism and the whole west coast, slightly flaky, bad acid, berry-eating, tree-hugging, Age of Aquarius, give peace a chance, remember (not remembering) the sixties, anti-marketing, anti-nomian, anti-authoritarian, alternative lifestyle thing.
Modern marketing, then, can't admit to being magical, because to do so automatically undermines what little credibility it has. And herein lies the real problem. It is this desperate desire to be taken seriously, to prove that we are fully paid up scientists – rigorous, objective, white-coated laboratory workers – that is the major cause of our discipline's low standing (fluctuations in esteem notwithstanding). If marketing really wants to raise its status, it should be boasting of its magical capability, alluding to its secret, customer-compelling powers (pace Packard), and dropping cryptic hints about ancient sources of commercial wisdom. The irony, indeed, is that magic contains a very rich corpus of concepts. There are several schools of magical thought, ranging from the pioneering mentalistic analyses of Taylor and Fraser, through functional, contextual, structuralist, psychoanalytical and semiotic perspectives, to the recent phenomenological account of magical experience persuasively posited by Glucklich.7 The nature, purpose and efficacy of magic have been much debated and it is variously considered to be a form of pre-scientific science, a force for group solidarity or something that ‘works’ by suggestion and/or PNI (psychoneuroimmunology). Nevertheless, the key point is that marketing is magic and our field would be much better off if we acknowledged the fact and got to grips – belatedly – with our natural conceptual constituency.
Discussion Questions. Assemble a selection of glossy magazines and examine the advertisements for ‘magical’ appeals or ‘supernatural’ treatments of any kind. Are such appeals fairly evenly spread or are some product-markets more magical than others? Can you account for this? Is the 4Ps, the ‘hey presto’ of marketing thought? Why, for that matter, should marketers believe anyone who doesn't believe in marketing?
Without question, P.T. Barnum is the personification of the present book. He epitomizes the spirit of TEASE. He is retromarketing incarnate. He is, in my humble opinion, the greatest marketing man who ever lived. So pervasive is the peerless Prince of Humbugs that the subtitle of this text should be ‘Six Degrees of P.T. Barnum’, though three degrees is closer to the mark. Almost everyone mentioned herein is connected in some way to the great showman: William James and his brother's childhood visits to the American Museum; L. Frank Baum being taken [Page 210]to see the Cardiff Giant; Sequah as an alumnus of Kickapoo, Healy and Bigelow's homage to the humbugger in chief. Even Joe Camel, American Tobacco's timeless trade character, was based on one of Barnum and Bailey's bactrians. Barnum, what is more, went buffalo hunting with General George Custer, attended the gala performance of Oscar Wilde's American tour, planned to write a book with Mark Twain and actually has an (appropriately ostentatious) typeface named after him.
Barnum, in many ways, transcends discussion, but his story is pertinent to an egregious absence from the present book; namely, the fourth P of price. My critics will doubtless take me to task for failing to examine pricing considerations. There is, as I point out in a couple of places, a retro dimension to contemporary pricing behaviours. Internet auctions, web-based buying groups, cyberhaggling and suchlike are undoubtedly a throwback to the bazaar, the forum, the agora. The Cluetrain Manifesto in particular makes much of this analogy.8 However, I chose not to give pricing a chapter to itself.And Why?
Because I don't believe that pricing is a marketing matter. It doesn't form part of the TEASE framework. Once again, I would stress that this does not mean pricing is unimportant or that it can be safely ignored. As with environmental considerations and customer preferences, pricing still registers on the corporate radar and emits a very strong signal. But the problem with pricing under the APIC paradigm is that it features too strongly, it looms too large. The inevitable upshot is that marketers spend much of their time justifying advertising expenditure, measuring marketing's contribution or calculating brand equity to the n-th degree. There's nothing wrong with that, but it is not marketing. Marketers have become penny wise and pound foolish. They are, as Barnum observes in his ‘money getting’ lecture, saving at the spigot and wasting at the bung-hole.9 It is impossible, according to the great showman, to spend too much on marketing. False economy in marketing matters is much worse than excess expenditure. Marketing is inherently excessive, or it was when Barnum ruled the waves.
Discussion Questions. If, as Barnum suggests, there's one born every minute, why should marketers bother with customer care? Is, however, Barnumarketing past its sell-by date? Who are the Barnums of our time? Richard Branson? Max Clifford:? Damien Hirst? Anita Roddick? Tom Peters? Examine their achievements in Barnumesque terms.
Barnum may have been retromarketing incarnate and his autobiography, Struggles and Triumphs, was one of the most widely read books of the nineteenth century (second only to the Bible, according to many [Page 211]literary authorities). But the admittedly inspirational story of his life is of little practical use to aspiring marketeasers, those who intend to implement the TEASE framework. A how-to-do-it text is sorely needed and, fortunately, one is ready to hand. It was written by ‘Professor’ Harry Helms, the mentor of Harry Reichenbach, who figured prominently in Chapter 5. Entitled Schemes and Tricks, it comprises an inventory of ‘how to’ marketing maxims, suggestions and anecdotes. In short, a sort of High Visibility-cum-Marketing the Arts for premodern managers and aspirant impresarios.10
According to this Philip Kotler of the Progressive Era, promotion is of paramount importance and every opportunity should be taken to advertise one's wares. Thus, ‘Shipping tags make a good ad. Have your attraction printed on same, tie a string through the hole and you can tie them on any old thing.’ Or, ‘If you got a dog, put a lettered blanket on him. Advertise your business on the blanket.’ Product development is no less noteworthy and a constant stream of new ideas is vital, especially if the show lingers for more than a few days in lucrative localities. To this end, the learned one lists various NPD possibilities including ‘how to start a carnival geek show’, ‘how to make turkeys dance’ (put them on a heated iron floor) and ‘the barbed-wire fence sale’ (an early version of the infamous aluminium siding schemes of the 1950s). Place, likewise, needs careful thought, both at the micro and macro levels. The best location, apparently, is adjacent to a saloon, which generates additional spin-off trade and thereby benefits both businesses, though the precise site is less significant than the territory itself. Prior market research to ‘find out what class of people live in the neighbourhood’ is the key to success, as is the characteristic ethnic mix, since ‘Germans, Bohemians, Polish and Swedes are the best medicine buyers’. Price, however, is not particularly salient, as the purpose of the show is to sell patent medicine rather than make a profit on the door. In this regard, the professor recommended a counter-skimming policy. The first performance should be completely free, the second one paid, but with reduced charges for children, and subsequent shows progressively more expensive, culminating in the grand finale, where free gifts are distributed, prizewinners rewarded and, naturally, top dollar paid by nostrum-hungry hypochondriacs.
Important though the 4Ps were, therapeutic promises were the raison d'être of the operation and Helms recommended majoring on the medicines' magical properties. His product line included Wonder Working Blood Purifier, Mystic Cough Medicine, Spirit-Oil Liniment, Necromantic Salve, Magic Tooth Powder and Wizard's Soap. Although such supernatural items were easily obtained – ‘go to any wholesale drug house and they will put the goods up for you’ – it was imperative to present them in a suitably spiritual manner. This involved standard occult sales ploys ranging from simple sleight of hand, through illusions and mind reading, to a full spirit-cabinet act, all judiciously interlarded [Page 212]with pitches for the magic potions. ‘The whole point,’ Professor Helms judiciously observes, ‘is to press on their minds that your remedies have the same mysterious powers as you have while performing your tricks.’ As with many scholars, the good professor was stronger on marketing theory than marketing practice. Schemes and Tricks didn't sell particularly well, possibly because he couldn't quite decide on a recommended retail price (it is variously listed at $1, 50 cents and a quarter). And so, in a desperate attempt to increase sales, he resorted to offering free gifts with every purchase. These included a ‘complete system of hypnotism’, ‘sweet sixteen love perfume, greatly admired by the ladies’ and ‘the greatest tape worm secret in the world, guaranteed to remove worm with head and all’.You Don't Get That from Kotler.
Discussion Questions. Take a selection of introductory marketing textbooks and treat them as a literary genre. What are the principal components of the principles package? What, if anything, is excluded? Examine the ‘environment’ chapter in detail and identify any differences in coverage. Itemize the key environmental influences on the market for marketing texts.
Chapter 6 comprises the mid-point of the book and, in many ways, it represents the most ambitious and least successful essay in Marketing – The Retro Revolution. On the one hand, it attempts a form of cultural criticism, inasmuch as it adopts an unusually catholic interpretation of the ‘boxes’ concept. It thus places a strategic marketing commonplace within a much wider context. On the other hand, any such exercise is doomed to failure, since the subject of boxes is so vast that it can't possibly be captured in such an overview. The textual receptacle that is Chapter 6 is unable to contain the phenomena it claims to accommodate. It is thus certain to be dismissed as trite and superficial. There is no mention, for example, of boxes in the sphere of games and sport. One immediately thinks of penalty boxes, boxing rings, cricket squares, tennis courts, bowling greens (to say nothing of players' protective ‘boxes’), chessboards, checkers, crosswords and board games generally. Warfare, what is more, is replete with defensive squares, box formations, strategic grids, square-bashing, cross-fire patterns, enfilades and all the rest. The same is true of the quack medicine business, described in Chapter 5, which is stuffed with therapeutic black boxes of one kind or another.11 Such is the wealth of receptacles, in short, that breaking out of the box of marketing representations is a strategic mistake, a classic case of opening the proverbial can of conceptual worms. This in itself, however, contains an important lesson for marketing, in that it parallels the broadening debate of the 1960s. As everyone knows, the upshot of this [Page 213]controversy was that marketing was deemed applicable to just about everything – every organization, every situation, every domain, every person. Marketing is the be all and end all. Superficiality is the inevitable consequence, as is the disdain of the specialists in the spheres it happily tramples over. Indeed, it can be contended that marketing's preoccupation with matrices, boxes and grid squares is a direct consequence of its universalist ambitions. As Susan Stewart observes in On Longing, her superb study of collections, the basic problem faced by many collectors is that their chosen field – postcards, porcelain, pewter, Picasso – is so enormous that the task is impossible. Accordingly, this threat of infinity is counterbalanced by the articulation or imposition of boundaries. It is this need for containment, Stewart suggests, that explains the popularity of ‘collecting objects that are themselves containers: cruets, pitchers, salt-and-pepper shakers, vases, teapots, and boxes, to name a few’.12 Marketing's fondness for matrices, in short, represents an unconscious attempt to impose control on the infinite of commercial life.
There is, however, an important caveat. The matrices that marketers usually engage with are two-dimensional, whereas the boxes brought into our discussion from the wider cultural sphere are predominantly three-dimensional. The surprise and secrecy that Chapter 6 champions are a consequence of this third dimension and, hence, a defender of the APIC faith might reasonably contend that it is unfair to criticize marketing's strategic squares on these grounds. Although this defender of the faith argument is eminently plausible, it doesn't withstand close scrutiny. Many of the boxes in the wider cultural sphere – on television, on film, in books, in fairy stories – are themselves two-dimensional. Their intrigue arises from the storyteller's art, the author's ability to make us believe the unbelievable, to suspend our disbelief, à la Coleridge. The problem with strategic marketing matrices doesn't lie with the matrix as a mode of representation. It rests with the box-builder's inability to arouse our curiosity, to tickle our fancy. It is a failure of imagination, not illustration.
Discussion Questions. If marketing's matrix mania is a consequence of the late 1960s decision to broaden its domain, then the textbooks of the pre-broadening era should be devoid of grid squares. Compare a main-stream textbook of the mid-1960s with one of today – first and current editions of Kotler are ideal – and calculate the proportion of squares in each (relative to all illustrations). Examine editions from intervening decades to see if there is any evidence of a secular trend. What factors might account for the rise in boxology?
In 1835, Hans Christian Andersen published a pamphlet, Eventyr, fortalte for Born, containing his first four fairy stories, one of which was ‘The Princess on the Pea’. As children of all ages know, this tells the tale [Page 214]of a scientific test, designed to verify the truth claims of the nobility, princesses in particular. A single pea is placed under twenty mattresses, on top of which are piled a further twenty feather beds. Impostors invariably spend a comfortable night, luxuriating in the mountain of bedding. But such is the sensitivity of true princesses that they complain of an irritant, something hard under the bedclothes disturbing their peaceful repose.13
It is a moot point whether marketing is a blue blood of the academy (and scientific truth is established by slightly different procedures these days), but there is no doubt that our discipline's dogmatic slumber is being disrupted by an errant P. That P is Planning. For more than a generation, planning has been regarded as the bedrock of modern marketing, the hard core of the Kotlerite concept, the P in APIC, no less. In recent years, however, it has been subject to mounting criticism and, while planning is still widely practised, it is more like a meaningless, if well-meaning ritual than a forecast of meaningful marketing possibilities. Marketing planning is a magical rite for managers. And there's nothing wrong with that.
The principal problem with marketing planning is not that it's a magical rite but that planners refuse to acknowledge its magical qualities. Planners persist in believing that plans are of paramount importance and, while their conviction is touching (indeed, necessary, as noted in Chapter 3), wishing will not make marketing plans rigorous, rational, reliable or robust. It is only in fairy stories that wishes come true, frogs turn into princes, pigs can fly, sows' ears make silk purses and marketing plans come to fruition exactly as anticipated. Fairy stories, in fact, are what marketing plans really are and, again, there's nothing wrong with that. As Chapter 7 argues, marketing planners are in the tale-telling business, the happily-ever-after business, the somewhere-over-the-rainbow business, the L. Frank Baum business.
To be sure, the writers of marketing texts are also in the tale-telling business, after a fashion. Chapter 7, for example, comprises a simple morality tale, where an unfortunate situation (marketing plans are pointless) is made better (planners should become storytellers) and everyone lives happily after (sort of). Marketing – The Retro Revolution, incidentally, is also based on an overarching narrative structure …
Discussion Questions. Work out the underpinning structure of Marketing – The Retro Revolution. Hint: concentrate on the principal protagonist of each chapter. Extra Hint: the original protagonist of Chapter 5 was Anton Mesmer, not Sequah; the first draft of Chapter 7 used Hans Christian Andersen as the storytelling exemplar; and Chapter 8 once contained a lengthy section on Karl Marx, marketing man. A free coconut to the first person who can tell me what the structure is (someone enlighten me, please!).
[Page 215]Suspense, so they say, is the secret of successful storytelling. In an attempt to add an element of surprise to Chapter 8, I suggested that marketing is inherently spatial and chose not to develop the argument. The more cynical amongst you may conclude that it's a bit much to condemn mainstream marketing for ignoring place and then proceed to ignore it myself. But, hey, that's TEASE for you! And anyway, the spatial side of marketing is a recurring theme throughout the book. In the preface I contend that marketing is quintessentially American; the focus of Chapter 5 is the itinerant medicine show; and at various points I intimate that marketing is not merely American tout court, but primarily a Yankee phenomenon, a child of New England and the north-eastern United States generally. The boasting, barking, bunkum and ballyhoo that is considered characteristic of marketing (by the general public, as opposed to sophisticated scholars like ourselves) was propagated, polished, perfected and popularized by pedlars, picaroons and patent medicine purveyors of predominantly Puritan descent. It is surely no accident that many of the pioneers of puffery described in this book – Barton, Barnum, Baum, etc. – hail from the north-east corner of the American continent. Or is it?
While you're thinking about that one, let me put another spatial possibility to you. If the premodern marketing of Barnumesque stripe is a child of New England, then the modern marketing paradigm of the post-war era is pre-eminently suburban. At this remove in time, it is easy to forget that the rise of modern marketing, and the very rapid crystallization of its key constructs, coincided with the burgeoning of the ‘burbs. Between 1950 and 1970, the suburban population of the United States grew from 35 million to 84 million people, a 144% increase.14 It was in this era, moreover, that many of the delivery mechanisms of modern marketing – television, shopping centres, supermarkets, interstate highway, fast food restaurants – came to the fore and much of marketing's early post-war energy was devoted to what could be considered ‘suburban’ product categories: cars, furnishings, kitchen equipment, washing powder, pet food, toys, yard goods and the like. True, the Ozzie-and-Harriet, Leave-it-to-Beaver, wife-dog-and-2.4-children stereotype may be somewhat at odds with the parochial, xenophobic, A-bomb-anxiety-ridden actualité of the 1950s. Likewise, metropolitan opinion leaders' disdain for suburbia, and all that it stands for, tends to obscure the Utopian impulse that stimulated this ex-urban exodus in the first place. Nevertheless, the whole fifties, Formica, tailfins, happy families era is now widely regarded as America's golden age, a time of picket-fenced, barbecue-pitted, chrome-plated perfection, when pre-PC, pre-feminist and pre-multicultural mores held sway. It is entirely appropriate, is it not, that the prime mover of suburbanization was called Levitt. In 1946, the Levitt brothers Bill and Alfred built the first of their vast housing estates, later immortalized in the Pete Seeger song, ‘Little [Page 216]Boxes’, and although the brothers' later developments included variations on the original, 800 square foot, four-room, Cape Cod design, Levittowns were the absolute epitome of the mass-production, mass-marketing, mass-consumption mindset. In many ways, they are the perfect metaphor for modern marketing: bland, boring, boxy, banal, ubiquitous, uninspiring and, while not unappealing in a pink flamingo, family-station-wagon, three ducks on the wall kind of way, they are hopelessly stereotyped, egregiously kitsch, irredeemably ersatz.
Discussion Questions. Is marketing the retroscape of scholarship? To what extent does marketing come from the wrong side of the tracks and is this the reason that the better class of scholar – sociologists, anthropologists and historians who study consumption, for example – consistently ignore the work of business school types? Account, if you can, for marketing's roots in the north-eastern United States.
In Chapter 9, Musa was mooted as a metaphor for the marketing brand. Our specialism, according to some, is entering the decline stage of its product life cycle and the banana was held up as a symbol of both its present parlous state and carnivalesque hope for the future. Certainly, the banana/marketing parallels are striking and nowhere is this better illustrated than in their mutual retro bent. The present book contains numerous examples of retromarketing in action, but the banana's retro credentials need to be confirmed (just in case you reckon I'm bluffing).
In this regard, one immediately thinks of the recent rise in retro cuisine, the kitsch dishes of the past that are eaten ironically (Prawn Cocktail? Black Forest Gâteau? Chicken Maryland? Love those deep fried bananas!). Equally evocative are the EU's proposals to dispose of the banana surplus by distributing them free to schoolkids, like the eleven o'clock milk-breaks of yore. What's more, Marks & Spencer's policy of selling mini-bananas – perfect for kiddies' lunch boxes – represents a retailing throwback to the early days of the trade, when Musas were much smaller than they are at present. The same is true of grocery superstores' growing penchant for exotic, high-profit-margin, para-Lacatanian varieties of sapientum, such as the Hawaiian Red, Blue Java, Praying Hands and Rhino Horn. Sainsbury's analogous acquisition of an entire Caribbean island, to grow organic bananas, is tantamount to retro colonialism, as protesters have already made clear.
Indeed, it seems to me that Sainsbury's actions are indicative of perhaps the most profound parallel between the prodigious plantain and the marketing ‘product’. Namely, the political dimension. Bananas look innocent enough in the supermarket or on the kitchen table. Yet hiding behind the hands is a labyrinthine political system that makes the Stasi look like bungling amateurs. The recent banana trade war between the EU and the USA was ostensibly fought on behalf of indigent producers [Page 217]in Central America and former colonial protectorates seeking access to ring-fenced European markets. In practice it had just as much to do with presidential pork-barrelling – the United Fruit Company was one of Clinton's biggest backers – and the market power of big banana companies than the problems of banana producers in the developing world. One doesn't need to dig up the CIA-backed Guatemalan coup of 1954, engineered by marketing spin-meister nonpareil Edward L. Bernays, to know that Musas are just about as political as they come.15 Marketing too looks innocent enough in the corporate fruit bowl. Proponents present it as neutral, as normal, as natural, as a reasonably honest reflection of consumer preferences, competitive strategies and the general state of the market. An unbiased stance on how things really are. Although this particular perspective is regurgitated in almost every mainstream marketing textbook, it is utterly preposterous. Marketing is inherently, incorrigibly, irredeemably political, all the way from the intra-organizational politics of marketing planning to the training programmes of marketing's professional bodies. McDonaldized marketing may seek to sell innocence, but the marketing product is anything but. This is exemplified by the recent round of anti-capitalist protests – Seattle, London, Davos, Prague – which invariably culminate in ritualistic trashing of McDonald's. The interesting thing is that these protests are a consequence of customer orientation. For decades, marketers have been telling their customers that the customer is king and, now that customers are exercising their marketer-given rights, marketers are in no position to complain. By presenting themselves as caring, sharing, customer-orientated organizations (rather than, say, profit orientated) and having betrayed consumer confidence (by means of third world exploitation) marketers have created a rod for their own backs. It is striking, is it not, that the anti-capitalist protests are conducted in a carnivalesque manner, the rambunctious side of marketing that was abandoned by the APIC, customer-orientated paradigm of the 1960s. The protesters aren't opposed to marketing as such, they are opposed to the hypocritical, hug-a-customer marketing of the ‘modern’ era.
Discussion Questions. There has been much talk of political marketing – the application of marketing principles to political parties – but much less consideration of marketing politics, the political side of marketing practice. Itemize the intra-organizational (marketing trumps accounts) and international (marketing as a front for Americanization) aspects of marketing politics and apply your insights to the consumer (pester-power) and cerebral (politics of publications) spheres. To what extent is the TEASE framework political?
My father was a welder and I'm a welder too. Except that, in keeping with academics' status as the proletariat of post-industrial society, I weld [Page 218]together tissues of texts instead of sheets of metal. As much as anything else, this book is about other books. Many of the chapters take publications as their point of departure, whether they be much-loved classics like Baum's Wizard of Oz and Levitt's ‘Marketing Myopia’, or best-selling tracts like Barton's The Man Nobody Knows and Packard's Hidden Persuaders, or, indeed, commercial detritus like the Innovations catalogue and Fyffes' sticky blue labels. Most importantly perhaps, Marketing – The Retro Revolution has been written to counterbalance traditional marketing textbooks. It does not attempt to complement the modern marketing paradigm. It offers an alternative to APIC. It is a counter-Kotler critique. It hopes to depose the model of marketing that has dominated our field for fortysomething years and replace it with TEASE-based marketing principles.
Regardless of its revolutionary aspirations, the present text is primarily a work of literary criticism and the methods it has employed are appropriately literary. Despite appearances to the contrary, Marketing – The Retro Revolution is not an historical investigation, nor does it pretend to be. This book, rather, adopts and adapts the research methods of the New Historicists, a leading school of contemporary literary criticism. Although there are several versions of New Historicism, they are all characterized by a belief in the essential textuality of historical knowledge; by fondness for historical accidents, incongruous juxtapositions, speculative inversions, telling anecdotes and flights of historical fancy; and by a discursive mode of discourse that eschews detailed textual analysis for narrative sweep and judicious digressions. Above all, however, the New Historicists refuse to privilege any single data source. Playbills, chapbooks, adverts and analogous textual ephemera are considered just as insightful as the traditional literary canon (hence the eclectic mix of sources in the present text).16
New Historicism, to be sure, is one among many latter-day schools of literary theory, almost all of which are applicable to marketing ‘texts’, broadly defined. It is no exaggeration to state that the entire contents of the present volume could be ‘read’ in a radically different manner, depending on the theoretical stance adopted. This point is perfectly illustrated in Chapter 10, where revolting aspects of twenty-first-century advertising are interpreted as a revival of Barnumesque freak shows and the grotesque tradition within western art. Although such retro readings are in keeping with New Historicist method, there are other ways to look at it. From a psychoanalytical perspective, it could be contended that contemporary gross-out advertising illustrates the ‘anxiety of effluence’. Just as aspirant poets are weighed down with the weight of prior aesthetic achievements and are driven by an Oedipal desire to supersede their literary forebears, so too today's band of offensive advertisers are beset by the saprogenic accomplishments of the promotional piss artists of times past, P.T. Barnum in particular. Indeed, it seems to me that [Page 219]marketing per se is stricken by the ‘anxiety of impudence’. The low esteem in which it has traditionally been held has forced the field to overcompensate for its purported transgressions. Hence, the post-war emphasis on science, measurement, probity, professionalism, trust, rectitude and what have you. The upshot is that marketing's innate insouciance, irreverence and downright indecency have been obliterated by do-gooding, well-meaning, customer-stroking, nothing-if-not-nauseating inoffensiveness.I'm Backing Barnum.
Discussion Questions. Is advertising vulgar? Should advertising aspire to vulgarity? Are advertisers ashamed of their vulgar heritage? If vulgarity is good enough for Rabelais, Cervantes, Swift, Sterne, Dickens, Wilde, Joyce and Boccaccio, to name but a few, why should advertisers worry about propriety? Indeed, if marketing is customer orientated, as Kotler contends, what have marketers to gain from disgusting their customers?
Inoffensiveness may have mainstream marketing in its vice-like grip, but vice-lite litters the contemporary commercial landscape. As the advent of gross-out advertising attests, our field is witnessing the return of the marketing repressed. Retro regression therapy is called for and, in the final chapter, a tantalizing, titillating, titivating alternative is posited. Summarized in the acronym TEASE, this replaces abjection with flirtation, prefers scurrility to sincerity, recommends ribaldry rather than rigour and elevates exaggeration over exactitude. It maintains that Marketing is a Trickster, marketing is Excessive, Marketing is Adolescent, Marketing is Spirited, marketing is Entertaining. Marketing is something for nothing. Marketing is more than your money's worth. Marketing is never knowingly understated. Marketing is magic realism for managers.
Some readers, admittedly, might conclude that TEASE is an add-on, an aspect of marketing that can be accommodated within the existing APIC paradigm. Surely, they'll surmise, it is just another version of the old argument that marketing is artistic, marketing is creative, marketing is right-brained. Everyone knows that already and, while it is necessary to be reminded of the fact from time to time, there's no need to make a song and dance about it, let alone a paradigm shift. Although I can appreciate why many might lean towards such an interpretation (enough already, no threat, business as usual) and although I recognize that readers' readings are beyond authorial control (as latter-day literary theory reminds us), I'd like to stress the radical alterity that TEASE represents.
Perhaps the best way to appreciate its implications is to refer to the so-called ‘broadening’ debate, mentioned earlier. Thirty years ago, Kotler and Levy extended the customer-oriented APIC paradigm far [Page 220]beyond its for-profit focus and, in so doing, effectively transformed it into a universal verity, applicable in all circumstances, to all phenomena, at all times.17 True, some scholarly Cassandras warned of adverse long-term consequences, but the Kotler–Levy marketing philosophy carried the day and has since been applied to every conceivable domain, from continents to celebrities.
If the Kotler–Levy protocols are the equivalent of marketing's Big Bang, TEASE comprises the Big Crunch. It is not something that is sprinkled on top of APIC, irrespective of the setting. It is a replacement for APIC. It insists that the term ‘marketing’ be reserved for teasing activities, and teasing activities alone. Marketing is the something special, the hyperbolic hoopla, the charismatic catalyst that is added to commercial situations, be they advertising campaigns, new product launches, sales promotion incentives or hold-the-front-page publicity stunts. And that is all it is. Customers, according to the TEASE framework, are not marketing's concern, nor are profits, nor are prices, nor is planning, nor is strategy, nor is the environment, nor is research, nor is anything else that is conventionally considered to be marketing's ‘property’. To repeat, this does not mean that market research, or customer care or profit margins or corporate strategies are unimportant. Quite the opposite. It simply means that they no longer qualify as marketing. APIC activities can still go on. Indeed, it is imperative that they do. But let's not pretend that in performing these activities we are ‘doing’ marketing. Marketing starts where APIC stops.
Discussion Questions. Unlike APIC, TEASE is very unevenly spread throughout marketing at present. Certain advertising campaigns and promotional stunts exhibit expertease but other areas are bereft. Identify the prime movers of TEASE – practitioners, professionals, philosophers, pedagogues – and discuss whether it is applicable to every marketing situation.
Reciting Marketing: Notes and References[Page 221]
1. Pathetic, I know, but at least I'm not alone. In the course of his travels-through-darkest-England, journalist Nik Cohn discusses the case of Les, another (equally sad) advertising wannabe, who worked on all sorts of imaginary campaigns before Her Majesty's Pleasure intervened (Yes We Have No, London, Secker and Warburg, 1999, p. 37).
2. Naturally, I was hoping for a tie-in double album, Tales from Topographic Bananas, emblazoned with Roger Dean artwork and a gatefold sleeve. Ah, the innocence of the pre-punk epoch!
3. In retrospect, I realize that I should have approached an ad agency, rather than a market research company, but then I've never been the sharpest suit in the marketing wardrobe.
4. Copious examples of today's retromarketing mindset are contained in, K. Naughton and B. Vlasic, ‘The nostalgia boom’, Business Week, 23 March, 1998, pp. 58–64; B. Menkamp, ‘Boomerang branding’, Brandweek, 10 November 1997, pp. 24–26, 31–36; D. Redhead, Products of Our Time, Basel, Birkhauser, 2000; R. Seymour, ‘The 90s: erase and unwind’, The Best of British: 1960–1999, Four Decades of Design, Manchester, The Observer, 1999, pp. 22–30.
5. See for example: R. Samuel, Theatres of Memory Volume I: Past and Present in Contemporary Culture, London, Verso, 1994; B.B. Stern, ‘Historical and personal nostalgia in advertising text: the fin de siècle effect’, Journal of Advertising, 21 (4), 1992, pp. 11–22; M.B. Holbrook and R.M. Schindler, ‘Market segmentation based on age and attitude toward the past: concepts, methods and findings concerning nostalgic influences on consumer tastes’, Journal of Business Research, 37 (1), 1996, pp. 27–39; R. Tredre, ‘The shock of the old’, The Observer Life, Sunday 24 October, 1993, pp. 24–25.
6. Always! Check out that typography on the can. It looks as though it's just been torn from the return carriage of a battered Remington.
7. The debate is summarized in S. Brown, ‘Life begins at 40? Further thoughts on marketing's mid-life crisis’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 13 (1), 1995, pp 4–17. However, if there is one thing that symbolizes this loss of intellectual confidence, it is the Special Millennium Edition of Kotler's Marketing Management. Its principal selling point – I kid you not – is that it has ‘fewer pages’ than previous versions!
[Page 222]8. K. Marx, ‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte’, in The Marx-Engels Reader, Second Edition, edited by R.C. Tucker, New York, Norton, 1978 , pp. 594–617.
9. Although for many marketing and consumer researchers, ‘historicism’ remains a dirty word – thanks to Karl Popper's forty-year-old polemic – the fact of the matter is that New Historicism has taken over from Deconstruction as the cutting edge of the liberal arts. The methodology employed in the present text is loosely New Historicist, insofar as it focuses on marginalia, ephemera and intriguing historical accidents, rather than traditional canonical texts. The marketing canon is not ignored, of course, but it is examined from an unusual and hopefully interesting angle. Excellent overviews of New Historicism are available in J. Brannigan, New Historicism and Cultural Materialism, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1998; P. Hamilton, Historicism, London, Routledge, 1997; and C. Gallagher and S. Greenblatt, Practicing New Historicism, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2000.
10. This is discussed in detail by R.R. Locke, The Collapse of the American Management Mystique, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996; S. Furusten, Popular Management Books, London, Routledge, 1999; and M. Kipping and O. Bjarnar (eds), The Americanisation of European Business: The Marshall Plan and the Transfer of US Management Models, London, Routledge, 1998. Popular versions of the Americanization argument are available in: R. Reeves, ‘Your country needs US’, The Observer, Sunday 23 January, 2000, p. 18; S. Marling and G. Kittel, American Affair: The Americanisation of Britain, London, Boxtree, 1993; M. Prowse, ‘Consumption, consumption, consumption’, The Financial Times Weekend, Saturday 16 September, 2000, p. xxiv.
11. In keeping with retrospective precept, 1960s media guru Marshall McLuhan is also back in intellectual fashion (see P. Benedetti and N. DeHart, Forward Through the Rearview Mirror: Reflections on and by Marshall McLuhan, Scarborough, Prentice-Hall, 1997).
12. I'll be considering Walter Benjamin in due course. In the Passagen-Werk, he notes that la revolution had come to mean ‘clearance sale’ by the mid-nineteenth century (S. Buck-Morss, The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1991, p. 284).
1. H. Pearman, ‘Curiouser and curiouser’, The Sunday Times, Culture, 16 May, 1999, pp. 14–15.
2. Anon., ‘Aroma therapy’, Marketing Week, 8 April, 1999, pp. 28–29; L. Killgren, ‘Joe Lyons makes comeback’, Marketing Week, 17 June, 1999, p. 5; P. Haynes, ‘Nostalgia’, Forbes, 26 January, 1998, p. 47.
3. J. Carnter-Morley, ‘Showing their age’, The Guardian, Style 2, Friday 25 June, 1999, pp. 10–11.
4. P. Buxton, ‘C-T begins £10m XXXX relaunch’, Marketing Week, 1 July, 1999, p. 6.
5. T. Blanchard, ‘Natural Habitat’, The Observer Magazine, Sunday 13 June, 1999, pp. 16–21.
6. A. Patterson, S. Brown, L. Stevens and P. Maclaran, ‘Casting a critical “I” over Caffrey's Irish Ale: soft words, strongly spoken’, Journal of Marketing Management, 14 (7), 1998, pp. 733–748; L. Stevens, S. Brown and P. Maclaran, ‘Through the past darkly: the case of Caffrey's Irish Ale’, in C. Gilligan (ed.), Proceedings of the 1998 Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing, Sheffield, Sheffield Business School, 1998, pp. 494–499.
7. B. Gannaway, ‘Back to the future’, The Grocer, 10 October, 1998, pp. 36–39; R. Stodghill, ‘VW's new Bug: cute but …’, Time, 19 January, 1998, pp. 44–46; A. Mitchell, ‘Retrospective branding’, in M. Evans and L. Moutinho (eds), Contemporary Issues in Marketing, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1999, pp. 90–91.
8. S.L. Holack and W.J. Havlina, ‘Nostalgia: an exploratory study of themes and [Page 223]emotions in the nostalgic experience’, in J.F. Sherry and B. Sternthal (eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. XIX, Provo, UT, Association for Consumer Research, 1992, pp. 380–387; M.B. Holbrook and R.M. Schindler, op. cit.; B.B. Stern, op. cit.; R. Goldman and S. Papson, Sign Wars: The Cluttered Landscape of Advertising, New York, Guilford, 1996; J. Hannigan, Fantasy City: Pleasure and Profit in the Postmodern Metropolis, London, Routledge, 1998; S. Tannock, ‘Nostalgia critique’, Cultural Studies, 9 (3), 1995, pp. 453–464.
9. Granted, an agreed definition of ‘retro’ (like an agreed definition of ‘brands’, ‘internationalization’, ‘involvement’, ‘marketing’, etc.) would be convenient, but marketing's record in this area suggests that it's unlikely to happen, unless all manner of absurdly arbitrary decisions concerning retro/not-retro are imposed upon the phenomenon.
10. Past Times, Past Times Company History, Oxford, Historical Collections Group PLC, 1998.
11. P. Haynes, op. cit., p. 47.
12. D. Hillman and D. Gibbs, Century Makers: One Hundred Clever Things We Take for Granted Which Have Changed Our Lives over the Last One Hundred Years, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1998.
13. Anon., ‘Return of the Beetle’, The Economist, 10 January, 1998, p. 80; R. Stodghill, op. cit.
14. The postmodern theorists amongst you will recognize this as a twist on Fredric Jameson's contention that postmodernism is primarily characterized by pastiche and schizophrenia. Pastiche pertains to the PoMo notion that stylistic innovation is impossible and all that remains is to combine, recycle or playfully evoke extant forms, modes and genres. Schizophrenia refers to postmodernism's purported loss of historical depth, the fact that temporal epochs are infinitely recyclable as distinctive aesthetic styles – 1970s-ness, Edwardian-ness, or whatever – which can be piled on top of each other, as it were, in a kaleidoscopic, hallucinogenic, but ultimately depthless, ‘perpetual present’. In this respect, I think it is fair to say that Jameson provides the principal theoretical underpinnings to the present volume – it is concerned with the perpetual present and comprises a pastiche/parody of mainstream marketing textbooks – though I have attempted to keep his convoluted concepts out of the body of the text.
15. Anon., ‘Sunshine love affair: “sexiest car” is ten years old’, Financial Mail on Sunday, 27 June, 1999, p. 44.
16. G. Adair, Surfing the Zeitgeist, London, Faber and Faber, 1999, p. 211.
17. L. Bouzereau and J. Duncan, Star Wars Episode I: The Making of The Phantom Menace, London, Ebury Press, 1999; Anon. ‘Star Wars: the ride starts here’, Empire, Star Wars Special Edition, August 1999, pp. 10–161.
18. F. Jameson, ‘Postmodernism and consumer society’, in H. Foster (ed.), Postmodern Culture, London, Pluto, 1985, pp. 111–125.
19. A. Lorenz, ‘Reitzle maps out Jaguar's route into the future’, The Sunday Times Business, 4 July, 1999, p. 7.
20. R. Hutton, ‘Time machines’, The Sunday Times Sport, 7 March, 1999, p. 23.
21. Anon., ‘Losing its cool’, Marketing Week, 15 April, 1999, pp. 26–27.
22. Shades of the New Coke débâcle and subsequent launch of Coca-Cola Classic, though the one-hundredth anniversary of the glass bottle might also have had something to with this particular promotion!
23. P. Buxton, ‘Salisbury's makes AMV pay for “Value” failure’, Marketing Week, 1 April, 1999, p. 12; G. Alexander, ‘Kellogg faces crunch as rival overtakes it’, The Sunday Times Business, 10 January, 1999, p. 8.
24. R. Samuel, op. cit.
25. B. Gannaway op. cit.; B.B. Stern, op. cit.; D. Lowenthal, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
26. Nostalgic advertising interpellates the inner child, according to Goldman and Papson, op. cit.
27. S. Brown, E.C. Hirschman and P. Maclaran, ‘Presenting the past: on marketing's [Page 224]reproduction orientation’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson (eds) Imagining Marketing: Art, Aesthetics and the Avant-Garde, London, Routledge, pp. 145–191.
28. D. McCrone, A. Morris and R. Kiely, Scotland the Brand: The Making of Scottish Heritage, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1995.
29. S. Macdonald and G. Fyfe (eds), Theorizing Museums: Representing Identity and Diversity in a Changing World, Oxford, Blackwell, 1996; N. Merriman, Beyond the Glass Case: The Past, the Heritage and the Public in Britain, Leicester, Leicester University Press, 1989; R.W. Belk, Collecting in a Consumer Society, London, Routledge, 1995.
30. M.B. Holbrook, ‘Nostalgia proneness and consumer tastes’, in J.A. Howard (ed.), Buyer Behavior in Marketing Strategy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994, pp. 348–364.
31. P. Ward, Kitsch in Sync: A Consumers Guide to Bad Taste, London, Plexus, 1991.
32. R. Samuel, op. cit.
33. L. Stevens et al., op. cit.
34. F. Davis, Yearning for Yesterday: A Sociology of Nostalgia, New York, Free Press, 1979.
35. B.R. Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World, New York, Ballantine Books, 1995.
36. The literature on globalization is so vast that citation is virtually pointless. Useful overviews are available in F.J. Lechner and J. Boli, The Globalisation Reader, Oxford, Blackwell, 2000; D. Held, A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt and J. Perraton, Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Cambridge, Polity, 1999; J. Tomlinson, Globalisation and Culture, Cambridge, Polity, 1999.
37. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, London, Routledge, 1995; S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two: Telling Tales, London, ITBP, 1998.
38. S. Hilton, ‘The subtle making of a new McNation’, The Observer, Business, Sunday 13 June, 1999, p. 9; A.A. Gill, ‘Not taken by his surprises’, The Sunday Times Culture, 6 June, 1999, pp. 26–27; R. McLuhan, ‘McDonald's curries favour with 70s parody for new line’, Marketing, 24 June, 1999, p. 20.
39. S. Elliott, ‘Lukewarm Skywalker’, Q Magazine, August 1999, p. 140.
40. B. Gannaway, op. cit.
41. S. Brown, ‘Premonitions of Paradiso: millennial madness, finde siècle fever and the end of the end of marketing’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson (eds), Proceedings of the Marketing Paradiso Conclave, Belfast: University of Ulster, 1999, pp. 1–13.
42. S. Brown, J. Bell and D. Carson, ‘Apocaholics anonymous: looking back on the end of marketing’, in S. Brown, J. Bell and D. Carson (eds), Marketing Apocalypse: Eschatology, Escapology and the Illusion of the End, London: Routledge, 1996, pp. 1–20.
43. R. Goldman and S. Papson, op. cit.
44. R. Venturi, D.S. Brown and S. Izenour, Learning from Las Vegas, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1972.
45. Indeed, it's still being alluded to. A recent ‘Raised the Hovis Way’ advertisement depicts a thirtysomething preparing a traditional crispy bacon and brown sauce sandwich – like she did as a child – to the strains of Dvorák, Hovis's timeless theme tune.
46. J. Lears, Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America, New York, Basic Books, 1994, p. 383.
47. D. Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985; D. Lowenthal, ‘Nostalgia tells it like it wasn't’, in C. Shaw and M. Chase (eds), The Imagined Past: History and Nostalgia, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1989, pp. 18–32.
48. J. Barzun, From Dawn to Decadence. 500 Years of Western Cultural Life: 1500 to the Present, New York, HarperCollins, 2000.
49. R.W. Belk, op. cit. The classic reference, however, is N. McKendrick, ‘Josiah Wedgwood and the commercialisation of the Potteries’, in N. McKendrick, J. Brewer and J.H. Plumb, Birth of a Consumer Society, London, Europa, 1982, pp. 100–145.
[Page 225]50. F. MacCarthy, William Morris: A Life for Our Time, London, Faber and Faber, 1995.
51. M. Pendergrast, For God, Country and Coca-Cola: The Unauthorized History of the World's Most Popular Soft Drink, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1993.
52. F. Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, London, Verso, 1991; J-F. Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, trans. G. Bennington and B. Massumi, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1984 .
53. A. Bryman, Disney and his Worlds, London, Routledge, 1995.
54. The ‘I have seen the future and it works’ adage was coined by the celebrated American muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens in the immediate aftermath of the Russian Revolution. However, it was also used as a slogan for the New York World's Fair of 1939.
55. S. Brown, ‘The three Rs of relationship marketing: retroactive, retrospective, retrogressive’, in T. Hennig-Thurau and U. Hansen (eds) Relationship Marketing: Gaining Competitive Advantage through Customer Satisfaction and Customer Retention, Berlin, Springer, 2000, pp. 393–413.
56. For example, S. Brown, 1995, op. cit.; A. O'Driscoll and J.A. Murray, ‘The changing nature of theory and practice in marketing: on the value of synchrony’, Journal of Marketing Management, 14(5), 1998, pp. 391–416; L. O'Malley and M. Patterson, ‘Vanishing point: the mix management paradigm reviewed’, Journal of Marketing Management, 14 (8), 1998, pp. 829–851; D. Brownlie, M. Saren, R. Wensley and R. Whittington (eds), Rethinking Marketing: Towards Critical Marketing Accountings, London, Sage, 1999.
57. P. Kotler, Kotler on Marketing: How to Create, Win and Dominate Markets, New York, Free Press, 1999.
58. A. Smithee, ‘Kotler is dead!’, European Journal of Marketing, 31 (3/4), 1997, pp. 315–325; M.B. Holbrook, ‘Feline consumption: ethography, felologies and unobtrusive participation in the life of a cat’, European Journal of Marketing, 31 (3/4), 1997, pp. 214–233; R.W. Belk, ‘Three coins in Caesar's Palace fountain: interpreting Las Vegas’, in J.W. Alba and J.W. Hutchinson (eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. XXV, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 1998, pp. 7–9; N. Piercy, Market-led Strategic Change: Transforming the Process of Going to Market, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997; N. Piercy, Tales from the Marketplace: Stories of Revolution, Reinvention and Renewal, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
59. A. Herman, The Idea of Decline in Western History, New York, The Free Press, 1997.
60. L. McT. Anderson, ‘Marketing science: where's the beef?’, Business Horizons, 37 (1), 1994, pp. 8–16; S. Blair, ‘Market research is dead, RIP (Real Innovation Please!)’, Marketing Business, June 2000, pp. 20–22; S. Armstrong, ‘What's on the agenda: the focus group’, The Business, Saturday 29 July, 2000, p. 9. See also E. Shorris, A Nation of Salesmen: The Tyranny of the Market and the Subversion of Culture, New York, Avon, 1994.
1. ‘Once upon a time’ also resonates, as do ‘Marley was dead’, ‘Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress’, ‘When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect’ and, lest we forget, ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth’. First lines are cogently discussed by D. Lodge, The Art of Fiction, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1992; A. Oz, The Story Begins: Essays on Literature, London, Chatto and Windus, 1999; E.W. Said, Beginnings: Intention and Method, London, Granta, 1985; and P. Norman, ‘I've started so you'll finish’, The Sunday Times Culture, 9 January, 2000, p. 16.
2. As Norman (op. cit.) notes, ‘In almost every paper and magazine I pick up, I find [Page 226]pieces whose headlines and pictures demand that I read them, but whose ghastly, clunky, clichéfied intros stop me in my tracks. Most have been used countless times before. “Such and such is alive and well and …” “I have seen the future and it …” “Just when you thought it was safe to …” “It is a truth universally acknowledged …”. Faced with such sentiments, what else is there to say except, “I am that soldier”.’
3. Texts targeted at undergraduates are yet another happy hunting ground of hackneyed introductions. The basic assumption seems to be that today's students are slothful, subnormal so-and-sos, with minimal attention spans. Therefore, the sheer pervasiveness of the marketing system has to be patiently explained to the lazy sods. Surely not!
4. T. Levitt, ‘Marketing myopia’, Harvard Business Review, 38 (4), 1960, pp. 45–56.
5. S. Brown, ‘Marketing and literature: the anxiety of academic influence’, Journal of Marketing, 63 (1), 1999, pp. 1–15.
6. T. Levitt, ‘Retrospective commentary’, in B.M. Enis and K.K. Cox (eds), Marketing Classics: A Selection of Influential Articles, Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1975, pp. 20–23.
7. E.C. Bursk, ‘Marketing myopia’, Harvard Business Review, 38 (4), 1960, p. 2.
8. Drucker is another candidate, of course, though I'm not sure that he qualifies as a marketing guru, since his contributions pertain to much more than mere marketing. See S. Crainer, The Ultimate Business Guru Book: Fifty Thinkers Who Made Management, Oxford, Capstone, 1998; J. Micklethwait and A. Wooldridge, The Witch Doctors: Making Sense of the Management Gurus, New York, Times Books, 1996.
9. T. Levitt, The Marketing Imagination, New York, Free Press, 1986.
10. T. Levitt, Innovation in Marketing, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.
11. Mind you, HBR is notoriously nepotistic. Levitt edited the journal for several years and did his stint as chair of Harvard's marketing department (far be it for me to imply that these factors influenced the HBR review process …).
12. Lest you conclude that I'm being unnecessarily critical, I should point out that when ‘Marketing Myopia’ was first republished in 1962 (in Innovation in Marketing, note 10 above), it included an enormous, self-justifying footnote on the railroads industry, a footnote that was not in the original version and was never seen again. Presumably, the author had been taken to task in the interim by representatives of the railroads business. On the rhetoric of ‘Marketing Myopia’ generally see, G. Marion, ‘The marketing management discourse: what's new since the 1960s?’ in M.J. Baker, Perspectives on Marketing Management, Volume 3, Chichester, Wiley, 1993, pp. 143–168.
13. T. Levitt, 1975, op. cit.
14. The anti-Levitt argument is summarized in H. Mintzberg, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, New York, Free Press, 1994 (especially the section ‘“Marketing Myopia” Myopia’, pp. 279–281).
15. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, op. cit., p. 104.
16. T. Brennan and M. Jay, Vision in Context: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Sight, New York, Routledge, 1996; M. Jay, Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of Vision in Twentieth-century French Thought, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1994; D.M. Levin, Modernity and the Hegemony of Vision, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1993; D.M. Levin, Sites of Vision: The Discursive Construction of Sight in the History of Philosophy, Boston, MA, MIT Press, 1997.
17. R. Jakobson, Fundamentals of Language, Paris, Mouton, 1975. Jakobson's framework is examined and extended in D. Lodge, The Modes of Modern Writing: Metaphor, Metonymy and the Typology of Modern Literature, London, Arnold, 1977.
18. As the oil industry was (and remains) a national icon, inasmuch as it symbolizes American know-how, Levitt's exemplar proved particularly powerful. The iconic status of the 1950s oil industry is discussed in D. Halberstam, The Fifties, New York, Ballantine Books, 1993 (Chapter 8, especially).
19. T. Levitt, 1960, op. cit., p. 56. Emphasis in original.
20. P. Kotler and R. Singh, ‘Marketing warfare in the 1980s’, Journal of Business Strategy, 1, Winter, 1981, pp. 30–41.
[Page 227]21. T. Peters and R.H. Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence, New York, Harper and Row, 1982.
22. A dyspeptic to the last, I have denounced entertainment venues elsewhere (S. Brown, Songs of the Humpback Shopper (and Other Bazaar Ballads), 1998, available as a free download from http://www.sfxbrown.com).
23. P. de Man, Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism, London, Routledge, 1983.
24. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, op. cit. See also S. Brown and P. Maclaran, ‘The future is past: marketing, apocalypse and the retreat from Utopia’, in S. Brown et al., Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 260–277.
25. A case for the place of intellectual conflict is convincingly made by R. Collins, ‘On the sociology of intellectual stagnation: the late twentieth century in perspective’, in M. Featherstone (ed.), Cultural Theory and Cultural Change, London, Sage, 1992, pp. 73–96.
26. The impact of Wakeman's portrayal is considered in T. Frank, The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture and the Rise of Hip Consumerism, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1997. A more general overview of the era is available in J. Sivulka, Soap, Sex and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American Advertising, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 1998.
27. On the relationship between management and literature, see R.A. Brawer, Fictions of Business: Insights on Management from Great Literature, New York, John Wiley, 1998. Mad magazine, incidentally, was first published in 1952, though Alfred E. Nueman (the mag's simple-minded mascot) wasn't introduced until 1956.
28. P. Murray, Reflections on Commercial Life: An Anthology of Classic Texts from Plato to the Present, New York, Routledge, 1997; J.B. Twitchell, Lead Us Into Temptation: The Triumph of American Materialism, New York, Columbia University Press, 1999.
29. T. Frank, op. cit.; D. Halberstam, op. cit.
30. J. Miller, Almost Grown: The Rise of Rock, London, Heinemann, 1999 (especially pp. 163–168). Also, G. Lipsitz, Time Passages: Collective Memory and Popular Culture, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1990 (Chapter 5 in particular).
31. The 1994 movie, Quiz Show, captures the controversy perfectly. See also D. Halberstam, op. cit.
32. On fads generally, see F.W. Hoffmann and W.G. Bailey, Mind and Society Fads, New York, Haworth, 1992; and T. Thorne, Fads, Fashions and Cults: From Acid House to Zoot Suit, London, Bloomsbury, 1993. For American popular culture, an excellent year-by-year account is available in D. Epstein, Twentieth Century Pop Culture, London, Carlton Books, 1999.
33. See, for example, M.F. Rogers, Barbie Culture, London, Sage, 1999.
34. G. Tibbals, Business Blunders: Dirty Dealing and Financial Failure in the World of Big Business, London, Robinson, 1999; R.F. Hartley, Marketing Mistakes: Fourth Edition, New York, John Wiley, 1989 (especially Chapter 6); R. Rothenberg, Where the Suckers Moon: The Life and Death of an Advertising Campaign, New York, Vintage, 1994; T. Hine, Populuxe: From Tailfins and TV Dinners to Barbie Dolls and Fallout Shelters, New York, MJF Books, 1999; D. Epstein, op. cit.
35. ‘Almost overnight Congress set up the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to plan and execute space exploration. Congress also passed the National Defense Education Act, which shifted the focus of education to strengthen curricula with advanced programs in science, advanced mathematics and languages’ (J. Sivulka, op. cit., p. 253). On the Conant report, see T. Hine, The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager, New York, Avon Books, 1999. Marketing, needless to say, fared particularly badly in the Ford and Carnegie reports on business education (R.A. Gordon and J.E. Howell, Higher Education for Business, New York, Columbia University Press, 1959; F.C. Pierson et al., The Education of American Businessmen: A Study of University-College Programs in Business Administration, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1959).
[Page 228]36. Far from being a local British difficulty, the ‘Two Cultures’ controversy of May 1959 chimed perfectly with the post-Sputnik, science-orientated concerns then extant in the US. Snow's dichotomy had a major influence on the thinking of John F. Kennedy, amongst others. See S. Collini, ‘Introduction’, in C.P. Snow, The Two Cultures, Cambridge, Canto, 1993, pp. vii–lxxiii.
37. B. Levenson, Bill Bernbach's Book, New York, Villiard, 1987, pp. xvi–xvii. On Bernbach see T. Frank, op. cit.; D. Higgins, The Art of Writing Advertising: Conversations with Masters of the Craft, Chicago, NTC Books, 1965; J.B. Twitchell, Adcult USA: The Triumph of Advertising in American Culture, New York, Columbia University Press, 1996.
38. S. Fox, The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and its Creators, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1997.
39. J.K. Galbraith, The Affluent Society, new edition, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999.
40. Regression therapy, regrettably, had already been repressed due to The Search for Bridey Murphy scam of 1956. The Search was written by amateur hypnotist, Morey Bernstein. He claimed to have age-regressed a Colorado housewife, Virginia Tinge, whose former lives included that of a nineteenth-century Irish farm girl, Bridey Murphy. The book triggered a nationwide fad for reincarnation – ‘come as you were’ parties were particularly popular, as was the Reincarnation Cocktail – until such time as Tinge was exposed as a sufferer of False Memory Syndrome, fifties-style. See D. Epstein, op. cit., p. 65.
41. V. Packard, The Hidden Persuaders, New York, David McKay, 1957.
42. V. Packard, The Status Seekers, New York, David McKay, 1959; V. Packard, The Waste Makers, New York, David McKay, 1960.
43. D. Horowitz, Vance Packard and American Social Criticism, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1994, p. 185. On the advertising industry's response, see M. Mayer, Madison Avenue, U.S.A., New York, Harper and Bros, 1958. This laid great stress on the scientific, rational credo of most agencies, JWT in particular.
44. D. Horowitz, op. cit., p. 108.
45. Ibid., p. 162. Dichter also responded at length to Packard's charges in The Strategy of Desire, New York, Doubleday, 1960.
46. The shock-horror, appalling yet appealing aspect of The Hidden Persuaders is cogently described in T. Hine (1999, op. cit., p. 28), ‘Vance Packard's best-selling book on the psychological dimensions of advertising came as a shock to many consumers when it appeared in 1957 … At the same time, it couldn't help but evoke admiration for the cleverness of the industry, how much it had learned about people and the wit with which it used the information. People enjoy being fooled creatively, never more so than during the Populuxe era’.
47. S. Rogers, ‘How a publicity blitz created the myth of subliminal advertising’, Public Relations Quarterly, 37 (Winter), 1992–3, pp. 12–17. An excellent summary of the subliminal ‘scare’ is contained in M. Rogers, ‘Subliminal advertising: the battle of popular versus the scholarly views’, in S.C. Hollander and T. Nevett (eds), Marketing in the Long Run: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Historical Research in Marketing, East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, 1985, pp. 69–82.
48. J.B. Twitchell (1996, op. cit., pp. 111–116). See also W. Poundstone, Big Secrets: The Uncensored Truth About All Sorts of Stuff You Are Never Supposed to Know, New York, Quill, 1983 (especially pp. 214–218); W. Poundstone, Biggest Secrets: More Uncensored Truth About All Sorts of Stuff You Are Never Supposed to Know, New York, Quill, 1993 (especially pp. 231–236); B. Archer, ‘Blink and you'll miss it’, The Guardian, Friday 4 February, 2000, p. 13. With regard to the effects of embedding, we need look no further than David Letterman's recent talk-show confession, ‘I don't believe in subliminal advertising. Then again, I went shopping yesterday and bought a combine harvester’!
49. W.B. Key, The Age of Manipulation: The Con in Confidence, the Sin in Sincere, Lanham, Madison Books, 1989.
[Page 229]50. V. Packard, The Hidden Persuaders: A New Edition for the 1980s, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1981, p. 36.
51. Ibid., pp. 15, 24, 33.
52. T. Levitt, 1960, op. cit., p. 56.
53. S. Brown, 1999, ‘Marketing and literature’, op. cit. Again, you might conclude I'm being hard on marketing's foremost spokesperson, but that is not my intention. I, for one, think it is noteworthy that Levitt's ‘other’ HBR paper in 1960 – the one everybody's forgotten about – comprised an unprovoked attack on the snake-oil sellers of Motivation Research (‘The M-R snake dance’, Harvard Business Review, 38 (6), 1960, pp. 76–84). Clearly, Levitt needed a scapegoat for his customer-centred reinterpretation of marketing – people who weren't doing it properly! – and the snake dancers of motivation research fitted the hate-figure bill. As everyone knows, however, love and hate are less polar opposites than two sides of the same coin.
54. He is liberally endowed, for example, with what is now termed the ‘Teflon factor’, the fact that nothing untoward seems to stick. Despite his failed predictions in ‘Marketing Myopia’ and consistent inconsistency in conceptual matters (he variously stresses and dismisses the importance of packaging, pricing, differentiation, change, stability, youth, experience, small companies, large companies, information technology, globalization and the like), the good ship Levitt sails serenely on, seemingly unperturbed by the scholarly turmoil in its wake. What a guy!
55. Consider the evidence: Theodore Levitt is a leading academic authority in a leading academic institution, yet he manages convincingly to portray himself as a practical man, an ordinary Joe, one of the guys. His carefully crafted textual persona is that of a cracker-barrel management philosopher, a purveyor of wry, homespun, horny-handed, no-nonsense, seat-of-the-pants, eminently implementable pearls of marketing wisdom. This portrayal, paradoxically, is reinforced by the cerebral milieu from which he hails, thanks to his periodic denigration of woolly-headed academics, as well as his own immensely engaging sense of (often self-deprecatory) humour.
56. I have examined this at length elsewhere (see S. Brown 1999, ‘Marketing and literature’, op. cit.).
57. At the time of ‘Marketing Myopia’, Ted Levitt was a little-known German-Jewish immigrant, without a PhD, who had recently been made a lecturer in Harvard Business School, that bastion of WASP-ish sensibility. But rather than rail against the establishment, Levitt valorized the role of the outsider as an architect of change in organizations and industries alike. Mesmerized by its seemingly immortal message, we tend to forget that ‘Marketing Myopia’ was written at the very start of Levitt's career, before he could afford to indulge in magisterial magnanimity and ironic self-deprecation. Hence his disparagement of motivation research, whilst making use of their epigrams and stressing the need to comprehend consumers' deepest desires!
58. J.N. Sheth, D.M. Gardner and D.E. Garrett, Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation, New York, John Wiley, 1988.
59. For example: M. Klein, No-Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, London, HarperCollins, 2000; R. Levine, C. Locke, D. Searls and D. Weinberger, The Cluetrain Manifesto: The End of Business as Usual, London, http://FT.com, 2000; R. Thomson, Soft, London, Bloomsbury, 1998; B. Fowler, Scepticism Inc., London, Vintage, 1999; S. Millhauser, Martin Dressier: The Tale of an American Dreamer, London, Phoenix, 1996; B. Bryson, Notes from a Big Country, London, Doubleday, 1998; D. Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2000; D. Butler et al., ‘Cover story: attention all shoppers’, Time, 2 August, 1999, pp. 38–43; J. Robinson, The Manipulators: A Conspiracy to Make us Buy, London, Simon and Schuster, 1998; A.L. Benson, IShop, Therefore I Am: Compulsive Buying and the Search for Self, Northvale, Jason Aronson, 2000; P. Underhill, Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping, London, Orion, 1999.[Page 230]
1. B. Barton, The Man Nobody Knows: A Discovery of the Real Jesus, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1925.
2. Accounts of Barton's life and works are contained in: S. Fox, op cit; T.J.J. Lears, ‘From salvation to self-realization: advertising and the therapeutic roots of the consumer culture, 1880–1930’, in R.W. Fox and T.J.J. Lears (eds), The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880–1980, New York: Pantheon Books, 1983, pp. 1–38; L.P. Ribuffo, ‘Jesus Christ as business statesman: Bruce Barton and the selling of American capitalism’, American Quarterly, Summer, 1981, pp. 206–231; R. Marchand, ‘The corporation nobody knew: Bruce Barton, Alfred Sloan and the founding of the General Motors “Family”’, Business History Review, 65 (Winter), 1991, pp. 825–875; J.G. Vitale, The Seven Lost Secrets of Success, Ashland, VistaTron, 1992; J.B. Twitchell, 1996, op. cit.
3. R. Marchand, Advertising the American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920–1940, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1985; R. Marchand, Creating the Corporate Soul: The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1998; D. Pope, The Making of Modern Advertising, New York, Basic Books, 1983; F. Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.
4. Coolidge's entire speech, delivered on 27 October 1926, is reproduced as an appendix in Presbrey (op. cit., pp. 619–625).
5. I discuss this inclination in ‘Trinitarianism, the Eternal Evangel and the three eras schema’, in S. Brown et al., Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 23–43.
6. See for example: R. Marchand (1985, op cit); J. Lears (1994, op. cit.); S. Strasser, Satisfaction Guaranteed: The Making of the American Mass Market, New York, Pantheon, 1989; M.H. Bogart, Artists, Advertising and the Borders of Art, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1995; P.W. Laird, Advertising Progress: American Business and the Rise of Consumer Marketing, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998; R.S. Tedlow, New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America, Oxford, Heinemann, 1990; S.C. Hollander and R. Germain, Was There a Pepsi Generation Before Pepsi Discovered It?, Lincolnwood, Illinois, NTC Books, 1992; J. Sivulka, op. cit.
7. S. Lewis, Babbitt, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1922. Needless to say, Lewis's condemnation of catchphraseology ensured that ‘Babbitt’ and its cognates entered the language as catchphrases for catchphrasers. The ambivalence of advertising's status during the inter-war era is neatly summarized by Marchand (1985, op. cit.).
8. B. Barton, op. cit., p. 143.
9. Ibid., p. 153.
10. R.L. Moore, Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994, p. 213; D. Mayer, The Positive Thinkers: Religion as Pop Psychology from Mary Baker Eddy to Oral Roberts, New York, Pantheon, 1980, pp. 178–179; L.P. Ribuffo, op. cit., p. 221.
11. Such a doctrine, to be sure, was hardly original. The Protestant work ethic, which held that one best served God by best using one's talents in one's particular calling, had long been a staple of Puritan fare and, for Weber at least, a key factor in the rise of the industrialized west. In fairness, however, Barton's position was much more sophisticated than this big-business-boosting, apologist-for-capitalism caricature suggests. Far from maintaining that the marketplace was the measure of all things, Barton believed that contemporary business life was seriously deficient in several spiritual respects. Something had been lost. The lambs had gone astray on the road to market. Interestingly, these are almost exactly the same complaints made by Vance Packard, another WASP, in the late 1950s, albeit shorn of the attendant evangelical apparatus. See J. Lears, ‘Review of Vance[Page 231]Packard and American Social Criticism, by D. Horowitz’, The New Republic, 10 March, 1994, pp. 32–37.
12. For the theological backgrounds of first generation Madison Avenue madmen see J.B. Twitchell, 1996, op. cit., pp. 32–39; D. Pope, op. cit., pp. 178–179; M. Mayer, 1958, op. cit.
13. On 28 October 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt castigated Representative Barton and two fellow non-interventionists, Representatives Martin and Fish, with the deathless words, ‘Great Britain would never have received an ounce of help from us if the decision had been left to Martin, Barton and Fish’ (quoted in L.P. Ribuffo, op. cit., p. 206).
14. C.V.R. George, God's Salesman: Norman Vincent Peale and the Power of Positive Thinking, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993; M. Mayer, 1980, op. cit.
15. Aside from the excisions in the body of the text, the 1960 reprint removed the original epigraph (‘Wist ye not that I must be about my father's business’), and toned down the chapter titles, to boot (Chapter 5, ‘His Advertisements’ became ‘His Work and Words’, and Chapter 6 ‘The Founder of Modern Business’ turned into ‘His Way in Our World’).
16. Quoted in J. Vitale, 1992, op. cit., p. 94.
17. As the ‘universal’ quote indicates, Barton had broadened – to put it mildly – the marketing concept some forty years before Kotler and Levy.
18. Excellent overviews of the mind cure movement are contained in M. Mayer (1980, op. cit.), T.J.J. Lears, (1983, op. cit.) and W. Leach, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power and the Rise of a New American Culture, New York, Pantheon, 1993 (especially Chapter 8).
19. I have discussed Theophrastus Bombastus and his descendants in S. Brown, ‘Tore down à la Rimbaud’, in S. Brown, A.M. Doherty and B. Clarke (eds), Romancing the Market, London, Routledge, 1998, pp. 22–40.
20. Strictly speaking, this was the ‘Second Great Awakening’. The first occurred in August 1801, at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, when Barton Stone organized an interdenominational meeting and triggered a national religious revival (see H. Bloom, The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post Christian Nation, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1992).
21. M. Mayer, 1980, op. cit., pp. 32–45.
22. C. Fraser, God's Perfect Child: Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church, New York, Metropolitan, 1999; G. Gill, Mary Baker Eddy, Reading, Perseus, 1998; H. Bloom, op. cit. (Chapter 7, in particular); M. Mayer, 1980, op. cit.
23. S. Cranston, H.P.B.: The Extraordinary Life and Influence of Helena Blavatsky, New York, Putnam, 1993; P. Washington, Madame Blavatsky's Baboon: Theosophy and the Emergence of the Western Guru, London, Secker and Warburg, 1993; J. Godwin, The Theosophical Enlightenment, Albany, State University of New York Press, 1994.
24. W. Leach, 1993, op. cit.
25. The turn-of-the-century doll craze is examined in A.M. Colbert, K.M. Rassuli and L. Dix, ‘Marketers, dolls and the democratisation of fashion’, in D.G.B. Jones and P. Cunningham (eds), Marketing History Knows No Boundaries, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Historical Research in Marketing and Marketing Thought, Kingston, Queen's University, 1997, pp. 113–122. For a broader cultural perspective on dolls and mannequins generally see H. Schwartz, The Culture of the Copy: Striking Likenesses, Unreasonable Facsimiles, New York, Zone Books, 1996. Miniatures are also cogently covered in S. Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection, Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1993.
26. L. Simon, Genuine Reality: A Life of William James, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1998.
27. W. James, The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy, New York, Dover, 1956 ; S.C. Rowe, The Vision of James, Rockport, Element, 1996.
28. W. James, The Varieties of Religious Experience, New York: Touchstone, 1997, p. 91.
29. As libidinal mid-life yearnings for an attractive twentysomething. See L. Simon, op. cit., p. 282.
[Page 232]30. Patten's life and work is summarized in W. Leach, 1993, op. cit., pp. 231–244; J. Lears, Fables of Abundance, 1994, op. cit., pp. 113–117; D. Fox, The Discovery of Abundance: Simon N. Patten and the Transformation of Social Theory, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1986; R. Tugwell, ‘Notes on the life and work of Simon Nelson Patten’, Journal of Political Economy, 31 (April), 1923, pp. 153–208; D.B. Schluter, ‘Economics and the sociology of consumption: Simon Patten and early academic sociology in America, 1894–1904’, Journal of the History of Sociology, 1 (Fall-Winter), 1979–80, pp. 132–162.
31. You see, it really does make you go blind (or myopic, at least)!
32. J. Lears, Fables, 1994, op. cit., p. 113.
33. Patten's widely scattered writings are gathered together in R. Tugwell, Essays in Economic Theory, New York, Knopf, 1924.
34. M. Mayer, 1980, op. cit., p. 171.
35. Dale Carnegie's life and continuing impact are ably dissected in G. Kemp and E. Claflin, Dale Carnegie: The Man Who Influenced Millions, New York, St Martin's Press, 1989; see also S. Crainer, ‘Dale Carnegie’ in The Ultimate Business Guru Book, Oxford, Capstone, 1998, pp. 27–29; and L. Thomas, ‘A shortcut to distinction’, in D. Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People, New York, Pocket Books, 1981, pp. 237–248. For Norman Vincent Peale, the best source is C.V.R. George, op. cit. M. Mayer (1980, op. cit.) is also excellent, as is Peale's 1984 autobiography, The True Joy of Positive Thinking, New York, Quill. The current crop is covered in S. Pattison, The Faith of the Managers: When Management Becomes Religion, London, Cassell, 1997; A.A. Huczynski, Management Gurus: What Makes Them and How to Become One, London, Routledge, 1993; J. Micklethwait and A. Wooldridge, op. cit.
36. I.I. Mitroff and E.A. Denton, A Spiritual Audit of Corporate America: A Hard Look at Spirituality, Religion and Values in the Workplace, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1999.
37. C. Reed, ‘With God as my co-worker’, The Observer Business, Sunday 28 November, 2000, p. 11.
38. S. Tarn, God Owns my Business, New York, Horizon House, 1991; D. Baron and L. Padwa, Moses on Management: Fifty Leadership Lessons from the Greatest Manager of All Time, New York, Pocket Books, 1999; L.B. Jones, Jesus CEO: Using Ancient Wisdom for Visionary Leadership, New York, Hyperion, 1995.
39. B. Summerskill, ‘Clutter to be swept off streets’, The Observer, Sunday 23 July, 2000, p. 10; S. Brown, 1998, Songs of the Humpback Shopper, op. cit. (available from http://www.sfxbrown.com); D. Goss, ‘A Hell of a vision: marketing the human resource dream’, in S. Brown, A.M. Doherty and B. Clarke (eds), Proceedings of the Marketing Illuminations Spectacular, Belfast: University of Ulster, 1997, pp. 264–271; B.L. Beyerstein and D.F. Beyerstein, The Write Stuff: Evaluations of Graphology – The Study of Handwriting Analysis, Buffalo, Prometheus Books, 1992.
40. Condimantics, I guess, must be the technical term for soothsaying with the aid of ketchup or brown sauce splashes. An analogous technique, condomantics, also springs to mind, though I hesitate to speculate on the details of the process, other than to say it presumably involves nine-month forecasts.
41. D. Chopra, The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success, New York, Bantam, 1996 (see also Chopra's Creating Affluence: The A to Z Guide to a Richer Life, 1999); C. Handy, The New Alchemists: How Visionary People Make Something Out of Nothing, London, Hutchinson, 1999; J. Kunde, Corporate Religion: Building a Strong Company through Personality and Corporate Soul, London, Pearson Education, 2000; M.C. Scott, Reinspiring the Corporation: The Seven Seminal Paths to Corporate Greatness, Chichester, Wiley, 2000; D. Firth and H. Campbell, Sacred Business: Resurrecting the Spirit of Work, Oxford, Capstone, 1997; L. Weinreich, Eleven Steps to Brand Heaven: The Ultimate Guide to Buying an Advertising Campaign, London, Kogan Page, 1999; H. Pringle and M. Thompson, Brand Spirit: How Cause Related Marketing Builds Brands, Chichester, Wiley, 1999; B. Cohen and J. Greenfield, Ben & Jerrys Double Dip: How to Run a Values-Led Business and Make Money, Too, New York, Fireside, 1997; M. Wertheim, The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace,[Page 233]New York, Norton, 1999; E. Davis, TechGnosis: Myth, Magic and Mysticism in the Age of Information, London, Serpent's Tail, 1998.
42. P. Wilson, The Little Book of Calm, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999.
43. A good example of this is Kimberly Lau's recent root-and-branch critique, which denounces the west's commodification of eastern belief systems, such as aromatherapy, yoga and T'ai Chi (K.J. Lau, New Age Capitalism: Making Money East of Eden, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000).
44. I summarize this literature in S. Brown, ‘Devaluing value: the apophatic ethic and the spirit of postmodern consumption’, in M. Holbrook (ed.), Consumer Value: A Framework for Analysis and Research, London, Routledge, 1999, pp. 159–182.
45. See R.W. Belk, ‘Studies in the new consumer behaviour’, in D. Miller (ed.), Acknowledging Consumption: A Review of New Studies, London: Routledge, 1995, pp. 58–95.
46. The fullest expression of this thesis is found in D. Miller, A Theory of Shopping, Cambridge, Polity, 1998.
47. As C. McDannell (Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1995) convincingly demonstrates, however, consumption and Christianity have always been very closely intertwined. With regard to the spirituality of consumption, the classic references are: R.W. Belk, M. Wallendorf and J.F. Sherry, Jr., ‘The sacred and profane in consumer behaviour: theodicy on the Odyssey’, Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (June), 1989, pp. 1–38; R.W. Belk, Highways and Buyways: Naturalistic Research from the Consumer Behavior Odyssey, Provo, UT, Association for Consumer Research, 1991; R.W. Belk, ‘Hyperreality and globalisation: culture in the age of Ronald McDonald’, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 8 (3/4), 1996, pp. 23–37.
48. The management-as-religion analogy is carefully dissected by S. Pattison, op. cit.
49. R.A. Kent, ‘Faith in four Ps: an alternative’, Journal of Marketing Management, 2 (2), 1986, pp. 145–154; R.A. Kent, ‘The Protestant ethic and the spirit of marketing: visions of the end’, in S. Brown et al., Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 133–144.
50. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
51. P. Maclaran and M. Catterall, ‘Bridging the knowledge divide: issues on the feminisation of marketing practice’, Journal of Marketing Management, 16 (6), 2000, pp. 635–646; M. Catterall, P. Maclaran and L. Stevens, Marketing and Feminism: Current Issues and Research, London, Routledge, 2000.
52. W. James, 1997, op. cit., p. 91.
53. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
54. S. Brown, ‘Art or science? Fifty years of marketing debate’, Journal of Marketing Management, 12 (4), 1996, pp. 243–267.
55. R. Firth, Religion: A Humanist Interpretation, London: Routledge, 1996, p. 15.
56. E.C. Hirschman, ‘Ideology in consumer research: 1890 and 1990: a Marxist and feminist critique’, Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (March), 1993, pp. 537–555; W.P. Hetrick and H.R. Lozada, ‘Theory, ethical exchange and the experience of marketing’, in D. Brownlie, M. Saren, R. Wensley and R. Whittington (eds), op. cit., pp. 162–176; R. Elliott and M. Ritson, ‘Post-structuralism and the dialectics of advertising: discourse, ideology, resistance’, in S. Brown and D. Turley (eds), Consumer Research: Postcards from the Edge, London, Routledge, 1997, pp. 190–219; H. Willmott, ‘On the idolisation of markets and the denigration of marketers: some critical reflections on a professional paradox’, in D. Brownlie et al. (eds), op. cit., pp. 205–222.
57. One of the most convincing articulations of this position is found in J. O'Shaughnessy, Competitive Marketing: A Strategic Approach, London, Routledge, 1995.
58. The literature on segmentation is, well, vast. You hardly need citations from me.
59. A. Harrington, The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1997; S.E. Taylor, Positive Illusions: Creative Self-Deception and the Healthy Mind, New York, Basic Books, 1989; L. White, B. Tursky and [Page 234]G.E. Schwartz, Placebo: Theory, Research and Mechanisms, New York, Guilford, 1985; P. Reiff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith after Freud, London, Chatto and Windus, 1966; M. Mayer, 1980, op. cit.; C. Fraser, op. cit.
60. D. Carson and S. Brown, ‘Marketing: unity in diversity’, Journal of Marketing Management, 10 (7), 1994, pp. 549–552.
61. You may think I'm being unfair on Philip Kotler here (in Chapter 7, what's more, I refer to him as St Philip). However, this is not so. I'm simply representing him in his own terms. In Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University, there's a mural depicting the great and good of the past and present Marketing Department – Sid Levy, Louis Stern, Gerry Zaltman, et al. Above them all, sitting on a cloud, with a beatific expression on his face, is none other than Saint Philip himself. Need I say more?
1. W.W. Porter and C.L. Thaddeus, P.T. Barnum Presents Jenny Lind: The American Tour of the Swedish Nightingale, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1980.
2. The study, admittedly, was less than scientific, since it involved checking the indices of the principal principles textbooks on display at the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference (July 2000). The only reference I could find was in Frank Bradley's Marketing Management: Providing, Communicating and Delivering Value (Hemel Hempstead, Prentice-Hall, 1995), and even then it was an allusion to the ‘one born every minute’ aphorism.
3. See for example, P. Kotler and G. Armstrong, Principles of Marketing, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1996, seventh edition; R.P. Bagozzi, J.A. Rosa, K.S. Celly and F. Coronel, Marketing Management, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
4. The relationships metaphor is skilfully dissected in L. O'Mally and C. Tynan, ‘The utility of the relationship metaphor in consumer markets: a critical examination’, Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 1999, pp. 587–602. See also S. Fournier, S. Dobscha and D.G. Mick, ‘Preventing the premature death of relationship marketing’, Harvard Business Review, 76 (January-February), 1998, pp. 42–51.
5. B. Adams, E Pluribus Barnum: The Great Showman and the Making of U.S. Popular Culture, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1997; N. Harris, Humbug: The Art of P.T. Barnum, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1973; A.H. Saxon, P.T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man, New York, Columbia University Press, 1989; D.J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, New York, Atheneum, 1973 .
6. Examples include, J. Lears, 1994, op. cit.; R. Marchand, 1985, op. cit.; P.W. Laird, op. cit.; and J. Wicke, Advertising Fictions, New York, Columbia University Press, 1988.
7. These range from Barnum, the Broadway Musical (1980), through children's books like C.M. Andronik, Prince of Humbugs: A Life of P.T. Barnum (New York, Atheneum, 1994) and short story collections such as S. Millhauser, The Barnum Museum: Stories (Normal, IL, Dalkey Archive Press, 1997) to the 1999 made-for-television movie, P.T. Barnum (with Beau Bridges in the title role), as well as the famous routine by former world ice dance champions, Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean.
8. There are many noteworthy biographies of Barnum including M.R. Werner, Barnum, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1923; I. Wallace, The Fabulous Showman, New York, Knopf, 1959; and P.B. Kundhardt, P.B. Kundhardt III and P.W. Kundhardt, P.T. Barnum: Americas Greatest Showman, New York, Knopf, 1995. The last of these was based on a PBS television series of the same name.
9. P.T. Barnum, The Life of P.T. Barnum, Written by Himself, New York, Redfield, 1855.
10. From the Washington Post obituary of 8 April 1891, quoted in B. Adams, op. cit., p. 1.
[Page 235]11. As The Times of London recorded, ‘Barnum is gone. That fine flower of Western civilisation, that arbiter elegantiarum to Demos gave, in the eyes of the seekers after amusement, a lustre to America. He created the metier of showman on a grandiose scale, worthy to be professed by a man of genius … His name is a proverb already, and a proverb it will continue’. Quoted in I. Wallace, op. cit., p. 254.
12. Printer's Ink, 4, (16), 1891, p. 548. Quoted in P.W. Laird, op. cit., p. 44.
13. J. Vitale, There's a Customer Born Every Minute: P.T. Barnums Secrets to Business Success, New York, Amacom, 1998.
14. ‘Phineas Taylor Barnum is acknowledged by nearly all the major historians of advertising as the indubitable creator of American advertising’ (J. Wicke, op. cit., p. 55). Likewise, in his monumental history of advertising, Frank Presbrey (op. cit., p. 211) observes that he was ‘the first great advertising genius and the greatest publicity exploiter the world has ever known’.
15. See J.B. Twitchell, Carnival Culture; The Trashing of Taste in America, New York, Columbia University Press, 1992; and D.D. Yuan, ‘The celebrity freak: Michael Jackson's “grotesque glory”’, in R.G. Thomson (ed.), Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body, New York, New York University Press, 1996, pp. 368–384. Lolo Ferrari, incidentally, was an Italian porn star who had eighteen operations to enhance her breasts – they ballooned, believe it or not, to 54G – and who died in tragic circumstances. See T. Blanchard, ‘Plastic fantastic’, The Observer Life, Sunday 6 August, 2000, pp. 26–33.
16. Barnum's principles of marketing are summarized in S. Brown, ‘The unbearable lightness of marketing: a neo-romantic, counter-revolutionary recapitulation’, in S. Brown et al. (eds), Romancing the Market, op. cit., pp. 255–277.
17. Quoted in I. Wallace, op. cit. p. 63.
18. Many other examples of Barnum's retro-marketing mindset could be cited, but I think you've got the picture.
19. Such was PTB's interest in new technology and the latest scientific advances that he was officially lauded by the Smithsonian Institution in the mid-1880s (see P.B. Kunhardt et al., 1995, op. cit., pp. viii–ix).
20. Interestingly, Barnum's very first ad was for a patent medicine that purported to prevent baldness. The pertinence of this point will become apparent in Chapter 5. Try to control yourself in the meantime.
21. P.T. Barnum, Struggles and Triumphs; or, Forty Years' Recollections of P.T. Barnum, Written by Himself (Hartford, J.B. Burr, 1869). The book about humbuggery, Humbugs of the World, appeared in 1866 (Detroit, Singing Tree Press, 1970).
22. One of the reviews of his autobiography (see note 21, above) stated, ‘Compared to Barnum, Cagliostro himself was a blundering novice, or perhaps it would be more just to say that he had the misfortune to be endowed with a more tender conscience’ (quoted in I. Wallace, op. cit., p. 22). The escapades of Count Alessandro Cagliostro are recounted in S. Brown, ‘Tore Down à la Rimbaud’, 1998, op. cit.
23. Quoted in I. Wallace, op. cit, pp. 177–178. The public reaction to Barnum's autobiography is discussed at length in T. Whalen, ‘Introduction: P.T. Barnum and the birth of capitalist irony’, in P.T. Barnum, The Life of P.T. Barnum, Written by Himself, Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 2000, pp. vii–xxxvii.
24. R. Blumberg, Jumbo, New York, Bradbury, 1992. The Jumbo soap opera is covered in Barnum's manifold biographies.
25. In 1834, the year Barnum arrived in the city, The New York Sun mischievously announced that life had been discovered on the moon. Millions fell for the hoax, which turned the Sun into the best-selling newspaper in the country. The National Enquirer of its day!
26. See N. Harris, op. cit. The American nineteenth-century confidence man is ably discussed in W. Wadlington, The Confidence Game in American Literature, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1975; W.E. Lenz, Fast Talk and Flush Times: The Confidence Man as a Literary Convention, Columbia, University of Missouri Press, 1985; and K. [Page 236]Halttunen, Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830–1870, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1982.
27. There have been many studies of hoaxes and hoaxers, for example, C.D. MacDougall, Hoaxes, New York, Dover, 1958; C. Sifakis, Hoaxes and Scams, New York, Facts on File, 1993; Reader's Digest, Scoundrels and Scalawags: Fifty-One Stories of the Most Famous Characters of Hoax and Fraud, Pleasantville, Reader's Digest Association, 1968; G. Stein and M.J. MacNee, Hoaxes! Dupes, Dodges and Other Dastardly Deceptions, Detroit, Visible Ink, 1995; S. Burton, Impostors: Six Kinds of Liar, London, Viking, 2000.
28. Scholarly propriety compels me to point out that the phenomenal appeal of the Cardiff Giant also had something to do with … ahem … the size of its petrified appendage. Prurience is the fifth ‘P’ of marketing, don't you know. Well, okay, the sixth, after placebo (see Chapter 3).
29. P. Kotler and J. Scheff, Standing Room Only: Strategies for Marketing the Performing Arts, Cambridge, MA, Harvard Business School Press, 1997; F. McLean, Marketing the Museum, London, Routledge, 1997; E. Hill, C. O'Sullivan and T. O'Sullivan, Creative Arts Marketing, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1995.
30. R. Bogdan, Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1988.
31. The literature on creativity is almost as extensive as that on consciousness. I summarize some of the principal contributions in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, 1998, op. cit. Barnum's remarkable ability to exploit existing ideas is examined by L. Braudy, The Frenzy of Renown: Fame and its History, New York, Oxford University Press, 1986.
32. The wonderful ‘woolly horse’ episode is well worth recounting. Another time …
33. P.B. Kunhardt et al., op. cit., p. 337.
34. J. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Vol 2, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1894, p. 146.
35. G. Hartman, ‘Preface’ in H. Bloom et al., Deconstruction and Criticism, New York, Seabury Press, 1979, pp. vii–ix.
36. Doubtless, it is also possible to explain Barnum's consumer-baiting business principles in psychoanalytical terms. Sadly, I have neither the space nor the expertise to do so.
37. Note, Bruce Barton did not claim that customers were the be all and end all of marketing. He merely maintained that marketers should be straight, ideally honest, with consumers. The positioning of marketing vis-à-vis its markets will be examined in the Pedagogic Appendix.
38. Analogously, the very idea of customer satisfaction is absurd, teetering on tautological. Think about it. Marketers don't want satisfied customers because satisfied customers are no longer in the market. They're satisfied, after all! Marketing, if anything, is about customer dissatisfaction, about keeping them coming back for more, about creating, stimulating and exploiting customer needs, wants and desires. There's a world of difference between dissatisfaction, the state of not being satisfied, and outright hostility (which is how marketers traditionally interpret the concept of dissatisfied customers).
39. The ‘truth in advertising’ movement predates the First World War (see D. Pope, op. cit.).
40. C.V. Ford, Lies! Lies!! Lies!!! The Psychology of Deceit, Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1996; J.A. Barnes, A Pack of Lies: Towards a Sociology of Lying, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994; E. Giannetti, Lies We Live By: The Art of Self-Deception, London, Bloomsbury, 2000; D. Goleman, Vital Lies, Simple Truths: The Psychology of Self-Deception, London, Bloomsbury, 1997.
41. P. Kerr, ‘Introduction’, in P. Kerr (ed.), The Penguin Book of Lies, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1990, pp. 1–8. ‘Advertising’, as Kerr (op. cit., p.5) observes, ‘is full of people who will lie as fast as a dog will lick a dish’. See also A. Garfinkel, ‘Truths, half-truths and deception in advertising’, Papers in Linguistics, 10, 1997, pp. 135–149.
[Page 237]42. C.V. Ford, op. cit., pp. 7–10.
43. Ibid., p. 8.
44. I consider some of this literature in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, 1998, op. cit. See also J.N. Sheth, D.M. Gardner and D.E. Garrett, Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation, New York, Wiley, 1988.
45. R. Rothenberg, op. cit.
46. S. Brown, ‘Premonitions of Paradiso’, 1999, op. cit.
47. Not everyone, admittedly, subscribes to this believe-the-unbelievable explanation of Barnumesquery. Beardsworth and Bryman, for instance, have recently contended that his audiences adopted an ironic posture, akin to that found among fans of all-in-wrestling. That is to say, everyone knows it's a fake and revels in the fakery (A. Beardsworth and A. Bryman, ‘Late modernity and the dynamics of quasification: the case of the themed restaurant’, Sociological Review, 47 (2), 1999, pp. 228–257). This is true to some extent, but Barnum's appeal is slightly more subtle, insofar as the fakery is upfront but the mechanisms are hidden. Everyone knows that they're going to be conned at some stage in the proceedings. However, they don't know what form the fakery will take, how he's going to do it or indeed the precise timing of the trickery. Barnum's bamboozling is closer to that of the card sharp than the groaning grappler.
48. C. Koelb, The Incredulous Reader: Literature and the Function of Disbelief, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, 1984.
49. J. Greenwald, ‘Herbal healing’, Time, 23 November, 1998, pp. 58–68.
50. L. Braudy, op. cit., p. 501.
51. The term was coined by P.E. Meale, president of the Midwestern Psychological Association, in 1956.
52. For reviews of the Barnum Effect phenomenon see P. A. Marks and W. Seeman, ‘On the Barnum Effect’, The Psychological Record, 12, 1962, pp. 203–208; D.H. Dickson and I.W. Kelly, ‘The Barnum Effect in personality assessment: a review of the literature’, Psychological Reports, 57, 1985, pp. 367–382; and A. Furnam and S. Schofield, ‘Accepting personality test feedback: a review of the Barnum Effect’, Current Psychological Research and Reviews, 6, 1987, pp. 162–178. Papers are still regularly published on the topic; for example, M.L. Piper-Terry and J.L. Downey, ‘Sex, gullibility and the Barnum Effect’, Psychological Reports, 82 (2), 1998, pp. 571–576.
1. See, for example B. Appleyard, ‘Real Will hunting’, The Sunday Times, Culture, 7 February, 1999, pp. 2–3; J. Thompson, ‘At last – the list to end all lists: a bluffer's guide through the blizzard of Millennium polls’, The Independent on Sunday, 28 November, 1999, p. 10; P. McCann, ‘Welcome to the world's greatest hits’, The Times, Saturday 1 January, 2000, p. 14.
2. Who dares d'oh more is none! S. Caulkin, ‘Shakespeare in the black’, The Observer Business, Sunday, 7 February, 1999, p. 16; H. Bloom, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human, London, Fourth Estate, 1999; E. Potton, ‘Do the Bard, man’, The Times Metro, Saturday 29 July, 2000, pp. 20–21.
3. P. Corrigan, Shakespeare on Management: Leadership Lessons for Today's Managers, London, Kogan Page, 1999; J.O. Whitney and T. Packer, Power Plays: Shakespeare's Lessons in Leadership and Management, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2000; V. McKee, ‘Henry V becomes an eye-opener for today's leaders’, The Times, Saturday 6 February, 1999, p. 27; M. Campbell, ‘Cry God for sales as the Bard goes centre stage in US boardrooms’, The Sunday Times, 9 January, 2000, p. 9.
[Page 238]4. J. Ashworth, ‘Dramatic change to art of team building’, The Times, Saturday 6 February, 1999, pp. 26–27.
5. W.B. Burruss, Shakespeare the Salesman, Chicago, Dartnell, 1942.
6. D. Rushe, ‘How McDonald's bit off more than it could chew’, The Sunday Times Business, 10 January, 1999, p. 6.
7. J. Vidal, McLibel: Burger Culture on Trial, London, Pan, 1997.
8. N.Z. McLeod (dir.), The Paleface, Hollywood, Paramount Pictures, 1948.
9. F. Tashlin (dir.), Son of Paleface, Hollywood, Paramount Pictures, 1952. Okay, okay, I've cheated a little here. Potter didn't actually try to sell snake oil in The Paleface, though he did have trouble pulling teeth painlessly. However, the medicine show theme reappeared in the sequel, in the form of Dr Lovejoy and his ‘Wonder Tonic’.
10. S. Brown, ‘Art or science?’, 1996, op. cit.
11. A.S. Hynd, ‘The great tooth tycoon’, in Professors of Perfidy, New York, A.S. Barnes, 1963, pp. 181–197. See also D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, ‘Medicine shows: pitch doctors take to the road’, in The Great American Medicine Show: Being an Illustrated History of Hucksters, Healers, Health Evangelists and Heroes, from Plymouth Rock to the Present, New York, Prentice-Hall, 1991, pp. 173–184.
12. M.T. McGee, Beyond Ballyhoo: Motion Picture Promotion and Gimmicks, Jefferson, McFarland, 1989; C.J. Furhman, Publicity Stunt! Great Staged Events that Made the News, San Francisco, Chronicle, 1989; M. Borkowski, Improperganda: The Art of the Publicity Stunt, London, Vision On, 2000.
13. J. Lears, 1994, op. cit.; R. Marchand, 1985, op. cit.; M. Klein, op. cit.
14. A.S. Hynd, ‘Reichenbach – master of ballyhoo’, in Professors of Perfidy, 1963, op. cit., pp. 40–88.
15. P.B. Kundhardt et al., op. cit. Many variations on this silence-is-golden, curiosity-killed-the-cat stunt were utilized by nineteenth-century medicine show operators and stand-alone pitchpersons (cf. note 18 below).
16. On hypnotism see: D. Pick, Svengali's Web: The Alien Enchanter in Modern Culture, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2000; A. Winter, Mesmerized: Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1998; D. Forrest, The Evolution of Hypnotism, Forfar, Black Ace, 1999.
17. A.S. Hynd, op. cit.
18. The single best study of the American medicine show is B. McNamara, Step Right Up, Jackson, University Press of Mississippi, 1995. Also useful are D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, op. cit.; V. McNeil, Two White Horses and a Brass Band, Garden City, Doubleday, 1947; S.H. Holbrook, The Golden Age of Quackery, Macmillan, New York, 1959; J.H. Young, The Toadstool Millionaires: A Social History of Patent Medicines in America before Federal Legislation, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1961.
19. F. Presbrey, op. cit.
20. B. McNamara, op. cit., p. 104.
21. Ibid., p. 32.
22. Out-and-out con-men, known as ‘jamb’ or ‘jam’ artists, were ostracized by showpersons as a rule, because their chicanery damaged everyone's reputation.
23. B. McNamara, op. cit., p. 55.
24. W. Schupbach, ‘Sequah: an English-American medicine man in 1890’, Medical History, 29, 1985, pp. 272–317.
25. R. Porter, Quacks: Fakers and Charlatans in English Medicine, Stroud, Tempus, 2000, p. 65.
26. Albeit understandable, Kickapoo's litigiousness was a bit rich, since they stole most of their ideas from P.T. Barnum (as did the entire medicine show tradition).
27. As Young (op. cit.) demonstrates, the medicine show concept long predated the itinerant impresarios of the fin-de-siècle. The American Colonies were awash with faux apothecaries-cum-lay-preachers, who combined saving souls with saving lives, and a vigorous transatlantic trade in British patent medicines existed until the War of [Page 239]Independence encouraged Yankee entrepreneurs to do their own thing. Long before the Colonies were colonized, however, quacks and mountebanks roamed the highways and byways of western Europe. Quackery is considered at length in R. Porter (op. cit.) and S.H. Holbrook, 1959, op. cit. See also E. Jameson, The Natural History of Quackery, London, Michael Joseph, 1961; E. Maple, Magic, Medicine and Quackery, London, Robert Hale, 1968; J. Camp, Magic Myth and Medicine, London, Priory Press, 1973.
28. An informative historical overview of US citizens' penchant for Native American cross-dressing is available in P.J. Deloria, Playing Indian, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998.
29. The Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill are cogently summarized in R.L. Wilson and G. Martin, Buffalo Bill's Wild West: An American Legend, New York, Random House, 1998. The ‘extinct tribes’ remark is attributed to Mark Twain by D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, op. cit., p. 179.
30. J.H. Young, op. cit., pp. 175–176.
31. J. Greenwald, op. cit.
32. K.T. Greenfeld, ‘New health drinks or old-style snake-oil elixirs?’, Time, 23 November, 1998, p. 61.
33. R. McKie, ‘Watchdog to police Chinese cures’, The Observer, Sunday 23 July, 2000, p. 7; J. Burns, ‘Irish mail order ban on popular herb’, The Sunday Times, 5 March, 2000, p. 4; C. Gorman, ‘Is it good medicine? Herbs have been used for centuries to help the sick in countries like China. They can heal, but they can hurt you too’, Time, 23 November, 1998, p. 69.
34. H. Foster, ‘Beauty report, the age of ayurveda’, The Observer Magazine, Sunday 30 January, 2000, p. 53.
35. D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, op. cit.; G. Sutton, ‘Electric medicine and mesmerism’, Isis, 72 (263), 1981, pp. 375–392; J.D. Livingstone, Driving Force: The Natural Magic of Magnets, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1996 (especially Chapter 13, ‘Mesmerism and magnetic therapy’, pp. 202–217).
36. I don't want to labour the medical parallels, since I've alluded to the placebo effect in Chapter 3. Suffice it to say that marketing cures all known ills!
37. J. Micklethwait and A. Wooldridge, op. cit. (especially Chapter 1 ‘The fad in progress’, pp. 23–42).
38. M.J. Wolf, The Entertainment Economy: How Mega-media Forces are Transforming our Lives, London, Penguin, 1999.
39. J. Micklethwait and A. Wooldridge, op. cit., pp. 23–25.
40. S.H. Holbrook, 1959, op. cit. (especially Chapter 1, ‘The high noon’, pp. 3–13).
41. J.H. Young, op. cit. (Chapters 13, and 14 in particular, pp. 205–244).
42. D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, op. cit.
43. A detailed study of the inter-war legislation, including an in-depth assessment of Tugwell's contribution, is contained in J.H. Young, The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth Century America, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1967. The post-war situation is covered in J.H. Young, American Health Quackery, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992.
44. As early as 1773, for example, the Puritans of Connecticut were legislating against travelling apothecaries (J.H. Young, 1961, op. cit.).
45. For the Hadacol extravaganza, see J.H. Young, 1967, op. cit.; B. McNamara, op. cit.; and D. Armstrong and E.M. Armstrong, op. cit.
46. John R. Brinkley's celebrated ‘monkey glands’ scam is summarized in Reader's Digest, op. cit., pp. 560–578.
47. B. McNamara, op. cit., p. 152.
48. ‘All sold out, professor’ was an expression used by snake-oil salespersons in the course of the medicine shows. During the ‘commercial breaks’, scores of snake-oil sales assistants ran up and down the aisles disbursing the magical elixir to excited customers. [Page 240]Their accompanying shouts of ‘all sold out, professor’ apparently added to the buying frenzy. So, now you know.
49. Only joking, but it's a nice thought, isn't it?!
50. Yeah, I made this up too. Allow me some poetic licence, will you? Hadacol may be gone but it is not forgotten. On the contrary, in a tour de force of retro HBA marketing, Johnson & Johnson has recently launched Benecol, a nutritional supplement based on pine tree essence. Can the Benecol Caravan be far behind?
51. The ‘enacted’ character of the strategic marketing environment is expertly dissected by L. Smircich and C. Stubbart (‘Strategic management in an enacted world’, Academy of Management Review, 10 (4), 1985, pp. 724–736).
52. A lengthy discussion of the marketing environment is contained in A. Palmer, The Business and Marketing Environment, London, McGraw-Hill, 1996. See also, D. Mercer, Marketing Strategy: The Challenge of the External Environment, London, Sage, 1998.
1. S.J. Gould, ‘A special fondness for beetles’, in S.J. Gould, Dinosaur in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History, London, Jonathan Cape, 1996, pp. 377–387.
2. Ibid., p. 385.
3. H.I. Ansoff, ‘Strategies for diversification’, Harvard Business Review, 35 (5), 1957, pp. 113–124.
4. The ‘build a better mousetrap’ saying is usually attributed to the titanic marketing man, Elbert Hubbard (sorry, maybe next time). With this in mind, I wonder where the ‘break out of box’ cliché came from. Whoever it was, retract it forthwith!
5. These matrices are described and discussed in most standard strategy textbooks; see for example R.M. Grant, Contemporary Strategy Analysis: Concepts, Techniques, Applications, Oxford, Blackwell, 1998; G. Johnson and K. Scholes, Exploring Corporate Strategy, Hemel Hempstead, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
6. P. Kotler, G. Armstrong, J. Saunders and V. Wong, Principles of Marketing: The European Edition, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall, 1996, p. 231.
7. M. McDonald and J.W. Leppard, Marketing by Matrix: 100 Practical Ways to Improve Your Strategic and Tactical Marketing, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992.
8. G. Harding and P. Walton, Bluff Your Way in Marketing, Horsham, Ravette Books, 1987.
9. M.E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, New York, Free Press, 1985.
10. H. Mintzberg, The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving Roles for Planning, Plans, Planners, New York, Free Press, 1994.
11. H. Mintzberg, B. Ahlstrand and J. Lampel, Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour through the World of Strategic Management, London, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
12. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, op. cit.
13. Morris Holbrook frequently makes use of matrices, but the fullest expression of this tendency is found in his edited book, Consumer Value, 1999, op. cit.
14. See S. Brown, ‘Devaluing value’, op. cit., pp. 159–182.
15. P. Lukas, ‘Brannock device’, in Inconspicuous Consumption: An Obsessive Look at the Stuff We Take for Granted, from the Everyday to the Obscure, New York, Crown, 1997, pp. 16–17.
16. Some of these are referred to in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
17. The social history of shoes is brilliantly recounted by C. McDowell, Shoes: Fashion and Fantasy, London, Thames and Hudson, 1994.
18. This reluctance to buy shoes contaminated by other people's feet might seem surprising, given that most off-the-peg clothes buyers are cognizant that several others may [Page 241]have tried them on. However, it could well be related to the fact that footwear, like gloves, moulds itself to the wearer's body and is thus imprinted with their presence, as it were. There are few sights sadder than piles of second-hand shoes, unmatched, unboxed, unwanted.
19. T. Hine, The Total Package: The Secret History and Hidden Meanings of Boxes, Bottles, Cans and Other Persuasive Containers, Boston, Back Bay Books, 1995.
20. In addition to my shoe box experiences, I had another striking encounter with the enormous store people place by boxes when investigating the Japanese market for Irish full-lead crystal. There hangs a tale …
21. P. Lukas, op. cit.
22. B. Cornfeld and O. Edwards, Quintessence: The Quality of Having It, New York, Crown, 1983. For Tupperware see A.J. Clarke, Tupperware: The Plastic Promise in 1950s America, Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999.
23. R. Kovel and T. Kovel, The Label Made Me Buy It! From Aunt Jemima to Zonkers – The Best-Dressed Boxes, Bottles and Cans from the Past, New York, Crown, 1998.
24. D. Sudjic, Cult Objects: The Complete Guide to Having it All, London, Paladin, 1985, pp. 111–112.
25. T. Hine, op. cit.
26. S. Jeffries, Mrs Slocombe's Pussy: Growing Up in Front of the Telly, London, Flamingo, 2000.
27. H. Kingsley and G. Tibbals, Box of Delights: The Golden Years of Television, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1989.
28. S. Armstrong, ‘The gospel according to Keanu’, Sunday Times Culture, 13 February, 2000, p. 22.
29. M. Collings, This is Modern Art, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1999; J. Fineberg, Art since 1940: Strategies of Being, London, Laurence King, 2000; R. Hughes, American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America, London, Harvill, 1997.
30. Boxes in literature are beautifully described by V. Cunningham, In the Reading Gaol: Postmodernity, Texts and History, Oxford, Blackwell, 1994. In case you're wondering about Vonnegut's marketing background, he variously worked in the public relations department of General Electric and as a salesman for Saab, before becoming a full-time writer. Several of his early short stories, incidentally, deal with the marketing-saturated suburban environment of 1950s America.
31. T. Bulfinch, The Illustrated Age of Fable: The Classic Retelling of Greek and Roman Myths Accompanied by the World's Greatest Paintings, New York, Stewart, Tabori and Chang, 1998.
32. H.C. Andersen, ‘The Tinder-box’, in The Complete Fairy Tales, Ware, Wordsworth Editions, 1997, pp. 1–8.
33. W. Moore, Schrödinger: Life and Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
34. T.H. Leahey, A History of Modern Psychology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1991; D.N. Robinson, An Intellectual History of Psychology, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1986; J.K. Galbraith, A History of Economics: The Past as the Present, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1987; E. Screpanti and S. Zamagni, An Outline of the History of Economic Thought, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993.
35. T.A. Bass, The Predictors, London, Allen Lane, 1999.
36. A bit of a strained segue, admittedly, but bear with me.
37. J. Randi, ‘Conjuring in the new world: the Brothers Davenport and their spirit cabinet’, in Conjuring, New York, St Martin's Press, 1992, pp. 52–56.
38. S. Skinner, ‘Pregnant with the Messiah’, in Millennium Prophecies: Predictions for the Year 2000 and Beyond, London, Virgin, 1994, pp. 108–109.
39. S. Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams, trans. J. Strachey, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1991 .
40. The literature on gift-giving is vast. A useful summary is found in C. Otnes and R.F. [Page 242]Beltramini, Gift Giving: A Research Anthology, Bowling Green, Ohio, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1996.
41. C.G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, trans. R.F.C. Hull, London, Routledge, 1990; C.G. Jung, Psychology and Alchemy, trans. R.F.C. Hull, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1993; R.A. Segal, Jung on Mythology, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1998.
42. F.X. King, The Encyclopaedia of Mind, Magic and Mysteries, London, Dorling Kindersley, 1991.
43. U. Becker, ‘Magic squares’, in The Element Encyclopaedia of Symbols, Shaftesbury, Element, 1994, pp. 184–187.
44. See S. Skinner, op. cit.; F.X. King, op. cit.; A. Aveni, Behind the Crystal Ball: Magic and Science from Antiquity to the New Age, London, Newleaf, 1996; P. Roland, Revelations: Wisdom of the Ages, Berkeley, CA, Ulysses Press, 1995; C. Wilson, The Occult: A History, New York, Barnes and Noble Books, 1995.
45. S. Brown, ‘The unbearable lightness of marketing’, 1998, op. cit.
46. J.B. Twitchell, 1996, op. cit., p. 31.
47. It is no accident, as T. Hine (1995, op. cit.) observes, that many of the world's great religions organize worship around containers of sanctity – from chrismal to cathedral – since they encourage congregations' belief in the efficacy of their contents.
48. M.K. Shanley, The Memory Box: Gathering the Keepsakes of the Heart, Marshalltown, Sta-Kris, 1996; S. Athorne, ‘Memory boxes’, The Sunday Times Magazine, 12 September, 1999, pp. 34–37; B. Hillier, ‘Take two time capsules’, The Times Weekend, Saturday 18 December, 1999, pp. 1–2; see also the novel The Memory Box by M. Foster (London, Chatto and Windus, 1999).
49. H. Mintzberg et al., 1998, op. cit.; C. Hackley, ‘Towards a post-structuralist marketing pedagogy – or from irony to despair’, in R. Mayer (ed.), AM2000 Conference Proceedings, Derby: University of Derby, 2000, pp. 732–743; N. Piercy, ‘A polemic. In search of excellence among business school professors: cowboys, chameleons, question-marks and quislings’, European Journal of Marketing, 33 (7/8), 1999, pp. 698–706.
50. Actually, postmodernists' disdain for boxes is, in many respects, misplaced. The pantheon of postmodern philosophers is replete with intellectuals who have constructed cerebrality squares. Check it out!
51. T. Bulfinch, op. cit.
52. W. Poundstone, 1983, op. cit; W. Poundstone, 1993, op. cit.; W. Poundstone, Bigger Secrets: More Than 125 Things They Prayed You'd Never Find Out, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1986.
53. For example: P. Hughes, ‘Left, then right, then left again’, The Observer Review, Sunday 6 August, 2000, p. 6; S. Singh, The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography, London, Fourth Estate, 1999; R. Ingpen and P. Wilkinson, Encyclopaedia of Mysterious Places, London, Guild Publishing, 1999.
54. This is an important point and I'll be addressing it in the Pedagogic Appendix.
55. Quoted in S. Singh, op. cit., p. vi.
1. Innovations, Innovations Millennium Collection, Preston, Innovations, 2000.
2. The Innovations phenomenon is discussed in I. Robson and J. Rowe, ‘Marketing – the whore of Babylon?’, European Journal of Marketing, 31 (9/10), 1997, pp. 654–666.
3. How quickly marketing fads and postmodern panics pass! Who now remembers the maleficent millennium bug?
4. See for example: J. Westwood, 30 Minutes to Write a Marketing Plan, London, [Page 243]Kogan Page, 1997; S. Dibb, L. Simpkin and J. Bradley, The Marketing Planning Workbook: Effective Marketing for Marketing Managers, London, Routledge, 1996; A. Hatton, The Definitive Guide to Marketing Planning, London, Financial Times, 2000.
5. S. Dibb et al., op. cit., p. 162.
6. M. McDonald, Marketing Plans: How to Prepare Them, How to Use Them, London, Heinemann, 1984; M. McDonald, Marketing Plans: How to Prepare Them, How to Use Them, fourth edition, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
7. M. McDonald, ‘Strategic marketing planning: theory and practice’, in M.J. Baker (ed.), The Marketing Book, fourth edition, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, p. 60.
8. J.J. Corn and B. Horrigan, Yesterday's Tomorrows: Past Visions of the American Future, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996; W.A. Sherden, The Fortune Sellers: The Big Business of Buying and Selling Predictions, New York, Wiley, 1998; C. Canto and O. Failu, The History of the Future: Images of the 21st Century, trans. F. Cowper, Paris, Flammarion, 1993; S.P. Schnaars, Megamistakes: Forecasting and the Myth of Rapid Technological Change, New York, Free Press, 1989.
9. H. Kahn and A.J. Wiener, The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next Thirty-Three Years, New York, Macmillan, 1967.
10. S.P. Schnaars, op. cit., pp. 20–21.
11. J.J. Corn and B. Horrigan, op. cit., pp. x-xv.
12. W.A. Sherden, op. cit.
13. F. Popcorn, The Popcorn Report: Faith Popcorn on the Future of Your Company, Your World and Your Life, Garden City, Doubleday, 1991; R. Shalit, ‘The business of Faith’, The New Republic, 18 April, 1994, pp. 23–29; W.A. Sherden, op. cit., pp. 220–224.
14. R. Shalit, op. cit., p. 23.
15. W.A. Sherden, op. cit., p. 224.
16. See for example: B.K. Boyd, ‘Strategic planning and financial performance: a meta-analytic review’, Journal of Management Studies, 28 (4), 1991, pp. 353–374; J. Leppard and M. McDonald, ‘A re-appraisal of the role of marketing planning’, Journal of Marketing Management, 3 (2), 1987, pp. 159–171; M. McDonald, ‘Strategic marketing planning: theory, practice and research agendas’, Journal of Marketing Management, 12 (1), 1996, pp. 5–27.
17. This criticism is a bit much, to put it politely. After fortysomething years, planners can hardly continue to blame bozo managers for failing to give it a fair shot. Formal planning has been properly tried and found sorely wanting.
18. Malcolm McDonald ‘Strategic Marketing Planning’ (1999, op. cit., pp. 70–76) lists ten barriers to successful marketing planning, ranging from lack of CEO support to a reluctance to plan for planning.
19. H. Mintzberg, op. cit.; H. Mintzberg et al., op. cit.
20. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
21. H. Mintzberg et al., op. cit.
22. ‘Environmental turbulence’ is yet another common justification for formal planning. The gist of this argument is that business conditions are so fast-moving, so mutable, so uncontrollable nowadays that careful planning is more necessary than ever before. Failure to plan in turbulent times spells disaster, invites failure, is tantamount to incompetence and the like. Granted, ‘environmental turmoil’ has been used as a rallying cry since the earliest days of strategic planning and careful planning may not be the most appropriate response to socio-economic turbulence, in any event. Nevertheless, the fact of the matter is that business conditions are no more complex, faster-moving or whatever than they have been at various times in the past. It only seems that way; the passage of time smoothes out minor perturbations; and, not least, the things-have-never-been-tougher claim is patently self-serving, since it demonstrates how much better, smarter and more astute today's marketers are than the amateurs back then, who obviously didn't know how lucky they were.
23. Indeed, the recent millennial transition has stimulated an orgy of prognostication. See for instance: S. Griffiths, Predictions: 30 Great Minds on the Future, Oxford, Oxford [Page 244]University Press, 1999; Y. Blumenfeld, Scanning the Future: 20 Eminent Thinkers on the World of Tomorrow, London, Thames and Hudson, 1999; S. Chowdhury, Management 21C, London, Financial Times, 2000.
24. I'm not being facetious here (well, just a little bit). The comfort-blanket aspect of planning is very important. There's no doubt that plans act as intra-organizational pacifiers, notwithstanding the political battles that may accompany their implementation. By insinuating that the future is manageable, if only in part, they function as an anxiety-reducing mechanism. In this regard, marketing plans are akin to magical rites and rituals, as Gimpl and Dakin astutely observe (M.L. Gimpl and S.R. Dakin, ‘Management and magic’, California Management Review, 1984, 27 (1), pp. 125–136).
25. Stories, needless to say, are not confined to management studies. They are everywhere. Whereas Walter Benjamin, one of the leading cultural theorists of the mid-twentieth century, famously lamented the decline of storytelling in modernity, it seems that at our millennial transition storytelling is back with a postmodern bang (see below).
26. For most commentators, the postmodern and storytelling are inseparable. According to Lyotard, the postmodern intellectual's principal function is to ‘tell stories’; Jameson defines postmodernism as ‘a return to storytelling’; Hutcheon regards postmodern culture as ‘essentially novelistic’; Simpson diagnoses a veritable ‘epidemic of storytelling’ in the human sciences today; and Michel de Certeau contends that we reside in a recited society, one that is defined by stories, by citations of stories and by the interminable recitation of stories. I consider this dimension of postmodernism in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, 1998, op. cit.
27. Again, I've summarized much of this literature in Postmodern Marketing Two (ibid.). Also useful are: B.B. Stern, ‘Narratological analysis of consumer voices in postmodern research accounts’, in B.B. Stern (ed.), Representing Consumers: Voices, Views and Visions, London, Routledge, 1998, pp. 55–82; D. Brownlie, ‘Beyond ethnography: towards writerly accounts of organising in marketing’, European Journal of Marketing, 31 (3/4), 1997, pp. 264–284; J.E. Escalas, ‘Advertising narratives: what are they and how do they work’, in B.B. Stern (ed.), op. cit., pp. 267–289; B. Heilbrunn, ‘My brand the hero? A semiotic analysis of the consumer-brand relationship’, in M. Lambkin et al. (eds), European Perspectives on Consumer Behaviour, London, Prentice-Hall, 1998, pp. 370–401.
28. D. Brownlie and J. Desmond, ‘Apocalyptus interruptus: a tale by parables, apostles and epistles’, in S. Brown et al. (eds), Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 66–86.
29. G. Shaw, R. Brown and P. Bromiley, ‘Strategic stories: how 3M is rewriting business planning’, Harvard Business Review, 76 (May-June), 1998, pp. 41–50.
30. To my knowledge, I hasten to add. Such is the pace of marketing scholarship that several storytelling studies will no doubt have appeared by the time this text is published.
31. A.A. Berger, Narratives in Popular Culture, Media and Everyday Life, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage, 1997; S. Onega and J.A.G. Landa, Narratology: An Introduction, London, Longman, 1996; M. Currie, Postmodern Narrative Theory, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1998; C. Nash, Narrative in Culture: The Uses of Storytelling in the Sciences, Philosophy and Literature, London, Routledge, 1990.
32. The literature on Baum is vast. Biographical details are provided in A.S. Carpenter and J. Shirley, L. Frank Baum: Royal Historian of Oz, Minneapolis, Lerner Publications, 1992; M.O. Riley, Oz and Beyond: The Fantasy World of L. Frank Baum, Lawrence, University Press of Kansas, 1997; W.R. Leach, ‘The clown from Syracuse: the life and times of L. Frank Baum’, in L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Belmont, Wadsworth, 1991, pp. 1–34; S. Rahn, The Wizard of Oz: Shaping an Imaginary World, New York, Twayne, 1998. (By the way, I know that it was silver slippers in the book and that ruby came courtesy of MGM. No irate letters in green ink, please. Except those with an Emerald City postmark.)
33. In light of our discussion in Chapter 2, it is noteworthy that Baum's pro-marketing books were widely banned in the anti-marketing 1950s. These days, by contrast, Oz is back in favour – reprints of the original texts, the 1939 film re-released, plans for another stage [Page 245]show, etc. – largely, one suspects, on account of the centenary of Baum's landmark text. There's even a self-help spiritual cult based on the Oz books. See G.D. Morena, The Wisdom of Oz, San Diego, Inner Connections Press, 1998.
34. This consumption-orientated interpretation of the Oz books has become very popular in recent years. Just as consumption has become a ‘legitimate’ topic in lit-crit per se, so too Baum is getting the apologist-for-capitalism treatment. Key contributions to the debate include: W. Leach, 1993, op. cit. (especially Chapter 8, pp. 246–260); H. Schwartz, op. cit. pp. 115–117; S. Culver, ‘What manikins want: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and The Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows’, Representations, 21, 1988, pp. 97–116; S. Culver, ‘Growing up in Oz’, American Literary History, 4 (Winter), 1992, pp. 607–628; T.S. Oilman, ‘“Aunt Em: Hate you! Hate Kansas! Taking the dog. Dorothy”: conscious and unconscious desire in The Wizard of Oz’, Children's Literature Association Quarterly, 20 (Winter), 1995–96, pp. 161–167; M.D. Westbrook, ‘Readers of Oz: young and old, old and new historicist’, Children's Literature Association Quarterly, 21 (3), 1996, pp. 111–119; J. Zipes, ‘Introduction’, in L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful World of Oz, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1998, pp. ix-xxix.
35. L.F. Baum, The Wizard of Oz, in L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful World of Oz, 1998, op. cit., p. 50.
36. Ibid., p. 132.
37. Like Oz, Utopia is making a comeback. Recent overviews include: J. Carey, The Faber Book of Utopias, London, Faber and Faber, 1999; G. Claeys and L.T. Sargent, The Utopia Reader, New York, New York University Press, 1999; R. Jacoby, The End of Utopia: Politics and Culture in an Age of Apathy, New York, Basic Books, 1999; C. Kelly, Utopias, London, Penguin, 1999. For a marketing angle on Utopia, see S. Brown and P. Maclaran, ‘The future is past’, in S. Brown et al. (eds), Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 260–277.
38. S. Culver, 1988, op. cit.
39. The Wizard was specifically based on Barnum, not only in the original drawings by W.W. Window but also in Frank Morgan's portrayal of the Wizard in the 1939 MGM movie. One of the later Oz books, in fact, informs us that the Wizard was once a performer in ‘Bailum and Barney's Consolidated Shows’ (see Z. Papanikolas, Trickster in the Land of Dreams, Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1995).
40. J. Zipes, op. cit., p. xxi.
41. W. Leach, 1993, op. cit., p. 254. Emphasis added.
42. The fullest discussion of Oz-as-allegory is found in P. Nathanson, Over the Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America, Albany, State University of New York Press, 1991. Of course, Baum's works are not unique in this regard. One only has to consider the manifold meanings ‘read into’ the works of George Orwell, Lewis Carroll, J.R.R. Tolkien and countless others.
43. Baum loved things. He was a total spendthrift, a shopaholic avant la lettre, who wrote most of the sequels whilst living in a luxurious hotel, the Del Coronado, in southern California.
44. J. Zipes, op. cit.
45. S. Brown, ‘Trinitarianism, the Eternal Evangel and the Three Eras Schema’, in S. Brown et al. (eds), Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 23–43.
46. I explore the quest narrative in S. Brown, A.M. Doherty and B. Clarke, ‘Stoning the romance: on marketing's mind forg'd manacles’, in S. Brown et al. (eds), Romancing the Market, op. cit., pp. 1–21.
47. C. Volger, The Writer's Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers, Los Angeles, Michael Wiese, 1998. The twelve stages, from ‘Ordinary World’ to ‘Return with Elixir’ are contained in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, op. cit., p. 155. They are applied to four contrasting Hollywood movies, including The Wizard of Oz. Feel free to adapt it to the marketing planning process. You don't expect me to do everything for you, do you?
48. Dorothy's homesickness, however, is largely motivated by misplaced loyalty to [Page 246]Uncle Henry and Aunt Em. By the fifth book, even Dorothy succumbs to Oz's charms when she finally ups sticks and relocates permanently.
49. Academic marketing is more than one hundred years old; ample time, one would have thought, to concoct a general theory or two. The ‘youthful discipline’ argument simply doesn't wash. Acting youthfully is another matter entirely, however. Sure, you're as young as you feel …
50. H. Eysenck, Genius: The Natural History of Creativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; G. Morgan, Imaginization: The Art of Creative Management, Newbury Park, CA, Sage, 1993; J.N.T. Martin, ‘Play, reality and creativity’, in J. Henry (ed.), Creative Management, London, Sage, 1991, pp. 34–40.
51. See J. Zipes, The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales: The Western Fairy Tale Tradition from Medieval to Modern, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000; M. Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales and Their Tellers, London, Vintage, 1998; B. Bettelheim, The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, New York, Vintage, 1975; J. Zipes, Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion, New York, Routledge, 1983.
52. G. Shaw et al., op. cit.; J. Peterman, ‘The rise and fall of the J. Peterman Company’, Harvard Business Review, 11 (September-October), 1999, pp. 58–64.
53. N. Piercy, Tales from the Marketplace, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.
54. R. Jensen, The Dream Society: How the Coming Shift from Information to Imagination will Transform your Business, New York, McGraw Hill, 1999.
55. H. Mintzberg et al., op. cit.; S. Dunlop, Business Heroes, Oxford, Capstone, 1997; S. Crainer, ‘Storytelling’, in S. Crainer (ed.), A Freethinker's A-Z of the New World of Business, Oxford, Capstone, 2000, pp. 267–268.
56. Roll on Marketing Planning the Harry Potter Way!
1. D. Waddle, ‘Publican's suicide over Flares’, The Daily Telegraph, 16 August, 1998, p. 10.
2. Themed environments have become a fairly hot topic in cultural studies and the sociology of consumption. Key contributions include M. Gottdiener, The Theming of America: Dreams, Visions and Commercial Spaces, Boulder, CO, Westview, 1997; J. Hannigan, op. cit; M. Sorkin, Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space, New York, Hill and Wang, 1992; G. Ritzer, Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionising the Means of Consumption, Thousand Oaks, CA, Pine Forge Press, 1999.
3. I.D.H. Shepherd and C.J. Thomas, ‘Urban consumer behaviour’, in J.A. Dawson (ed.), Retail Geography, London: Croom Helm, 1980, pp. 18–94.
4. A. Patterson et al., op. cit.; L. Stevens et al., 1998, op. cit.; L. Stevens, S. Brown and P. Maclaran, ‘Sexing the advertising text: gender and reading Caffrey's “New York”’, Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, Derby, University of Derby, 2000, pp. 1438–1450; L. Stevens, S. Brown and P. Maclaran, ‘Images of Ireland: gender, post-colonialism and the neo-Celtic Revival’, in E. Fischer and D. Whitrow (eds), Proceedings of the Fourth Gender Conference, San Francisco, San Francisco State University Press, 1998, pp. 13–26.
5. J. Barnes, England, England, London, Jonathan Cape, 1998, p. 142.
6. For some examples of what I'm getting at, see A. Billen, ‘Kiss of the cyber woman’, The Observer, Sunday, 11 February, 1996, p. 8; C. Butler, ‘He-mail’, Sunday Times Style, 30 July, 2000, pp. 8–9; S. Munk, ‘Playing Cupid’, The Times Metro, 29 July, 2000, p. 23; R. Tompkins, ‘Revolution? What revolution?’, The Financial Times Weekend, Saturday 4 [Page 247]December, 1999, pp. I II; M. Driscoll, ‘Something stirs in the family tree’, The Sunday Times News Review, 25 April, 1999, p. 4; D. Purgavie, ‘Back to your roots: trace your family tree with the Mormons' website’, Night & Day, Sunday 13 June, 1999, p. 36; S. Caulkin, ‘Seer of cyberspace symbols’, The Observer, 18 June, 1999, p. 9; D. Hancock, ‘Malice in Wonderland’, The Times Metro, Saturday 5 August, 2000, p. 23; S. Poole, Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Videogames, London, Fourth Estate, 2000; Virgin, The Virgin Internet Shopping Guide, London: Virgin, 1999.
7. S. Brown, ‘Institutional change in retailing: a review and synthesis’, European Journal of Marketing, 21 (6), 1987, pp. 1–36.
8. P. Durman, ‘Leschly's still running to the net’, The Times, Saturday 6 November, 1999, p. 31; The Economist, ‘Shopping around the web’, The Economist Survey, 26 February, 2000, pp. 1–44; The Economist, ‘The net imperative’, The Economist Survey, 26 June, 1999, pp. 1–48; J. Waples, ‘Net land rush’, The Sunday Times Business, 1 August, 1999, p. 9.
9. D. Hewson, ‘Harald slays the serpent’, The Sunday Times Culture, 9 July, 2000, pp. 47–49.
10. M. Prigg and A. Williams, ‘Spies behind your screen’, The Sunday Times Culture, 6 August, 2000, pp. 47–49.
11. R. Levine et al., op. cit. For a countervailing view, see The Economist, ‘What the Internet cannot do’, The Economist, 19 August, 2000, pp. 13–14.
12. The Economist, ‘Anatomy of an attack’, The Economist, 19 February, 2000, pp. 90–91; G. Alexander, ‘Hackers strike fear into net businesses’, The Sunday Times Business, 13 February, 2000, p. 9; A. Hobsbawm, ‘Hate mail’, The Business, 4 December, 1999, p. 12.
13. T. Wright and R. Hutchison, ‘Socio-spatial reproduction, marketing culture and the built environment’, Research in Urban Sociology, 4, 1997, pp. 187–214; T. Wright, ‘Marketing culture: spectacles and simulation’, in T.L. Childers et al. (eds), Marketing: Theory and Practice, Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1989, pp. 326–328; J.A. Jakle and K.A. Sculle, Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age, Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999; R. Pillsbury, From Boarding House to Bistro: The American Restaurant Then and Now, Boston, Unwin Hyman, 1990.
14. R. Pillsbury, op. cit., p. 5.
15. J. Krantz, Scruples, London, Warner Books, 1978, p. 298.
16. A compelling, characteristically thorough discussion of brand ‘museums’ and corporate collecting generally is available in R.W. Belk, Collecting in a Consumer Society, 1995, op. cit.
17. Few marketing phenomena have given rise to more raptures than Niketown. See, for example, J.F. Sherry, Jr., ‘The soul of the company store: Nike Town Chicago and the emplaced brandscape’, in J.F. Sherry, Jr. (ed.), Servicescapes: The Concept of Place in Contemporary Markets, Chicago, NTC Books, 1998, pp. 109–146; D. Katz, Just Do It: The Nike Spirit in the Corporate World, Holbrook, MA, Adams Media Corporation, 1994; R. Goldman and S. Papson, Nike Culture: The Sign of the Swoosh, London, Sage, 1998.
18. J. Hannigan, op. cit., p. 92.
19. G. Ritzer, 1999, op. cit. p. 111.
20. D. Katz, op. cit., p. 95.
21. K.A. Robertson, ‘Downtown redevelopment strategies in the United States: an end-of-the-century assessment’, Journal of the American Planning Association, 61 (4), 1995, pp. 429–437; G. Dickinson, ‘Memories for sale: nostalgia and the construction of identity in Old Pasadena’, Quarterly Journal of Speech, 83 (1), 1997, pp. 1–27.
22. S. Brown, Retail Location: A Micro-Scale Perspective, Aldershot, Avebury, 1992.
23. P. Maclaran and L. Stevens, ‘Romancing the Utopian marketplace: dallying with Bakhtin in the Powerscourt Townhouse Centre’, in S. Brown et al., Romancing the Market, op. cit., pp. 172–186.
24. The heritage literature is summarized in S. Brown et al., ‘Presenting the past’, op. cit. The key source is D. Lowenthal, The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History, New [Page 248]York, Cambridge University Press, 1998. Also useful, if slightly dated, is R. Hewison, The Heritage Industry: Britain in a Climate of Decline, London, Metheun, 1987.
25. N. Watson, ‘Postmodernism and lifestyles’, in S. Sim (ed.), The Icon Critical Dictionary of Postmodern Thought, Cambridge, Icon, 1998, pp. 53–64.
26. See K. Walsh, The Representation of the Past: Museums and Heritage in the Postmodern World, London, Routledge, 1992; R.W. Rydell, All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at America's International Expositions 1876–1916, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984; R.W. Rydell, World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; S. Brown et al., ‘Presenting the Past’, op. cit.
27. D. Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford, Blackwell, 1989, p. 300.
28. S. Brown and A. Patterson, ‘Knick-knack paddy-whack, give a pub a theme’, Journal of Marketing Management, 16 (6), 2000, pp. 647–662.
29. M. Gottdiener, op. cit.; R.W. Belk, ‘On aura, illusion, escape and hope in apocalyptic consumption: the apotheosis of Las Vegas’, in S. Brown et al., Marketing Apocalypse, op. cit., pp. 87–107; R.W. Belk, ‘Three coins in Caesar's Palace fountain’,
1998, op. cit.; A.L. Huxtable, The Unreal America: Architecture and Illusion, New York, Free Press, 1997.
30. K. Pullinger, ‘Moving sidewalks to Heaven and Hell’, The Observer Review, Sunday 7 August, 1994, p. 3.
31. Pre-adolescent appearances to the contrary, the principal purpose of Disneyland is to provide intellectual fodder for prolix professorial folderol (been there, done that, wrote the paper, etc.). As a consequence, the academic literature on Disney almost beggars belief. Some of the better known examples include: A. Bryman, op. cit.; F.J. Fjellman, Vinyl Leaves: Walt Disney World and America, Boulder, CO, Westview, 1992; H.A. Giroux, The Mouse That Roared: Disney and the End of Innocence, Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 1999; The Project on Disney, Inside the Mouse: Work and Play at Disney World, London, Rivers Oram, 1995; A. Bryman, ‘The Disneyization of society’, Sociological Review, 47 (1), 1999, pp. 25–47; M.J. King, ‘Disneyland and Walt Disney World: traditional values in a futuristic form’, Journal of Popular Culture, 15 (Summer), 1981, pp. 116–140.
32. D. Harvey, op. cit.; S. Lash and J. Urry, Economies of Signs and Space, London, Sage, 1994; J. Baudrillard, Simulations, trans. P. Foss, P. Patton and P. Beitchman, New York, Semiotext(e), 1983.
33. J.F. Rayport and J.J. Sviokla, ‘Managing in the marketspace’, Harvard Business Review, 72 (November-December), 1994, pp. 141–150. The literature on space and place is prodigious. A useful overview is E.S. Casey, The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1997.
34. And they all look just the same. (With apologies to Pete Seeger).
35. P. Kotler, D.H. Haider and I. Rein, Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations, New York, Free Press, 1993; P. Kotler, S. Jatusripitak, S. Maescincee and S. Jatusri, The Marketing of Nations: A Strategic Approach to Building National Wealth, New York, Free Press, 1997; P. Kotler and H. Kartajaya, Repositioning Asia: From Bubble to Sustainable Economy, Singapore, John Wiley, 2000.
36. J.N. Sheth et al., op. cit.
37. J.F. Sherry, Jr., ServiceScapes, op. cit.
38. The Economist, ‘Frictions in cyberspace. Retailing on the Internet, it is said, is almost perfectly competitive. Really?’, The Economist, 20 November, 1999, p. 136; The Economist, ‘The failure of new media’, The Economist, 19 August, 2000, pp. 59–61.
39. As I don't have the space to do justice to space – ahem – I'm going to leave it for now. Fear not, space cadets, I'll be coming back to it in the Pedagogic Appendix.
40. J.P. Diggins, Thorstein Veblen: Theorist of the Leisure Class, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1999; J.K. Galbraith, ‘A new theory of Thorstein Veblen’, American Heritage, 24, 1973, pp. 32–40; J.A. Hobson, Veblen, New York, Augustus M. Kelley, 1971; [Page 249]E.W. Jorgensen and H.I. Jorgensen, Thorstein Veblen: Victorian Firebrand, Armonk, NY, M.E. Sharpe, 1998.
41. T. Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions, London, Unwin Books, 1970 .
42. C. Campbell, The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism, Oxford, Blackwell, 1987; C. Campbell, ‘The sociology of consumption’, in D. Miller (ed.), Acknowledging Consumption: A Review of New Studies, London: Routledge, 1995, pp. 96–126.
43. G. Ritzer, 1999, op. cit.
44. T. Veblen, Absentee Ownership and Business Enterprise in Recent Times: The Case of America, New York, Augustus M. Kelley, 1964 .
45. Ibid., p. 309.
46. Ibid., p. 320.
47. G. Adair, The Postmodernist Always Rings Twice, London, Fourth Estate, 1992.
48. G. Harding and P. Walton, op. cit.
49. J. Westwood, op. cit.
50. S. Silbiger, 10-day MBA, London, Piatkus, 1999; M. Sobel, The 12-Hour MBA Program, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1993.
51. Irish theme pubs, for example, have been described as: ‘rubbish’, ‘kitsch bastardized versions of the real thing’, ‘hideous constructions, banal beyond all redemption’. Other commentators have been much less charitable. See S. Brown and A. Patterson, ‘Knick-knack Paddy whack’, op. cit., p. 648. On the excrescences of theming generally, A.L. Huxtable's (op. cit.) hilarious harangue is well worth reading, as are R. Hewison (op. cit.) and D. Lowenthal (1998, op. cit.).
52. J. Baudrillard, op. cit.; G. Ritzer, 1999, op. cit.; U. Eco, Travels in Hyper-reality, trans. W. Weaver, London, Picador, 1986; D. MacCannell, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class, New York, Schocken, 1989; S.F. Mills, ‘Disney and the promotions of synthetic worlds’, American Studies International, 28 (2), 1990, pp. 66–79.
53. D. Sudjic, The 100 Mile City, London, André Deutsch, 1992, p. 172.
54. A.L. Huxtable, op. cit.; D. Lowenthal, (1998, op. cit.; D. MacCannell, op. cit.; J. Urry, The Tourist Gaze, London, Sage, 1990; B. Kirschenblatt-Gimblett, Destination Culture: Tourism, Museums and Heritage, New York, Routledge, 1998; C. Rojek, Leisure and Culture, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 2000.
55. S. Brown et al. ‘Presenting the Past’, op. cit.
56. S. Brown and A. Patterson, ‘Knick-knack Paddy-whack’, op. cit.
57. So much so, that those who uncritically adopt themed looks – who dress top to toe in Hard Rock, Harley-Davidson or Nike outfits, for example – are regarded as a laughing stock of the ‘Man from C&A’ variety.
58. T. Adorno, The Culture Industry, London, Routledge, 1991.
1. N. Cohn, Yes We Have No, London, Secker and Warburg, 1999.
2. Ibid., p. 242.
3. Ibid., p. xii.
4. It is so unnecessary, in fact, that Cohn can omit the climactic noun and the all-important comma after the affirmative. Yet it still makes sense.
5. P.N. Davies, Fyffes and the Banana: A Centenary History 1888–1988, London, Athlone, 1990; The Economist, ‘Food for thought’, The Economist, 19 June, 1999, pp. 23–25; L.S. Grossman, The Political Ecology of Bananas: Contract Farming, Peasants, and Agrarian[Page 250]Change in the Eastern Caribbean, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1998; R.H. Stover and N.W. Simmonds, Bananas, Basingstoke, Longman, 1987.
6. M. Warner, ‘Going bananas’, in M. Warner, No Go the Bogeyman: Scaring, Lulling and Making Mock, London: Chatto and Windus, 1998, pp. 348–373.
7. See P.N. Davies, op. cit.; P. Beaver, Yes! We Have Some: The Story of Fyffes, Benington, Publications for Companies, 1976.
8. J. Winterson, Sexing the Cherry, London, Bloomsbury, 1989, pp. 11–13.
9. D. Nasaw, ‘The city as playground: the World's Fair midways’, in D. Nasaw, Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1993, pp. 62–79.
10. J. Lears, Fables, op. cit., pp. 112–113. Yes, I know they're not really tubers. Allow me some alliterative licence, will you?
11. The timeless words of the Chiquita Banana jingle are: ‘I'm Chiquita Banana/And I've come to say/Bananas have to ripen/In a certain way./When they are fleck'd with brown/And have a golden hue/Bananas taste the best/And are the best for you.’ They don't, as you know, write ‘em like that any more.
12. M.H. Bogart, op. cit.
13. Another famous bananamarketer, who almost eclipses Ackerley in the plantain pantheon is Edward L. Bernays, the so-called ‘father of spin’. I'll be mentioning him in the Pedagogic Appendix.
14. J.R. Ackerley, My Father and Myself, Oxford, The Bodley Head, 1968; D. Petre, The Secret Orchard of Roger Ackerley, London, Hamish Hamilton, 1975; P. Beaver, op. cit.; P.N. Davies, op. cit.
15. S. Brown, ‘The unbearable lightness’, 1998, op. cit.
16. See for example, P.N. Davies, op. cit., p. 138.
17. Ackerley's serendipitous success with ‘Yes, We Have No Bananas’ wasn't the only occasion when he turned a popular song into a marketing triumph. Much earlier in his career, he benefited from the entirely gratuitous insertion of ‘have a banana’ into the music hall, mock-cockney classic, ‘Let's All Go Down the Strand’ (still performed, I am reliably informed, by those Bow Bells troubadours, Chas and Dave).
18. P. Beaver, op. cit., pp. 8–9.
19. A. Davidson, ‘Banana’, in The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 54–55; Y. Péhaut, ‘The invasion of foreign foods’, in J-L. Flandrin and M. Montanari (eds), Food: A Culinary History, New York, Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 457–470.
20. R. Dawkins, ‘Pollen grains and magic bullets’, in Climbing Mount Improbable, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1996, pp. 236–253.
21. S. Willis, ‘Learning from the banana’, in A Primer for Everyday Life, New York, Routledge, 1991, p. 51.
22. C. Enloe, ‘Carmen Miranda on my mind: international politics of the banana’, in Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, London, Pandora, 1989, pp. 124–150.
23. An interesting academic example of the same downgrading tendency is found in Deighton's use of the banana to exemplify the Internet's profound implications for even the most mundane distribution channels (J. Deighton, ‘Commentary on “Exploring the implications of the Internet for consumer marketing”’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25 (4), 1997, pp. 347–351).
24. The Independent, ‘A bargain? No, it's a banana’, The Independent, 15 January, 1997, p. 15; P. Slade, ‘Harvest the rewards of loyalty’, The Independent, 25 April, 1998, p. 1; R. Smith, ‘Banana economics: buy 9421b of fruit, give it away – and make’, The Independent, 15 January, 1997, p. 5.
25. S. de Bruxelles, ‘Collector stuck on a bizarre new pastime’, The Times, 17 April, 1999, p. 3.
[Page 251]26. P. Reinders, Licks, Sticks and Bricks: A World History of Ice Cream, Amsterdam, Unilever, 1999.
27. P. Delerm, The Small Pleasures of Life, London, Phoenix House, 1998, pp. 35–36.
28. M. Warner, 1998, op. cit.
29. M. Klein, op. cit. Make no mistake, the main banana producers have been targeted by protesters, especially environmentalists who object to the companies' liberal use of insecticide. They have escaped lightly compared, say, to the routine trashing of McDonald's by disgruntled activists and gruntled French farmers alike.
30. A. Bryman, 1999, op. cit.; G. Ritzer, The McDonaldization of Society, Newbury Park, CA, Pine Forge Press, 1993; G. Ritzer, The McDonaldization Thesis, London, Sage, 1998; B. Smart, Resisting McDonaldization, London, Sage, 1999.
31. A. Bryman, 1999, op. cit.
32. S. Askegaard and F.F. Csaba, ‘The good, the bad and the Jolly: taste, image and the symbolic resistance to the Coca-colonization of Denmark’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson (eds), Imagining Marketing: Art, Aesthetics and the Avant-garde, London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 124–140; R.W. Belk ‘Hyperreality and globalisation’, 1996, op. cit.
33. G. Ritzer, 1993, 1998, op. cit.; B. Smart, op cit.
34. S. Brown, ‘Going bananas in paradise: from McDonaldization to Fyffefication’, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 2000, 18 (6/7), pp. 356–367.
35. Marketing, as we shall discuss in the Pedagogic Appendix, hails from the northeastern United States.
36. Of course, they all turn Brown eventually!
37. It is impossible to summarize this para-marketing literature, since it takes in everything from Cultural Studies and newspaper columns to best-selling novels and leading schools of literary theory, New Historicism especially. I refer to some of this material in Postmodern Marketing Two (1998, op. cit.), but one doesn't have to look very hard to see that marketers don't have a monopoly on marketing. Some of the best marketing research nowadays emanates from these extra-marketing sources.
38. On the whole question of marketing and female subordination, see M. Catterall et al., op. cit.
39. J. Lears, Fables, op. cit., p. 116.
40. The banana-burger parallel is not casual. Think about it. Both are staples of the post-industrial diet. Both are cheap, cheerful and just about as fast as fast food can be. Both date from the fin-de-siècle and made their official début at a world's fair. Both owe their early success to a presiding promotional genius, Ackerley in the case of the banana, and the peerless Ray Kroc in the case of the burger. Both are particularly popular with children; both pioneered the use of anthropomorphic trade characters; both have a record of third world exploitation; both are characterized by complex, behind-the-scenes marketing channels; both are highly concentrated industries, with a small number of firms holding large market shares; both are multi-branded, even though the products are indistinguishable to even the most educated palates; and, both have been getting into the retroactive act of late, whether it be Chiquita's recent celebration of its hundredth anniversary or McDonald's flower-powered, happy hippies, peace, love and hold the pickle promotion for Big Mac's thirtieth birthday.
41. Undergrads can keep their Kotler Kahuna Burgers.
42. I have discussed Bakhtin's concept of the carnivalesque at length elsewhere (S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing Two, 1998, op. cit.).
43. M. Warner, 1998, op. cit.
44. R.W. Belk, G. Ger and S. Askegaard, ‘Metaphors of consumer desire’, in K.P. Corfman and J.G. Lynch (eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. XXIII, Provo, UT, Association for Consumer Research, 1996, pp. 368–373; R. Elliott, A. Jones, A. Benfield and M. Barlow, ‘Overt sexuality in advertising: a discourse analysis of gender responses’, Journal of Consumer Policy, 18 (2), 1995, pp. 187–217; D. O'Sullivan and D. Kavanagh, [Page 252]‘Marketing – you must be joking’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson, Proceedings, 1999, op. cit., pp. 186–197.
45. D. Saunders, Humour in Advertising, London, Batsford, 1997; D. Saunders, Sex in Advertising, London, Batsford, 1996.
46. P.N. Davies, op. cit.; M. Warner, 1998, op. cit.
47. J. Deighton and K. Grayson, ‘Marketing and seduction: building exchange relationships by managing social consensus’, Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (March), 1995, pp. 660–676.
48. S. Brown and P. Maclaran, op. cit.
49. I. Hamilton, The Penguin Book of Twentieth-Century Essays, London, Allen Lane, 1999.
1. B. Wheeler and J. Day, ‘Shock tacticians’, Marketing Week, 23 March, 2000, pp. 30–31.
2. J. Doward, ‘Tailor's hand who fashioned a fortune with few connections’, The Observer Business, Sunday 26 September, 1999, p. 5; A. Sherwin, ‘Judge says “fcuk” is obscene and should be banned’, The Times, Saturday 4 December, 1999, p. 3.
3. R. Miskin, ‘Jerusalem in uproar over obscene ad campaign’, The Jerusalem Post, 18 July, 1996, p. 5.
4. L. McClintock, ‘Offensive weapons?: more brands are courting controversy by going for ads with shock value’, The Grocer, 10 August, 1996, p. 15; Marketing Week, ‘ASA and poster industry take over pre-vetting notorious advertisers’, Marketing Week, 13 December, 1996, p. 12; Marketing Week, ‘Clothing outfit courts controversy with ads’, Marketing Week, 6 August, 1998, p. 7; Marketing Week, ‘Jokey Jesus advertising campaign branded blasphemous’, Marketing Week, 13 August, 1998, p. 12; Marketing Week, ‘ASA slams Diesel over sexy nun ad’, Marketing Week, 9 July, 1998, p. 12.
5. M. Chittenden and E. Saner, ‘Mums in aprons are out as adland sells on sex’, The Sunday Times, 30 July, 2000, p. 11; J. Doward, ‘The flesh is weak’, The Observer Business, 3 September, 2000, p. 10; B. Borrows, ‘Too good to eat’, Night and Day, 30 July, 2000, pp. 36–39; S. Husband, ‘I'm just a simple working model’, You Magazine, 30 July, 2000, pp. 28–31; M. Carter, ‘Are you getting too much sex in your ads’, The Independent, 31 July, 1996, pp. 2–3; Marketing Week, ‘Advertisers jeopardise image in pursuit of indecent exposure’, Marketing Week, 2 February, 1996, p. 19.
6. R. Vezina and P. Olivia, ‘Provocation in advertising: a conceptualisation and an empirical assessment’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14 (3), 1997, pp. 177–192; J.H. Barnes and M.J. Dotson, ‘An exploratory investigation into the nature of offensive television advertising’, Journal of Advertising, 19 (3), 1990, pp. 61–70.
7. G. Barker, ‘Does art still have the capacity to shock us’, The Times, Wednesday 23 August, 2000, p. 16; P. Wood (ed.), The Challenge of the Avant-Garde, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999; M. Collings, op. cit.; P. Meecham and J. Sheldon, Modern Art: A Critical Introduction, London, Routledge, 2000.
8. N.P. Walsh, ‘It's a new cultural revolution’, The Observer Review, Sunday 11 June, 2000, p. 5.
9. G. Alexander, ‘Advertising fever grips e-commerce’, The Sunday Times Business, 21 November, 1999, p. 9; P. Helmore, ‘Going mad on Madison Avenue’, The Observer Business, Sunday 5 December, 1999, p. 7.
10. In this chapter I'm concentrating on advertising and promotion, but gross-out matters are relevant to marketing as a whole.
[Page 253]11. J. Bond and R. Kirschenbaum, Under the Radar: Talking to Todays Cynical Consumers, New York, John Wiley, 1998.
12. S. Stevens, ‘Carl's Jr., the next generation’, Brandweek, 3 November, 1997, pp. 32–33; R. Martin, ‘Carl's Jr. shoots for big success with “messy” TV ads', Nation's Restaurant News, 19 June, 1995, pp. 14, 123; K. Tyrer, “When it pays to be messy’, Adweek, 18 September, 1995, p. 2.
13. J. Schroeder, ‘Édouard Manet, Calvin Klein and the strategic use of scandal’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson, Imagining Marketing, op. cit., pp. 36–51.
14. Frequency is a standard industry measure. It refers to the number of times an ad is seen by its intended target market during a given period.
15. W. Miller, The Anatomy of Disgust, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1997.
16. Ibid., p. x.
17. D. Saunders, Shock in Advertising, London, Batsford, 1996, p. 105.
18. Ibid., p. 79.
19. Self-citation makes you go blind, boys and girls. Be warned by me!
20. J. Mantle, Benetton: The Family, the Business and the Brand, London, Little Brown, 1999; The Economist, ‘Advertising and death’, The Economist, 19 February, 2000, p. 54; R. Carroll, ‘Shock tactics that finally backfired’, The Observer, Sunday 30 April, 2000, p. 24.
21. Compare this to the company's $100 million involvement in Formula 1 motor racing (A. Henry, ‘Benetton sell team to Renault for £75m’, The Guardian, Friday 17 March, 2000, p. 34).
22. J. Marconi, Shock Marketing: Advertising, Influence and Family Values, Chicago, Bonus Books, 1997.
23. J. della Famina, From Those Wonderful Folks Who Gave You Pearl Harbor: Frontline Dispatches from the Advertising War, ed. Charles Sopkin, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1970.
24. W. Leith, ‘Off the top shelf, The Observer Review, Sunday 28 March, 1999, p. 5; M. Wittstock, ‘How TV crossed the taste barrier’, The Observer, Sunday 5 March, 2000, p. 19; A.J. Jacobs, ‘Johnny come lately’, Entertainment Weekly, 18 September, 1998, pp. 26–30, 33.
25. G. Barker, op. cit.; M. Collings, op cit.; B. Appleyard, ‘Welcome to the freak show’, The Sunday Times Culture, 27 August, 2000, pp. 8–9.
26. J. Dawson, ‘When raspberries ripple’, The Sunday Times Culture, 13 August, 2000, pp. 6–7; J. Patterson, ‘A fanfare for filth’, The Guardian, Friday 30 June, 2000, p. 23; M. Morris, ‘Gross profits’, The Observer Screen, Sunday 30 July, 2000, pp. 6–7.
27. Or should that be intern-al marketing?
28. A. Jacobs, ‘Pop Starr’, Entertainment Weekly, 25 September, 1998, p. 16.
29. G.T. Holtz, Welcome to the Jungle: The Why Behind Generation X, New York, St Martin's Griffin, 1995; J. Miller, Voxpop: The New Generation X Speaks, London, Virgin Books, 1995.
30. There is some debate over X-ers’ ‘official’ year of origin. Karen Richie makes a cogent case for 1960 in Marketing to Generation X, New York, Lexington Books, 1995.
31. See for example M. Gwyner, ‘Elite of the new economy’, Management Today, section e, September, 2000, pp. 12–15; B. Tulgan, Managing Generation X, Oxford, Capstone, 1997; J. Ridderstrale and K. Nordstrom, Funky Business: Talent Makes Capital Dance, London, http://FT.com, 2000; D. Firth and A. Leigh, The Corporate Fool, Oxford, Capstone, 1998. The listings in Crainer's A-Z guide (2000, op. cit.) also give a sense of Gen X's growing influence in the corridors of corporate power.
32. J. Bond and R. Kirshenbaum, op. cit., p. 3.
33. G.T. Holtz, op. cit., p. 199.
34. See for example: E. Showalter, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle, London, Bloomsbury, 1991; A. Briggs and D. Snowman, Fins de Siècle: How Centuries End, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1996; P.N. Stearns, Millennium III, Century XXI, Boulder, CO, Westview, 1998.
[Page 254]35. An excellent comparison of ‘then’ and ‘now’ is: M. Jay and M. Neve, 1900: A Fin de Siècle Reader, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999.
36. J. Baudrillard, The Illusion of the End, trans. C. Turner, Cambridge, Polity, 1994, p. 26.
37. A. Calcutt, Arrested Development: Pop Culture and the Erosion of Adulthood, London, Cassell, 1998. See also note 45 (Chapter 11) below.
38. B. Summerskill, ‘Playtime as kidults grow up at last’, The Observer, Sunday 23 July, 2000, p. 20.
39. C. McDowell, ‘Mutton is the new lamb’, The Sunday Times Style, 11 June, 2000, pp. 4–5.
40. This issue is considered in Chapter 5, above.
41. S. Brown and A. Patterson, ‘Figments for sale: marketing, imagination and the artistic imperative’, in Imagining Marketing, op. cit., pp. 4–32.
42. T. Douglas, ‘Poster medium has the power to survive in tomorrow's world’, Marketing Week, 23 April, 1998, pp. 19–21.
43. For an interesting marketing-orientated treatment of Bataille, see C. Jantzen and P. Ostergaard, ‘The rationality of “irrational” behaviour: Georges Bataille on consuming extremities’, in S. Brown et al., Romancing the Market, op. cit., pp. 125–136.
44. M. Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, London, Routledge, 1996.
45. D. Saunders, 20th Century Advertising, London, Carlton, 1999; D. Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, Chichester, Wiley, 1983; L. Tye, The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and the Birth of Public Relations, New York, Crown, 1998; R. Marchand, 1985, op. cit.
46. S. Strasser, 1989, op. cit.
47. J. Lears, Fables, op. cit.
48. J.B. Twitchell, 1992, op. cit.
49. J.L. Adams and W. Yates, The Grotesque in Art and Literature: Theological Reflections, Grand Rapids, MI, William B. Eerdmans, 1997.
50. L. Savan, The Sponsored Life: Ads, TV and American Culture, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994; B.B. Stern, ‘Deconstructive strategy and consumer research: concepts and illustrative exemplar’, Journal of Consumer Research, 23 (September), 1996, pp. 136–147.
51. R.P. Warren, ‘The dramatic version of Ballad of a Sweet Dream of Success: A Carol for Easter, with the author's introduction’, quoted in J.L. Adams and W. Yates, op. cit., p. 246.
1. A. Ross, The Celebration Chronicles: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Property Values in Disney's New Town, New York, Ballantine, 1999; D. Frantz and C. Collins, Celebration, USA: Living in Disney's Brave New Town, New York, Holt, 1999; J. Diski, ‘Thank you Disney’, London Review of Books, 22 (16), 2000, pp. 7–9.
2. D. Sudjic, 1992, op. cit.; M.C. Boyer, The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1998; J. Hannigan, op. cit.; E.W. Soja, Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places, Maiden, Blackwell, 1996.
3. A.L. Huxtable, op. cit.
4. S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op cit. p. 118; D. Harvey, Spaces of Hope, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2000 (especially Chapter 8, ‘The spaces of Utopia’, pp. 133–181); M. Wilson, ‘Comeback for the cobbled street’, The Sunday Times, 5 March, 2000, p. 11; K. Ahmed and V. Thorpe, ‘Prince's pet village gets seal of approval’, The[Page 255]Observer, Sunday 14 May, 2000, p. 5; P. Hetherington, ‘Homes of the past feature in minister's vision of future’, The Guardian, Friday 28 January, 2000, p. 12.
5. R. Samuel, op. cit.
6. S. Gardiner, ‘In praise of crowded living’, The Times Weekend, Saturday 4 March, 2000, p. 12; N. Nuttall, ‘Prescott aims for greener, cheaper homes’, The Times, Saturday 11 March, 2000, p. 7; R. Rogers, ‘Richard Rogers explains his vision for a new Britain’, The Times, Saturday 6 February, 1999, p. 4; A. Smith, ‘Tales from the riverbank’, The Observer Magazine, Sunday 21 November, 1999, pp. 12–19.
7. G. Cadogan, ‘What is there left to convert?’, Financial Times Weekend, Saturday 30 October, 1999, p. 2.
8. For example: ‘Landmark architecture, contemporary apartments’ (Harrods Village); ‘Traditional values in a brand new home’ (Crest Homes); ‘Ensure your place in history’ (The Imperial Apartments); ‘Village life in a modern world’ (Swan Hill Homes); ‘Designing modern classics’ (Charles Church); ‘A range of stunning new homes echoing the classic styles of the past’ (St James Homes).
9. M. Haslam, Retro Style: The 50s Look for Todays Home, London, MQ Publications, 2000; N. Marshall, Funky Style: Creative Ideas for the Contemporary Home, London, MQ Publications, 1999.
10. R. Samuel, op. cit.
11. S. Caminiti, ‘Ralph Lauren: the emperor has clothes’, Fortune, 11 November, 1996, pp. 80–92; J.A. Trachtenberg, Ralph Lauren: The Man Behind the Mystique, Boston, Little Brown, 1996.
12. S.M. Wooten, Martha Stewart: America's Lifestyle Expert, Woodbridge, Blackbirch Press, 1999; M. Stewart, Good Things: The Best of Martha Stewart Living, New York, Clarkson Potter, 1997; J. Bone, ‘Home making class for Hilary’, The Times, Saturday 11 March, 2000, p. 21; D. Whitworth, ‘Lifestyle queen cleans up’, The Times, Saturday 23 October, 1999, p. 21.
13. J. Oppenheimer, Martha Stewart – Just Desserts, New York, Avon, 1997.
14. Ibid., p. 299.
15. D. Cray, ‘Art of selling kitsch. Don't look for these creations at your local museum. Instead, try the mall’, Time, 30 August, 1999, pp. 62–63; S. McCormack, ‘Making people feel good about themselves (the paintings of Thomas Kinkade)’, Forbes, 2 November, 1998, p. 222; R. Rugoff, ‘Who buys these paintings?’, The Business, 12 February, 2000, pp. 30–31; P. Wollen, ‘Say hello to Rodney’, London Review of Books, 22 (4), 2000, pp. 3–7.
16. T. Kinkade and P. Reed, Paintings of Radiant Light, New York, Abbeville Press, 1995, p. 134.
17. A self-help, tract-publishing, seminar-running sideline, which combines material success, romantic love and born again Christianity, is also part of the Media Arts Group package. See T. Kinkade and A.C. Buchanan, Lightposts for Living: The Art of Choosing a Joyful Life, New York, Warner Books, 1999.
18. M.H. Bogart, op. cit.; J. Lears, Fables, op. cit.
19. P. Hall, Cities of Tomorrow, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1988.
20. M. Binney, ‘Model village with a clean history’, The Times Weekend, Saturday 11 December, 1999, p. 6; R. Stummer, ‘Forever England’, The Guardian Weekend, Saturday 27 November, 1999, pp. 82–83; J. Glancey, ‘The hold of the old’, The Guardian Weekend, Saturday 19 February, 2000, pp. 10–19.
21. D. Halberstam, op. cit.; T. Hine, Populuxe, op. cit.; J.J. Palen, The Suburbs, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1995; R. Silverstone, Visions of Suburbia, London, Routledge, 1997.
22. A. Jones, ‘Twilight of the Proctoids’, The Times, Saturday 12 June, 1999, p. 30; W. Kay, ‘Tomkins slices off its bread and jam brands’, The Financial Mail on Sunday, 11 July, 1999, p. 2; N. Bannister, ‘Cooked to a turning point’, The Guardian, Saturday 19 February, 2000, p. 24; C. Mortishead, ‘US food giants thrown into the mixer’, The Times, Saturday 18 September, 1999, p. 31; J. Doward and F. Islam, ‘Household names face axe as Unilever slims down’, The Observer Business, Sunday 26 September, 1999, p. 3; [Page 256]A. Lorenz, ‘Unilever crosses the Rubicon’, The Sunday Times Business, 27 February, 2000, p. 9.
23. R. Tompkins, ‘Wish you weren't here’, The Business, 5 February, 2000, pp. 34–36.
24. To say nothing of the Millennium Doom in Greenwich. On the footfall shortfall besetting some of Britain's new museums, see R. Jenkins, ‘The lost museums of ready, steady, goo’, The Times, Saturday 23 October, 1999, p. 11; N. Mathiason, ‘Cultural revolution's cul de sac: why are so many new museums in trouble?’, The Observer Business, Sunday 31 October, 1999, p. 4.
25. R. Hudson, ‘Rebels of the superhighway’, The Sunday Times Culture, 13 August, 2000, pp. 47–49.
26. R. Samuel, op. cit.
27. A. Bryman, 1995, op. cit.; B. Bryson, Made in America, London, Minerva, 1994; G. Lipsitz, op. cit.; D. Halberstam, op. cit.
28. T. Hine, Populuxe, op. cit., p. 8. See also G.H. Marcus, Design in the Fifties: When Everyone Went Modern, Munich, Prestel, 1998.
29. Although a veritable Walter Benjamin industry exists within Cultural and Media Studies, marketers have been somewhat reluctant to engage with his thought, despite its clear relevance to the marketing condition.
30. W. Benjamin, The Arcades Project, trans. H. Eiland and K. McLaughlin, Cambridge, MA, Belknap, 1999.
31. S. Buck-Morss, op. cit., p. 65.
32. ‘Anticipatory illumination’ (Vor-Schein) is a term coined by Ernst Bloch, an exact contemporary and close friend of Benjamin. It refers to great art's ability to anticipate developments in the wider cultural sphere. The concept is discussed in E. Bloch, The Utopian Function of Art and Literature: Selected Essays, trans. J. Zipes and F. Mecklenburg, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1988.
33. W. Benjamin, ‘Theses on the philosophy of history’, in W. Benjamin, Illuminations, London, Fontana, 1973, pp. 245–255.
34. M. Currie, Postmodern Narrative Theory, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1998, pp. 101–102. It speaks volumes about our field that this striking observation is made by a literary theorist, not a marketing researcher.
35. S. Brown, ‘Premonitions of Paradiso’, 1999, op. cit.
36. D.J. Carson, A. Gilmore and P. Maclaran, ‘To hell with the customer: where's the profit?’, in S. Brown, J. Bell and D. Carson (eds), Proceedings of the Marketing Eschatology Retreat, Belfast, University of Ulster, 1995, pp. 72–83; J. Fairhead and M. Murphy, ‘Killing the customer: service interactions as power-play and neurotic exchange’, in S. Brown and A. Patterson (eds), Proceedings of the Marketing Paradiso Conclave, op. cit., pp. 146–158; J. Martin, ‘Ignore your customer’, Fortune, 1 May, 1995, pp. 83–86; M. Douglas, Thought Styles: Critical Essays on Good Taste, London, Sage, 1997.
37. I discuss many of these in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
38. R. Lakatos, ‘Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes’, in I. Lakatos and A. Musgrave (eds), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974, pp. 91–196.
39. S. Brown, ‘Life begins’, 1995, op. cit.
40. S. Brown, ‘The three Rs’, 2000, op. cit.
41. R. Marchand, 1985, op. cit. On golden ages generally, see S. Brown and P. Maclaran, 1996, op. cit.
42. M. Bakhtin, Rabelais and his World, trans. H. Iswolsky, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1984; A. Eliot, The Universal Myths: Heroes, Gods, Tricksters and Others, New York, Truman Tally, 1990; D. Hyde, Trickster Makes This World: Mischief, Myth and Art, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998; Z. Papanikolas, op. cit.
43. A useful discussion of the marketing dimensions of tricksterdom is contained in K. Grayson, ‘The dangers and opportunities of playful consumption’, in M.B. Holbrook (ed.), [Page 257]Consumer Value: A Framework for Analysis and Research, London, Routledge, 1999, pp. 105–125.
44. C.V. Ford, op. cit.; J.A. Barnes, op. cit; E. Giannetti, op. cit.
45. Interestingly, this topic has recently become something of a media hobbyhorse. For example, S. Pyper, ‘The tweenie boom’, You Magazine, Sunday 14 November, 1999, pp. 42–49; A. Smith, ‘Pester power’, The Observer, Sunday 26 March, 2000, p. 20; C. McDowell, 2000, op. cit.; B. Summerskill, op. cit.
46. E.T.H. Brann, The World of the Imagination: Sum and Substance, Lanham, Rowman and Littlefield, 1991; R. Kearney, Poetics of Imagining: Modern to Postmodern, New York, Fordham University Press, 1998; R. Kearney, The Wake of Imagination, London, Routledge, 1994. Incidentally, the ‘Once faith is lost’ quotation comes from Z. Papanikolas, op. cit., p. 99
47. S. Burton, op. cit.; M.A. Henderson, Rip Offs, Cons and Swindles, Fortlee, NJ, Barricade Books, 1986; D.W. Maurer, The Big Con, Century, London, 1999.
48. The classic discussion of all-in wrestling and the importance of fakery therein is provided by R. Barthes, ‘The world of wrestling’, in Mythologies, trans. A. Lavers, London, Paladin, 1973, pp. 15–26.
49. J.E. Rogers, ‘Flirting fascination’, Psychology Today, 32 (1), 1999, pp. 36–41, 64–70; D.A. Lott, ‘The new flirting game’, Psychology Today, 32 (1), 1999, pp. 42–45, 72; E.J. Dickson, ‘The eyes have it’, The Times Weekend, Saturday 29 July, 2000, p. 4; Anon., ‘How to … flirt successfully’, The Editor, Friday 7 January, 2000, p. 23.
1. The prehistory of marketing is considered in S. Brown, Postmodern Marketing, 1995, op. cit.
2. These days, admittedly, there can't be many who have yet to be exposed to Kotlerite marketing concepts. Think of all those short courses, television programmes, newspaper columns, marketing-for-dummies primers and suchlike. There remains, nevertheless, a marketing-is-American mindset. Check the citations in the preface, note 10.
3. The thirty-seven definitions of relationship marketing are discussed in E. Gummesson, Total Relationship Marketing. Rethinking Marketing Management: From 4Ps to 30Rs, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999. The profusion of marketing definitions is covered by M.J. Baker, ‘One more time – what is marketing?’, in The Marketing Book, fourth edition, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, pp. 3–15.
4. A classic example of this propensity is R.A. Kerin, ‘In pursuit of an ideal: the editorial and literary history of the Journal of Marketing’, Journal of Marketing, 60 (1), 1996, pp. 1–13. On marketing periodization schemes generally see S.C. Hollander, K.M. Rassuli and L. Dix, ‘Periodization schemes in marketing history: a drama in X acts’, in D.G.B. Jones and P. Cunningham (eds), Marketing History Knows No Boundaries, Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Historical Research in Marketing and Marketing Thought, Kingston, Queen's University, 1997, pp. 85–88.
5. R. Marchand, 1985, op. cit.; R. Porter, op. cit.
6. Williams's essay on magic is reprinted in S. During, The Cultural Studies Reader, London, Routledge, 1993, pp. 320–336.
7. The scholarly literature on magic is judiciously reviewed in A. Glucklich, The End of Magic, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997.
8. R. Levine et al., op. cit.
9. Barnum's ‘Money getting’ lecture is reprinted in J. Vitale, There's a Customer Born Every Minute, 1998, op. cit. pp. 165–193.
10. Professor Helms's text is discussed at length in B. McNamara, op. cit.
[Page 258]11. I'd love to tell you the story of Dr Albert Abrams and his ‘Dynamiser’. Space, sadly, doesn't permit.
12. S. Stewart, op. cit, p. 159.
13. H.C. Andersen, ‘The princess on the pea’, in The Complete Fairy Tales, Ware, Wordsworth Editions, 1997, pp. 21–22.
14. See for example, R. Silverstone, op. cit.; J.J. Palen, op. cit.; R. Fishman, Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia, New York, Basic Books, 1987.
15. Bernays' banana antics are recounted at length in L. Tye, op. cit., pp. 160–182. Incidentally, the United Fruit Company is now called Chiquita Brands International.
16. See J. Brannigan, op. cit.; P. Hamilton, op. cit.; C. Gallagher and S. Greenblatt, op. cit.
17. P. Kotler and S.J. Levy, ‘Broadening the concept of marketing’, Journal of Marketing, 33 (January), 1969, pp. 10–15.