Market Citizenship: Experiments in Democracy and Globalization
Publication Year: 2007
Citizenship is now a key battleground in the fight over the direction of personal and political morality, domestic and global policy, social justice and the spread of violence across the world. Market Citizenship: Experiments in Democracy and Globalization offers a compelling account of the past and future of citizenship. Drawing on a rich fund of empirical material, author Amanda Root analyzes a new paradigm of social relations: market citizenship.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Frameworks
Part 2: Citizens as Consumers
- Chapter 4: Choice in Health, Education and Social Services
- Chapter 5: Politics and Kitsch
- Chapter 6: Freedoms and Cynicism
Part 3: Markets as Models
- Chapter 7: Fair or Free Trade?
- Chapter 8: Environmental Protection and Economic Growth?
- Chapter 9: Democracy or Marginalization?
Part 4: Reasons for Hope
© Amanda Root 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number. 2006936978
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
In memory of Richard Sexton 1960–2006[Page v]
Co-founder of COIN: the Climate Outreach and Information Network
We are shaped by our history and biology to frame our plans within the short term, within the scale of a single lifetime. Now we are asked to address the well-being of unborn individuals we will never meet and who, contrary to the usual terms of human interaction, will not be returning the favour…Ian McEwan[Page vi]
While I was writing this book my 15-year-old daughter was mugged. She was walking down the street on a balmy Saturday evening in summer at about nine p.m. to go to our local shops. Two women grabbed her arms and demanded her money (which was under 10 pounds), saying they would knife her if she didn't give them what they asked for.
Some people who were hanging out of their house windows chatting to others on the pavement saw that something unusual was going on. They challenged the muggers, asking my daughter if she was all right. The assailants replied on my daughter's behalf, saying they were taking her home as she'd had too much to drink. Those watching did not believe them and rang the police. So the police knew about the crime before my daughter ran home, banging on our front door to be let in.
Why did these people bother to get involved? They could have tiptoed (or even sauntered) inside their house and quietly shut the door, pretending they had seen nothing. Yet they not only bothered to phone the police, they also suggested some names of possible suspects. This was a simple but profound act of citizenship — of solidarity and taking responsibility for others even when you did not know them. It involved, in the naming of possible suspects, putting the interests of justice ahead of those of these people's own wider networks of friends or acquaintances.
I am deeply grateful that these neighbours bothered to help my daughter and also somewhat puzzled by their actions. The puzzlement arises because these people were homeless and were living in temporary accommodation provided for them by the state. So it could be argued that they had little stake in supporting members of my household as we constitute a visibly different group to them: as affluent, home-owning residents. This story illustrates, albeit through a personal and anecdotal account, that certain important and positive elements of citizenship survive. This is something, perhaps, that it is easy to forget, when faced with the all too common atrocities inflicted on people who are stateless, or have few or no entitlements, and in the perpetuation of hunger and poverty, environmental destruction and violence.
There is yet another twist to this tale. The police initially summoned these witnesses from my street on a day when the video, to be used for the identification of suspects, was not ready. Then there was confusion about the rescheduling of the identification process. My helpful neighbours did not turn up for any of the identification activities. So despite the police knowing the names of possible suspects, the criminal investigation was not, as far as I know, taken further and no one was charged for the crime.[Page ix]
In other respects, the police behaved in an exemplary manner in relation to my daughter's case. My locality had been identified as one in which there was a higher than average level of street crime, so they had extra resources to use in this instance. These included sending her out in one of two police cars to tour the area afterwards to see whether they could find the perpetrators and providing a woman police officer to take my daughter's statement.
Citizenship is, in broad sense, about taking responsibility for others. The outcomes of such acts of responsibility differ, however, according to the contexts in which they happen. Acts of altruism — like intervening to help my daughter — require us to care about strangers. The question that faces us all is how to make more of the desired outcomes happen and fewer of the non-desirable ones. This book is about the new and powerful social forces that presume that citizens can and should be motivated by self interest, that is as market customers, in quantifiable exchanges. Enlightened self interest is the basis of market transactions, that is, exchanges based on supply and demand. But to what extent can markets be used to motivate citizens? How much do people or organizations motivated by profit care for the vulnerable or for the environment? We are witnessing a profound experiment in changing the basis of citizenship and the state from collectivist visions of self-interest to individualized self-interest. It is the resulting paradox of citizens being told they have more freedom but actually, judging by a variety of evidence, experiencing less, that is explored here.
Thanks to Chris Rojek for having the faith to commission this book and for generously sharing his editorial and authorial expertise. Thanks also to Mila Steele for invaluable advice and untiring support throughout. My gratitude is also due to NewGen for fastidious sub-editing.
Thanks to my colleagues at Oxford University Centre for the Environment for generously putting up with my preoccupation with this book, and to Professor Gordon L. Clark for starting and nurturing my interest in markets.
Special thanks to Martin Stott, my partner, who has offered ideas and inspiration in generous measure, as well as putting up with my absences when writing. Thanks to my daughters Nadine and Alice for growing up so beautifully despite benign neglect, for their ideas and advice and help with the bibiography.
Thanks to Mary Langan, for heroically reading a draft and offering useful comments. Also thanks to John and Rosemary Whitely for sharing their knowledge about Athenian citizenship.
Last but not least, I am grateful to the Institute of Public Policy Research for inviting me to serve on the Commission on Public Private Partnerships, which offered unique insights into markets and citizenship.
Bibliography[Page 167][Page 182]2003). Unease as Blair lays soul bare. The Observer, 4 May. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/labour/story/0,9061,949149,00.html(2002). The clash of fundamentalisms. London: Verso.(2003). Bush in Babylon. London: Verso.(Alliance for Green Socialism (AGS) (2005). Newsletter of the Alliance for Green Socialism, February/March. Leeds: Alliance for Green Socialism.2004). North American first peoples: slipping up into market citizenship?, Citizenship Studies, 8(4), 349–65.(2000). Value for money drivers in the Private Finance Initiative: a report commissioned by Arthur Andersen and Enterprise LSE. London: HM Treasury Workforce.and (2000). Ancient philosophy; a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2003). Structure, agency and the internal conversation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(Aristotle (1981). The Politics, trans. T. A.Sinclair. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.1951). Social choice and individual values. New York: Wiley.(1954). Existence of an equilibrium for a competitive economy, Econometrica, 22(3), July, 265–90.and (2003). ‘Security’ has become the leitmotif for a new politics, Guardian, 11 September. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1039692,00.html(Audit Commission (2005). Choice in public services. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.audit-commission.gov.uk/reports/NATIONAL-REPORT.asp?categoryID=&ProdID=B7162BE7A71A-4237-AD67-DC4DEB9EFFAC&SectionID=sect1#.2005). Can Lord Adonis of No 10 give bog standard schools a lift?, The Times, 11 May, pp. 24–5.and (1988). Citizenship. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.(1996). Conflicts over biodiversity, in P.Sloep and A.Blowers (Eds), Environmental policy in an international context (pp. 217–42). London: Arnold.(1992). Athenian democracy. Walton-on-Thames, UK: Nelson.(2001). Forced saving: mandating private retirement incomes. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., and (2000). In search of politics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2001). The globalisation of world politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and ([Page 168]BBC (2000). Yes, we have no overly bent bananas. Retrieved on 2 January 2007 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/uk_politics/2000/conferences/liberal_democrats/930739.stmBBC Analysis (2004). They already know what you want. London: BBC. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/programmes/analysis/transcripts/11_11_04.txtBBC News (2004). UK student debt rises to £14bn. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/3936529.stm1996). Risk society: towards a new modernity. London: Sage Publications.(1997). The reinvention of politics: rethinking modernity in the global social order. Malden, MA: Polity.(2001). What is globalization?Malden, MA: Polity.(1997). Reflexive modernization, reprint. Cambridge: Polity Press., and (1997). Beyond the market: the social foundations of economic efficiency. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2003). The writing on the wall. Cassette CFC 401, Fuse.and (1969). Four essays on liberty. London: Oxford University Press.(2005). The rescuer's story. Guardian, 9 July, p. 1.(2004). In defence of globalization. New York: Oxford University Press.(2005). Evidence based policy: proceed with care. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/323/7307/275(1998). The third way: new politics for the new century. London: The Fabian Society.(2001). Environment: the next steps, 6 March. Retrieved on 26 March 2007 from http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/page1583.asp(2002). The courage of our convictions: why reform of the public services is the route to social justice. London: Fabian Society.(2002a). The courage of our convictions: Why reform of the public services is the route to social justice. Speech to the Fabian Society. 30th September, London.(2004). A real choice for all, Labour Today, Spring, p. 9.(2005). Tony Blair's speech on asylum and immigration. Guardian, 22 April Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,5177446-115620,00.html(Blowers, A. and Glasbergen, P. (Eds) (1995). Enviromental policy in an international context, Vol. 1. London: Arnold.Blowers, A. and Glasbergen, P. (Eds) (1996). Enviromental policy in an international context, Vol. 3. London: Arnold.1986). The Oxford history of the classical world. London: Guild Publishing., and (2002). The shield of Achilles. New York: Knopf.(2005). Bush's budget axe to fall on poor. Guardian, 7 February. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1407400,00.html(2005). Bush ‘exploited 9/11’ in Iraq plea. Guardian, 30 June, p. 6.and (1992). Citizenship and social class, forty years on, In T. H.Marshall and T.Bottomore, Citizenship and Social Class (Part II) (pp. 55–93). London: Pluto Press.(British Social Attitudes (BSA) (2005). 1986–2000 data. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.britsocat.com/Marginals.aspsx?var=WHYNEED&surveyid=224.[Page 169]2004). Speech by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP at the Compass Conference, 22 October, The Congress Centre, London. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.compassonline.org.uk/documents/GordonBrown CompassSpeechPressFinal.doc(2005). What is this Kyoto thing all about anyway?Guardian, 3 February, p. 4.(2005). The price of pleasure. The Guardian, 11 April. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1456574,00.html(2002). Ancient citizenship and its inheritors, In E. F.Isin and B. S.Turner (Eds), Handbook of Citizenship Studies (pp. 89–104). London: Sage.(2000). Ecological modernization as social theory, Geoforum, 31(1), 57–65.(2002). Interpreting quantitative data. London: Sage.(Cabinet Office (2005). The case for user choice in public services. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/opsr/public_service_reform/choice_in_public_services/1998). The death of distance. London: Orion Business Paperbacks.(1998). The laws of the markets. Oxford: Blackwell.(Campaign for State Education (CASE) (2006) The Education and Inspections Bill — an Update. Briefing Paper, London.1997a). The rise of the network society. Oxford: Blackwell.(1997b). The information age: economy, society and culture. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998). End of millenium. Oxford: Blackwell.(2003). Iraq business deals may be invalid. Financial Times, 28 October.(Center for International Development at Harvard University (2000). Retrieved in August 2006 from http://www.cid.harvard.edu/cidtrade/issues/washington.html1987). The Songlines. London: Picador.(1999). Infrastructure shortfall in the United Kingdom: the private finance initiative and government policy, Political Geography, 18(3), 341–65.and (Clarke, J., Gewirtz, S. and McLaughlin, E. (Eds) (2000). New managerialism, new welfare?London: Sage.Climate Care (2006). Personal correspondence.CNN (2006). Euromyths: fact and fiction. Accessed on 1 March 2006 from http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/06/08/eu.facts.myths/index.htmlCommission on Public-Private Partnerships (CPPP) (2001). Building better partnerships: The final report of the Commission on Public-Private Partnerships. London: Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR).1993). Citizens, charters and consumers, Southampton, UK: Southampton Institute of Higher Education.(2003). The regulatory state: Labour and the utilities 1997–2002. London: IPPR.(1997). Public private partnerships. London: IPPR., and (2004). Foreword, In D.Heater (Ed.), Citizenship: the civic ideal in world history, politics and education (pp. xi-xii). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.(1999). Social change in Western Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.(2000). Coping with post-democracy. London: Fabian Society.(Crouch, C., Eder, E. and Tambini, D. (Eds) (2001). Citizenship, markets, and the state. New York: Oxford University Press.1996). Citizenship and social class, In M.Bulmer and A. M.Rees (Eds), Citizenship today: the contemporary relevance of T. H. Marshall (pp. 25–48). London: UCL Press.(2005). Inside Islam's ‘terror schools’, New Statesman, 28 March, pp. 14–18.([Page 170]2002). The reconstruction of citizenship and public accountability: a study of user and citizen involvement in a local authority's community care provision. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Gloucestershire through the University of Bristol.(1952). A social equilibrium existence theorem, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 38, 886–93.(DebreuG. (Ed.) (1996). General equilibrium theory. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.2000). Citizenship in a global age. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(Department of Health (1998). Modernising social services, White Paper. London: Department of Health. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidanceArticl/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4081593&chk=eE9iLzDepartment of Health (2005). Independence, well-being and choice, Social Care Green Paper. London: Department of Health. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGBrowsableDocument/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4107298&MULTIPAGE_ID=5100412&chk=4hVilw1991). Meditations, in The philosophical writings of Descartes, ed. and trans. J.Cottingham, R.Stoothoff, D.Murdoch, and A.Kenny (pp. 1–62). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1987). Hard times. London: Methuen.(2004). Growth is good for the poor, In F.J.Lechner and J.Boli (Eds), The globalization reader, 2nd edn (pp. 177–82). Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell.and (1997). Knowing the code, In The wealth and poverty of networks: tackling social exclusion, Demos Collection 12. London: Demos, pp. 37–44.(2003). An introduction to global citizenship. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.(1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Row.(2000). Entrepreneurial governance and public management: the anti-bureaucrats, In J.Clarke, S.Gewirtz and E.McLaughlin (Eds), New managerialism, new welfare? (pp. 62–81). London: Sage.(2001). The elementary forms of religious life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1997). British politics since 1945,(2nd edn.Oxford: Blackwell.2005). Error in law saves war protestor. The Guardian, 30 July, p. 12.(Economic and Social Science Research Council (ESRC) (2006) ESRC Society Today. Retrieved in December 2006 from http://www.esrc.uk/ESRInfoCentre/facts/index41.aspx?Componentld=12619&SourcePageld=7119Economist, The (2002). The ascent of British man. The Economist, 5 December, pp. 53–4.2001). Social movement organisations and the democratic order, In C.Crouch, K.Eder and D.Tambini (Eds), Citizenship, markets and the state (pp. 213–37). Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Electronic Privacy Information Center (2005). The USA Patriot Act. Electronic Privacy Information Center. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.epic.org/privacy/terrorism/usapatrriot/1981). Public man, private woman: women in social and political thought. Oxford: Martin Robertson.(2005). Pension and saving policy, 2005 Election Briefing Note No. 12. London: The Institute for Fiscal Studies., and (2004). Understanding Habermas. London: Continuum.and (2006). In the service of power: the global political economy of citizenship and human rights. Citizenship Studies, 10(3), 289–308.and ([Page 171]1996). International trade and environmental policies, In A.Blowers and P.Glasbergen (Eds), Enviromental policy in an international context, vol. 3 (pp. 79–104). London: Arnold.(2003). Citizenship. London: Routledge.(1999). Shrinking the state: the political underpinnings of privatization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., and (2005). Civil liberties and human rights,(3rd revised edn.London: Routledge Cavendish.2000). Towards a new localism: a discussion paper. London: IPPR and New Local Government Network., , and (2003). The corporate looting of Iraq. Centre for Research on Globalisation, Workers World News Service, 24 July. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/FLO307B.html(2002). Public sector management. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.(2003). The good, the bad and the hypocritical. Guardian, 14 June, Review, p. 7.(Food Magazine (2005). PFI — parents furious indeed! Selected extracts from the Food Magazine., January/March, p. 4. London: The Food Commission.1978). The archaelogy of knowledge. London: Tavistock Publications.(1980). The order of things. London: Tavistock Publications.(1994). Govermentality, In D.McKevitt and A.Lawton (Eds), Public sector management, theory and practice (pp. 11–24). London: Sage.(2000). One market under god: extreme capitalism, market populism, and the end of economic democracy. London: Secker and Warburg.(2004). What's the matter with America: the resistable rise of the American Right. London: Secker and Warburg.(2003). Ideology: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2005). The world is flat. London: Allen Lane.(2006). After the neocons. London: Profile Books Ltd, pp. 5558.(2003). Social mobility, In Taking the long view: the ISER report 2002/3. Colchester: Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex.(2003). New media diary. Guardian, August 4, p. 4. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://media.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4725693-105337,00.html(1997). The end of capitalism (as we knew it): a feminist critique of political economy. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998). The third way: the renewal of social democracy. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press.(2000). The third way and its critics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2002). Where now for New Labour?Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2006). Capitalism unleashed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2000). Evidence to the House of Commons public administration select committee inquiry into public participation: issues and innovations, Hansard, 29 March. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199900/cmselect/cmpubadm/79/0032904.htm(1996). Ecological modernization and the European Union, Geoforum, 27(1), 11–21.and (2001). Splintering urbanism: networked infrastructures, technological mobilities and the uraban condition. London: Routledge.and (2004). Al Qaeda and what it means to be modern. London: Faber and Faber.([Page 172]2004). Foundation hospitals the first step to NHS's demise. Co-operative News, week ending 10 January, p. 6.(2002). It's still us and them. The Guardian, 22 August. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,778578,00.html(Grene, D. and Lattimore, R. (Eds) (1973). The complete Greek Tragedies. Sophocles I: Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus; Antigone. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Grene, D. and Lattimore, R. (Eds) (1975). The complete Greek Tragedies. Euripides I: Alcestis; the Medea; the Heracleidae; Hippolytus. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.2002). Changing prospects for trade unionism. London: Routledge.and (1991). Citizens, consumers and councils: local government and the public. London: Macmillan.(1984). The theory of communicative action, Vol. 1: reason and the rationalization of society, trans. ThomasMcCarthy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(1987). The theory of communicative action, vol.2: Lifeworld and system, trans. ThomasMcCarthy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(1993). Further reflections on the public sphere, In C.Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere (pp. 421–61). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1996). Between facts and norms. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(1999). The public sphere, In P.Marris and S.Thornham (Eds), Media studies: a reader (pp. 92–8). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.(2001). The public sphere: an encyclopedia article, In M. G.Durham and D.Kellner (Eds), Media and cultural studies: keyworks (pp. 102–7). Oxford: Blackwell.(2002). The structural transformation of the public sphere, trans. ThomasBurger, introduction ThomasMcCarthy. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2000). Social science takes a place at high table, In The Times Higher Education Supplement, 20 October, pp. 18–19.(1999). Ecological modernisation as cultural politics, In M. J.Smith (Ed.), Thinking through the environment: a reader (pp. 364–72). London: Routledge.(1997). The politics of enviromental discourse: ecological modernization and the policy process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Hajer, M. and Wagenaar, H. (Eds) (2003). Deliberative policy analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2004). Best universities snub state school pupils. The Times, 17 May. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.suttontrust.com/press035.asp(1995). Change in British society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Halsey, A. H. and Webb, J. (Eds) (2000). Twentieth-century British social trends. London: Macmillan.1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243–48.(2001). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Havard University Press.and (1974). The Oxford companion to classical literature. London: Oxford University Press.(2004). Citizenship: the civic ideal in world history, politics and education. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.(2001). The rise of New Labour: party policies and voter choices. Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (1979). Subculture: the meaning of style. London: Methuen.(1995). Democracy and the global order: from the modern state to cosmopolitan governance. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2000). Models of democracy,([Page 173]2nd edn.Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.2004) Global covenant: the social democratic alternative to the Washington consensus. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(Held, D. and McGrew, A. (Eds) (2002a). The global transformations reader. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.2002b). Globalization/anti-globalization. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.and (2003). Privatisation vs democracy. Al-Ahram Weekly Online, Issue No. 659, 9–15 October. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/print/2003/659/re4.htm(2004). Top state students miss out on elite places. Times Higher Education Supplement, 20 August. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.thes.co.uk/search/story.aspx?story_id=2015273&window_type=print(2004). Inequality and the state. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Hills, J., Piachaud, D. and Le Grand, J. (Eds) (2002). Understanding social exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2005). World view. New Statesman, 7 February, p. 19.(2000). Localization: a global manifesto. London: Earthscan.(1970). Exit, voice and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organisations and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1999). Globalization in question,and (2nd edn.Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.2005). The Political System of the EU,(2nd edn.Basingstoke: Palgrave.1998). Leviathan, ed. and introduction J.C.A.Gaskin. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2005). Written answers for 7 April. Retrieved in August 2005 from Hansard online at http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm200405/cmhansrd/cm050407/text/50407/text/50407w11.htm(2004). Global warming,(3rd edn.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 283.Houses of Parliament (1812). Miscellaneous accounts and papers, Session, 7 January-30 July, vol. X.2003). The world we're in. London: Abacus.(2003). The three dimensions of learning. London: National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.(1999). Citizenship and identity. London: Sage.and (2002). Being political: genealogies of citizenship. Minneapolis, MA: University of Minnesota Press.(1991). The green economy. London: Pluto Press.(1999). Enviromental modernization: the New Labour agenda. London: Fabian Society.(2007). Affluenza. London: Vermillion.(1997). The political system's capacity for environmental policy, In M.Janicke and H.Weidner (Eds) National environmental policies: a comparative study of capacity-building, (pp. 1–24). Berlin: Springer.(Joint Association of Classical Teachers (JACT) (1984). The world of Athens: an introduction to classical Athenian culture. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.2003). Global civil society: an answer to war. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2004). The truth about markets. London: Penguin.(2004). Zizek: a critical introduction. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2000). The new partnership agenda. London: IPPR.([Page 174]1999). Is New Labour working?(modernising Britain). London: The Fabian Society.and (2005). The comprehensive ideal, in Fabian Commission on Life Chances and poverty, Why life chances matter, (pp. 87–99). London: Fabian Society.(1997). Which voters count?Guardian, 8 February, p. 19.(2003). US pushes Iraq privatization. Wall Street Journal, 28 October. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal Online at http://usersZ.wsj.com/imda/do/checkLogin?mg=wsjusersZ&url=%3AZF%ZFonline.wsj.com%ZFarticle%2FSB1067298866277622700.html@3FMod%3DPolitics%25525255Fprimary%2525255Fhs, 22 May 2004.(1995). The unbearable lightness of being. London: Faber and Faber.(1995). The black album. London: Faber and Faber.(1996). Multicultural citizenship: a liberal theory of minority rights. Oxford: Calrendon Press.(2001). Ecrits: a selection. London: Routledge.(LACTOR (1983a). The old oligarch (LACTOR no. 2). London: London Association of Classical Teachers.LACTOR (1983b). Athenian politics (LACTOR no. 5). London: London Association of Classical Teachers.2002). Critique of information. London: Sage.(2005). Mother's fury at ‘slaughter of the innocents’. The Guardian, 12 July, p. 1.(2005). Private deals block Jamie's school dinners. Guardian, 25 April, p. 1. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://education.guardian.co.uk/schools/story/0,5500,1469549,00.htmland (Lechner, F. J. and Boli, J. (Eds) (2004). The globalization reader,2nd edn.Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell.2003). US occupation authority tramples on Iraqi worker's rights. World Socialist Web Site, 25 November. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/nov2003/iraq-n25.shtml(1991). Equity and choice. London: Routledge.(LeGrand, J., Mays, N. and Mulligan, J. (Eds) (2001). Learning from the NHS internal market. London: King's Fund Publishing.2004). Making choices: how can choice improve local public services?London: New Local Government Network.and (2001) ‘Communities of practice and organizational performance’IBM Systems Journal, http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/404/lesser.html, 28 March 2007.and (2002). A better choice of choice. New Ground, 63, 10–11.(2003). A better choice of choice: quality of life, consumption and economic growth. London: Fabian Society., , and (1998). The inclusive society?: social exclusion and New Labour. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Press.(2005). Freakonomics. London: Penguin books.and (2003). Market-driven politics. London: Verso.(1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.and (1997). Citizenship: Feminist perspectives. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Press.(2003). Two treatises of government, ed. and introduction PeterLaslett. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2001). Social capital and local governance: explaining the institutional design variable, Political Studies, 49(4), 429–47.and ([Page 175]1990). Political theory in the welfare state, translated by JohnBednarzJr.Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyth, p. 232.(2003). PFI triples profits, say firms. Guardian, 8 September, p. 23.(1962). The political theory of possessive individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Make Trade Fair (2006). Retrieved in August 2006 from http://www.maketradefair.com/en/index.php?file=issues_freetrade.htm1996). Citizen and subject. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Paperbacks.(2004) The decline of the public: the hollowing out of citizenship. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(Marquand, D. and Seldon, A. (Eds) (1996). The ideas that shaped post-war Britain. London: Fontana.1992). Citizenship and social class, In T. H.Marshall and T.Bottomore (Eds) Citizenship and social class (Part I). London: Pluto Press.(1979). Capital, Vol. 1. London: Pelican Marx Library.(2004). Global warming: a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1999). The logic of regional integration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2004). Seas absorb half of carbon dioxide pollution. http://NewScientist.com News Service, 15 July. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6164(2005). It's a tough one…. Guardian, 2 May. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1474612,00.html(2001). Reforming public services, reconciling equity with choice. Speech to the Fabian Society, 21 October. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.fabian-society.org.uk/document_store/Doc41.pdf(1999). Utilitarianism, ed. R.Crisp. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1996). Ecological modernisation and institutional reflexivity: environmental reform in the late modern age, Environmental PoliticsI, 5(2), 302–23.(2000). Ecological modernisation around the world: an introduction, Environmental Politics, 9(1), 3–14.and (2000). Ecological modernization theory in debate: a review, In A.Mol and D.Sonnenfeld (Eds), Ecological modernisation around the world (pp. 17–49). London: Frank Cass.and (2000). Captive state: the corporate takeover of Britain. London: Macmillan.(2003). The age of consent. London: Flamingo.(2002). Stupid white men. New York: Regan Books.(2002). Local elections: why no-one gives a monkeys. Retrieved in February 2007 from http://www.mon.com/mrr/2002/C020503.Shtml(1997). Connexity: how to live in a connected world. London: Chatto and Windus.(Mulholland, H. and agencies (2005). Public feels neglected over public services, survey finds. Guardian, 14 March. Retrieved August 2005 from http://society.guardian.co.uk/futureforpublicservices/story/0,8150,1437319,00.html2000). Editorial: ecological modernisation. Geoforum, 31 (1), 1–8.(1997). Road scandal. Transport Retort. London: Transport 2000.(1997). Game theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(National Army Museum (2005). The history of the British Army: the English Civil War 1642–1651. London: National Army Museum.National Health Service (NHS) (2004). NHS improvement plan. London: Department of Health. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidanceArticl/fe/en?CONTENT_ID=4084476&chk=i6LSYm[Page 176]National Statistics (2005). About National Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/about/national_statistics/default.aspNational Theatre (2004). Stuff happens: a new play by David Hare, Theatre Programme. London: National Theatre.2003). The consumerisation of citizenship in local government: beyond service delivery. Paper presented at the Political Studies Association Conference, Leicester. 14–16 April. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2003/Catherine%20Needham.pdf(2004a). Customer care and the public service ethos. Paper presented at the Political Studies Association Conference, Lincoln. 6–8 April. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2004/Needham.pdf(2004b). Written evidence to the Select Committee on Public Administration, Catherine Needham, Queen Mary, University of London/Catalyst (CVP 10). Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmpubadm/49/49ii.pdf(http://Newmax.com (2003). Experts: shock-restructuring of Iraq is on shaky ground. Retrieved August 2005 from http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:dhs2RpSwP54J:www.ruddynews.com/archives/articles/2003/11/16/170238.shtml+Newsmax.com,+2003+Iraq+privatization+instant+tycoons&hl=enNexus (1998). The Third Way: summary of the NEXUS on-line discussion. Retrieved on 1 March 2006 from http://www.netnexus.org/library/papers/3way.html1981). The structure and change in economic history. New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company.(1983). The economics of feasible socialism. London: George Allen & Unwin.(2004) Anarchy, state and utopia. Oxford: Blackwell.(2003). The democracy deficit in the global economy. Washington DC: The Trilateral Commission., , , , and (2000). Experiments in knowing. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(2005). The rise of political lying. London: Free Press.(Office of Health Economics (OHE).Compendium of Health Statistics 2002, London.Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2005). Modern local government: in touch with the people. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.odpm.gov.uk/stellent/groups/odpm_localgov/documents/page/odpm_locgov_605468.hcsp1997) European challenges to the nation state, In B.Steunenberg and F.van Vught (eds), Political institutions and public policy, (pp. 157–88). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.(1996). Habermas: a critical introduction. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.(1995). Justice, In T.Bennett, L.Grossberg, and M.Morris (Eds), New keywords: a revised vocabulary of culture and society, (p. 194). Oxford: Blackwell.(2002). Love your freedom. Citizen, August, p. 3.(2002). Chancellor unveils new vision for local services. Guardian, 11 October. Retrieved on 2 January 2007 from http://society.guardian.co.uk/bestvalue/story/0,8150,810311,00.html(2003). Infectious greed. London: Profile Business.(2004). Citizenship in Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., and (1998). Realistic evaluation. London: Sage.and (email@example.com) (2001). Re Your Nike iD order o16468000 19 February. Email to Nike iD (firstname.lastname@example.org).([Page 177]1997). Escaping poverty: from safety nets to networks of opportunity. London: Demos.(2002). The Peter's world atlas: the earth in its true proportion. Oxford: New Internationalist Publications Ltd.(1999). Progress on poverty. Will Blair deliver on eliminating child poverty?New Economy, 6 (3), 154–60.(Pierson, C.(1996). Social policy, In D.Marquand and A.Seldon (Eds), The ideas that shaped post-war Britain, (pp. 139–64). London: Fontana.Plato (1979). The Republic, trans. F.MacDonald Cornford. New York: Oxford University Press.1957). The great transformation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(Politics.co.uk (2005). Catholic boost for Tories over abortion. Politics.co.uk. 15 March. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.politics.co.uk/party-politics/catholic-boost-tories-over-abortion-$8033814.htm2001). Public services and the private sector: a response to the IPPR. London: Catalyst., , and (2004). NHS plc. London: Verso.(1996). Ladders. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.(2005). Capitalism as if the world matters. London: Earthscan.(1997). The audit society: rituals of verification. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Public Administration Select Committee (PASC) (2005a). Public Administration Select Committee inquiry into choice, voice and public services, Joint Memorandum from Minister for State for Department of Health; Minister of State for Local and Regional Government; and Minister of State for School Standards. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/opsr/documents/rtf/the_case_for_extending_choice_in_public_services.rtfPublic Administration Select Committee (PASC) (2005b). Public Administration Select Committee inquiry into choice, voice and public services, Supplementary Evidence from the Minister of State for Local and Regional Government to support Joint Memorandum from Minister of State for Department of Health, Minister of State for Local and Regional Government and Minister of State for School Standards. The case for user choice in public services. Retrieved August 2005 from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Lk22T0UsJsJ:www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/opsr/documents/rtf/opdm_annex.rtf+%22Price+signals+do+play+a+fundamental+role%22&hl=enPublic Administration Select Committee (PASC) (2005c) Supplementary Evidence from Minister of State for School Standards to support Joint Memorandum from Minister of State for Department of Health, Minister of State for Local and Regional Government and Minister of State for School Standards, The case for user choice in public services. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/opsr/documents/pdf/annex1_dfes.pdf2001). The chainsaw's last stand?Financial Times Weekend, 11/12 August, p. 1.(2000). Fuzzy-set social science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1999). A theory of justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2002). Social citizenship. Grounds for social change, In F. E.Isin and B.S.Turner (Eds), Handbook of citizenship studies, (pp. 69–86). London: Sage Publications.(2000). Research interviews with local government officers, on area committees and neighbourhood management, unpublished, Warvick: Local Government Centre, University of Warvick.(1993). Human rights, rationality, and sentimentality, In StephenShute and SusanHurley (Eds), On human rights: the Oxford Amnesty Lectures, 1993 (pp. 111–34). New York: Basic Books.([Page 178]1973). The social contract. London: Everyman.(2005). Planning for the future: the difficulties people face. Findings, 570 Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.jrf.org.knowledge/findings/socialpolicy/570.asp(2005). Department of Defense news briefing 12 February 2002. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2002/t02122002_t212sdv2.html(1997). We're a half-free press. Guardian, 8 February, p. 19.(Sabben-Clare, J.P. and Warman, M.S. (Eds) (1991). The culture of Athens. London: London Association of Classical Teachers.2005). The end of poverty. London: Penguin Books.(Sachs, W., Loske, R. and Linz, M. (Eds) (2000). Greening the north: a post-industrial blueprint for ecology and equity. London: Zed Books.1993). Culture and imperialism. London: Chatto & Windus.(2000). Migrations. New York: Aperture.(2005). There's profit in saving the earth. Guardian, 3 February, p.7.(1993). The political psyche. London:Routledge.(2006). Squandering a precious heritage. New Statesman. Retrieved in February 2007 from http://www.newstatesman.com/print/200602270005(2004). Voting for democracy, LSE Magazine, London: London School of Economics, 16 (2), 6–7., and (2000). Globalization: a critical introduction. New York: Palgrave.(2002). Liberal citizenship, In F. E.Isin and B.S.Turner (Eds), Handbook of citizenship studies (pp. 131–44). London: Sage Publications.(2001). Public and private roles in health care systems. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.(Select Committee on Public Administration (SCPA) (2005). The case for user choice in public services. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/opsr/documents/rtf/the_case_for_extending_choice_in_public_services.rtf1981). Poverty and famines: an essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(2001). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2002). Rationality and freedom. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.(2003). Inequality reexamined. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2006). Identity and violence. London: Allen Lane.(1976). The fall of public man. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2003). Respect. London: Penguin Group.(2006). The culture of the new capitalisam. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.(2004). Ecological balance in the era of globalisation, In F.Lechner and J.Boli (Eds), The globalization reader (pp. 422–49). Oxford: Blackwell.(2001) Response to the IPPR report, building better partnerships. London: Local Government Information Unit.(1990). The philosophy of money, trans. T.Bottomore and D.Frisby,(2nd edn.London: Routledge.1976). The theory of moral sentiments. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press.(1986). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations, introduction by Andrew Skinner. London: Penguin.(2000). Schools, In A. H.Halsey and J.Webb(eds), Twentieth-century British social trends (pp. 179–220). London: Macmillan Press Ltd.([Page 179]1998). Greening the built environment. London: Earthscan Publications., and (Social Exclusion Unit (1998). Bringing Britain together — a strategy for neighbourhood renewal. London: HMSO.2001). Romancing the market, reviling the state: historicizing liberalism, privatization, and the competing claims to civil society, In C.Crouch, E.Eder and D.Tambini(eds), Citizenship, markets, and the state (pp. 23–48). New York: Oxford University Press.(2003). Of courage and resistance. The Nation, 5 May. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20030505&s=sontag.(1994). Limits of citizenship. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1992). Sociology, environment and modernity: ecological modernization as a theory of social change, Society and Natural Resources, 5 (4), 323–44.and (1997). General equilibrium theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2006). The economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(2002). Understanding media cultures. London: Sage Publications.(2002). Globalization and its discontents. London: Penguin.(2003). The roaring nineties: seeds of destruction. London: Penguin.(2006). Making globalization work. London: Allen Lane.(2001). Area committee and neighbourhood management. Local Authorities and Social Inclusion Network, Research Paper 6. London: Local Government Information Unit., , and (Swingland, I.R. (Ed.) (2003). Capturing carbon and conserving biodiversity-the market approach. London: Earthscan.2003). Introduction, In I. R.Swingland (Ed.), Capturing carbon and conserving biodiversity — the market approach, (pp. 1–12). London: Earthscan., and (Tempest, M. and Agencies (2005). Five arrested during Westminster Free Speech Protest. Guardian, 1 August. Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,5252963-107978,00.html1993). The Downing Street years. London: Harper Collins.(2005). National Centre for Social Research, London, personal correspondence, British Social Attitudes (BSA), 1986–2000 data. Retrieved in August 2005 from http://www.britsocat.com/Marginals.aspsx?var=WHYNEED&Surveyid=224(1998). Waste and fairness, Social Research, 65(1), 55–73.(2002). The third way is dead and Labour can be itself at last. The Guardian, 9 January. Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/thinktanks/comment/0,10538,766869,00.html#article_continue(2005). Response by Polly Toynbee, in Fabian Commission on Life Chances and Poverty, Why Life Chances Matter (pp. 64–5). London: Fabian Society.(2003). Migrants will face exams in quest to become British. Being a good Brit: a user's guide. Guardian, 4 September, p. 9.(2005). Labour steps back in push for ID cards. Guardian, 4 August. Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/homeaffairs/story/0,11026,1542191,00.html(2005). Labour's migration squeeze targets unskilled. Guardian, 8 February, p. 1.and (Turner, B. S. (Ed.) (1993). Citizenship and social theory. London: Sage Publications.2001). Society and culture: principles of scarcity and solidarity. London: Sage Publications.and ([Page 180]UNDP and UNICEF (2002). The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident: a strategy for recovery. Retrieved in February 2007 from http://www.undp.org/dpa/publications/chernobyl.pdf1998). Democracy realised. London: Verso.(United Nations (2005). United Nations development goals. Retrieved in August 2006 from http://www.un.org/milleniumgoalsUniversity of Hertfordshire (2005). Evidence-based medicine. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.herts.ac.uk/lis/subjects/health/ebm.htm2000). Sociology beyond societies: mobilities for the twenty-first century. London: Routledge.(2005). Guilt-free sins of emission. Guardian, 3 February, p. 9.(2005). Competition-winning visionaries who are being paid to make the world a better place. Guardian, 9 June. Retrieved August 2005 from http://society.guardian.co.uk/futureforpublicservices/story/0,8150,1502572,00.html(2005). View from the top. Guardian, 27 February, Society Section, p. 14.(2001). Plunge in turnout follows pattern of past decade. Guardian, 9 June, Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/election2001/story/0,9029,504214,00.html(2007). A Short History of Slavery, London: Penguin Books.(2004). Anarchism. A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2004). Pragmatism over politics: alternative service delivery in local government 1992—2002, in The Municipal Year Book 2004 (pp. 8–16). Washington DC: International City County Management Association.and (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.(2002). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998). Factor four: doubling wealth — halving resource use. London: Earthscan., and (Welford, R. and Starkey, R. (Eds) (1996). The Earthscan reader in business and the enviroment. London: Earthscan.Wellcome Trust (1998). The public speaks on cloning. Retrieved on 1 December 2004 from http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/en/1/awtprerela98n101.html1998). From little boxes to loosely-bounded networks: the privatization and domestication of community. Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/publications/littleboxes1/littleboxes1.pdf(2000). The third sector and PPPs, In E.Joseph and G.Kelly (Eds), Finding the right partner: diversity in local public-private partnerships, (pp. 27–50). London: IPPR.(2005). Labour plans to put pensioners in control as ‘intelligent adults’. Guardian, 24 March. Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/election/story/0,15803,1444518,00.htmland (1976). Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society. Glasgow: Fontana/Croom Helm.(2005a). Blair believes his agenda is a moral certainty. Guardian, 18 May. Retrieved August 2005 from http://politics.guardian.co.uk/queensspeech2005/story/0,16013,1486296,00.html(2005b). Demos chief warns of crisis. Guardian, 31 May. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/guardianpolitics/story/0,,1495649,00.html(2002). Christian charity takeover of multicultural school alarms NUT. Guardian, 1 April. Retrieved August 2005 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,677138,00.html([Page 181]1998). Four discourses, four subjects, In S.Zizek (Ed.), Cognito and the unconscious (pp. 74–113). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(2000a). The ticklish subject. London: Verso.(2000b). Class struggle or postmodernism? In J.Butler, E.Laclau, S.Zizek (Eds), Contingency, hegemony, universality, (pp. 90–135). London: Verso.(2001). The fragile absolute. London: Verso.(2002). For they know not what they do: enjoyment as a political factor. London: Verso.(2003). Tarrying with the negative. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(Zizek, S. (Ed.) (2004a). Revolution at the gates. London: Verso.2004b). Iraq War, chips and chocolate laxatives. Times Higher Education Supplement, 30 January, pp. 18–19.(2004c). Iraq: the borrowed kettle. London: Verso.(2005). The empty wheelbarrow. Guardian, 19 February. Retrieved August 2005 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1417982,00.html#article_continue(