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Chapter 9: Engaging Disaffected Young People
This chapter explores:
Nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and America offer many examples of community-based, voluntary endeavours to generate educational alternatives, from working-class community and progressive schools developed from the 1900s onwards (Shotton, 1993), to the urban free school movement of the late 1960s (Wright, 1989), and radical education projects worldwide (Graham-Brown, 1996). Many aimed to create relevant and less prescriptive education in poor communities.
Few lessons from such developments or from recent alternatives inform pedagogic debate, despite a resurgence of approaches challenging formal schooling (Carnie, 2003). This absence is surprising when non-profit organizations have ...