Education is not among the policy areas that form the basis of the European Union. Ever since the European integration process was initiated in the 1950s and the European Community was created in 1957, economic issue areas have been the nucleus of integration. Being a non-economic issue area, education has not – until the Maastricht Treaty entered into force in late 1993 – been referred to as an independent subject for common policies in the treaties. This reflects that national regulatory and problem-solving capacities are high in the educational field while European capacities are low (Scharpf 1999: 116–20). In contrast to some of the other policy areas treated in this book, ...
Educational Policy: Institutionalization and Multi-Level Governance
Educational policy: Institutionalization and multi-level governance
Introduction: Europeanization and Education