Listen to Me!: The Voices of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD)
Publication Year: 2000
`This book is an essential tool if schools are to achieve effective ways forward with those students who are unhappy; disaffected and therefore unable to cope with the present system' - SNIP `This is a valuable and well-written book which deserves to be widely read' - Support for Learning `The structure of the book is well organized and the use of marginal summaries is particularly use for those wishing an overview of the key themes from the book' - Educational Psychology in Practice HIGHLY COMMENDED TES/NASEN BEST ACADEMIC BOOK AWARD 2001 Susan gained her doctorate by researching the experiences of young people who had become disaffected with school. Here, she uses that information to provide a fascinating insight into the feelings and views of those ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: Trying to Understand Children with EBD
- Why Do We Want to Better Understand Children with EBD?
- What Exactly Do We Mean by EBD and What Theories Help Us to Understand it?
- How Can We Increase Our Understanding of the Behaviour of Children with EBD?
- What are the Nature, Extent and Impact of Previous and Current Attempts at Exploring the Perceptions of Children with EBD?
- Chapter 2: The Children, Their Schools and the Interviews
- The Children and Their Schools
- Collecting and Studying the Children's Contributions
- Questions about the Methodology
- Chapter 3: How We See it: The Children's Perceptions of the Factors That Influenced Their Behaviour
- The Schools and the Teachers
- (i) Size of School, Classes and Teacher to Pupil Ratio
- (ii) Teachers and Teaching
- (iii) The Curriculum
- (iv) Social Problems
- (v) Bringing it all Together
- Families and Life Outside School
- Things About Me: Physiological and Psychological Factors
- Some Final Thoughts from Chapter 3
- Chapter 4: How We See it: The Children's Perceptions of Their Own Behaviour
- Pupils Describe Their Behaviours and Motives
- (i) Flight
- (ii) Fight
- How Behaviours Evolve and are Labelled
- How Children Look for Support and Understanding
- Some Final Thoughts from Chapter 4
Published by Lucky Duck Publishing Ltd.,
3 Thorndale Mews, Bristol BS8 2HX
Illustrations by Philippa Drakeford
Cover design by Barbara Maines
Book design by Helen Weller
Printed by The Book Factory N7 7AH
© Susan Wise 2000
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by an means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior, written permission of the publisher.
The right of the author to be identified as Author of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.
This book is dedicated to Pat.
I would like to thank Christi for encouraging me throughout the writing of this book, Graham Upton for his support and advice in completing the research and finally the pupils who gave me their time and thoughts.[Page 4]
I carried out this research project because there appeared to be little evidence of studies attempting to explore the perceptions of pupils with EBD of the many factors that may possibly have influenced their behaviour and lives. I set out to allow pupils who had struggled in the mainstream setting to give free responses to questions regarding the range of factors that may have influenced them and their behaviour. I hoped that my results could have implications both for preventing certain behaviours in schools and also for the nature of the support offered to pupils who struggle in that setting. This book is the culmination of my endeavours. Since I carried out this project there has been a growing interest in this field and it appears that seeking pupil perspectives is gaining more and more momentum. I simply hope that my contribution can make a small difference in our ability to support children who struggle in schools and help them to meet their true potential.
Each of the trigger questions was designed to elicit pupil perspectives that would be pertinent to one of the areas of enquiry. The five areas of enquiry were proposed using information gained from an extensive review of the literature and previous research concerning various aspects of the behaviour of pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties, including theoretical proposals. From this review emerged a number of recurrent themes pertaining to the behaviour of pupils with EBD, particularly relating to their experiences of schooling. These topical issues represent important areas that appear to influence the pupils' behaviour and are in many ways associated with the various systems that impact on that behaviour. Thus in order to allow some degree of focus on these relevant topical themes, they were utilised in the construction of the five areas of enquiry. It was anticipated that by allocating pupil statements to each of these areas of enquiry that the data could then be further analysed to provide a richer source of information relevant to significant issues reflected in and currently being raised in the literature.
Analysis of the pupil interview data was effectively carried out in three stages with an increasing degree of focus on the data at each stage. Firstly, a collating of statements for the areas of enquiry was carried out, with all pupil statements that were considered in any way relevant or insightful to a particular area of enquiry being selected. Secondly, statements were scrutinised more closely to ensure that they were appropriately assigned to an area, which was followed by a further analysis of these statements to identify different themes that were emerging. Finally, a further refinement and expansion of these emerging themes and preliminary ideas was undertaken, with a particular emphasis on placing them and the present research within the framework and context of previous and current literature and research concerned with the behaviour of pupils with EBD.
[Page 146]The questions used during the interviews as they related to each area of enquiry are as follows:
The history and nature of the pupils' schooling difficulties
- What are your earliest memories of school?
- Can you remember when you first had difficulties of any kind in school?
- Can you describe the problems that you experienced?
Aspects of school and schooling associated with the pupils' difficulties
- Can you talk about the sorts of things that happened in school that you found difficult or that were a problem for you?
The significance of social, family or life events in the pupils' difficulties
- Do you think that your problems in school have anything to do with your life or things that have happened out of school?
- What would you describe as the most important things that have happened to you in your life so far?
The psychological or physiological aspects of the pupils' difficulties and their attitudes to treatment or professional support
- How would you describe yourself to someone who didn't know you?
- Can you tell me about any help or support that you have had from people?
- How do you feel about having been placed in a special school?
The behaviour of the pupils in response to their difficulties
- When you were having difficulties or problems in school what did you do or how did you behave?
- Can you say anything about why you behaved in certain ways?
- Do you blame anyone or anything in particular for your behaviour and placement in a special school?
- Why do you think you are in a special school?
References[Page 147]1993). “The sociology of school effectiveness.”British Journal of Sociology of Education, 14, 3, 333–345http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142569930140309(1982). Troubled Children, Troubled Systems. New York: Pergamon Press(1993). “Assessing special educational needs: the child's contribution.”British Educational Research Journal, 19, 2, 121–131http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192930190201, & (1994). “Bullying, a tale of everyday life: reflections on insider research.”Educational Action Research, 2, 2, 183–193http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0965079940020204(1994). “Is there any point in trying to reduce bullying in secondary schools? A two year follow-up of a whole school anti-bullying policy in one school.”Educational Psychology in Practice, 10, 3, 155–162http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736940100304(1994). “Who is excluded from School? Does family status have an influence?”Pastoral Care in Education, 12, 4, 10–11http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02643949409470891(1984). Getting It In Your Brain. In Schostak, J.F. & Logan, T. (Eds). Pupil Experience. London: Croom Helm(1995). “Behaviour support: moving towards an eco-systemic model.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 4, 2, 48–53(1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press(1989). Bullies and Victims in Schools. Buckingham: Open University Press(1981). Disaffected Pupils. Uxbridge: Brunel University, , & (1969). The School That I'd Like. Harmonsworth: Penguin(1994). “Exclusion from school and victim-blaming.”Oxford Review of Education, 20, 3, 293–306http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498940200303& (1993a). “A comparison of adults' and childrens' abilities to distinguish between aggressive and playful fighting in middle school pupils: implications for playground supervision and behaviour management.”Educational Studies, 19, 2, 193–203http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305569930190204(1993b). “Proximate causes of aggressive fighting in middle school children.”British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 2, 231–244http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1993.tb01054.x(1997). “Teachers' views on bullying: definitions, attitudes and ability to cope.”British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 2, 223–233http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1997.tb01239.x(1994). “Bullying and student distress: beneath the tip of the iceberg.”Educational Psychology, 14, 1, 59–71http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144341940140104(Charlton, T. & David, K. (Eds) (1989). Managing Misbehaviour. Basingstoke: MacMillan EducationCharlton, T. & David, K. (Eds). (1993). Managing Misbehaviour in Schools. London: RoutledgeChildren's Act (1989). Guidance and Regulations. London: HMSO1992). “Social maladjustment and emotional disturbance.”Psychology in the Schools, 29, 2, 131–140http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807%28199204%2929:2%3C131::AID-PITS2310290207%3E3.0.CO;2-I(Coleman Report (1966). Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington: US Government Printing Office1994). “Emotional and behavioural disorders: classification and provision.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 1, 4–18(1989). Respite, relationships and resignification: a study of the effects of residential schooling on pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties, with particular reference to the pupils' perspective. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham.(1992). “Exploring pupils' perceptions of the effects of residential schooling on children with emotional and behavioural difficulties.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 1, 1, 22–34(1993a). “Learning from pupils' perspectives.”British Journal of Special Education, 20, 4, 129–132http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.1993.tb00060.x(1993b). “Improving the behaviour and academic performance of pupils through the curriculum.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 2, 1, 252–260(1994). “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the strange case of Vincent Van Gogh.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 2, 86–95(1996). “Giving it a name: the value of descriptive categories in educational approaches to emotional and behavioural difficulties.”Support for Learning, 11, 4, 146–150http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1996.tb00249.x(1999). “Changing perceptions of emotional and behavioural difficulties: maladjustment, EBD and beyond.”Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 4, 1, 3–11http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363275990040102(1994). Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Theory to Practice. London: Routledge, & (1997). “Special needs and client rights: the changing social and political context of special educational research.”British Educational Research Journal, 23, 3, 379–389http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192970230309& (1987). Teacher Pupil Conflict in Secondary Schools. London: Falmer Press(1991). The Inner World of the School: Children's Ideas about School. London: Cassell(1993a). “Children's attitudes to bullying.”Education 3-13, 21, 2, 54–60http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03004279385200221(1993b). “Childrens' views on gender issues in school.”British Educational Research Journal, 19, 5, 555–563http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192930190508([Page 148]1996). Who Excludes Whom? The Personal Experiences of Exclusion. In Blythe, E. & Milner, J. (Eds). Exclusion from School. London: Routledge& (Daily Telegraph (1996). “Disruptive pupils pose expensive problems.” 19/8/96 p 17Daily Telegraph (1997). “Pupils terrorised by bullies who stalk the playground.” 12/3/97 p 51972). From Birth to Seven. Harlow: Longmans, & (1996). Listening to Children in Education. London: David Fulton& (1996). The Voice of the Child. London: Falmer Press, & (1996). “Pupils' views on special educational needs practice.”Support for Learning, 11, 4, 157–161http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1996.tb00251.x(1980). Special Provion for Disturbed Pupils: A Survey. Basingstoke: MacMillan(1997). “Excluded pupils' views of their educational needs and experiences.”Support for Learning, 12, 1, 19–22http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9604.00005(DES (Department of Education and Science) (1945). The Handicapped Pupils School Health Regulations. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1955). Report of the Committee on Maladjusted Behaviour. The Underwood Report. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1978). Special Educational Needs. The Warnock Report. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1981). Education Act. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1988). Special Schools for Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Disorders. Draft Circular. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1989a). Discipline in Schools. Report of the Committee of Enquiry chaired by Lord Elton. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1989b). Special Schools for Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. Circular 23/89. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1993). Education Act. London: HMSODES (Department of Education and Science) (1994). The Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs. London: DfE1993). “Homework: a comparison of teachers' and parents' perceptions of the problems experienced by students identified as having behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and no disabilities.”Remedial and Special Education, 14, 5, 40–50http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193259301400507, & (1980). Truancy, Delinquency, the Home and the School. In Hersov, L. & Berg, I. (Eds) Out of School: Modern Perspectives in Truancy and School Refusal. London: Wiley(1990). “A model response to emotional and behavioural development in schools.”Educational Psychology in Practice, 5, 4, 172–183http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736900050403(Fontana, D. (Ed) (1984). Behaviourism and Learning Theory in Education. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic PressFontana, D. (Ed) (1985). Psychology for Teachers. Basingstoke: MacMillan1986). Teaching and Personality. ((2nd Ed). Oxford: Blackwell1995). “Professional models of school absence associated with home responsibilities.”British Journal of Sociology of Education, 16, 2, 221–242http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142569950160206(1994). “The Relationship between Eysenck's personality factors and fear of bullying among 13 - 15 year olds in England and Wales.”Evaluation and Research in Education, 8, 3, 111–118http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500799409533360& (1977). Anancy goes to school: a case study of pupils' knowledge of their teachers. In Woods, P. & Hammersley, M. (Eds) School Experience. London: Croom Helm(1989). “The teacher as a significant: a review of the literature.”Adolescence, XX1V, p 549–555(1994). “Bullying: the importance of a whole school approach.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 1, 19–26(1982). Schools and Disruptive Pupils. London: Longman, , & (1987). The Education of Disturbing Children. London: Longman& (1991). “Comparitive perspectives on the views of disruptive students in three special schools in three countries.”Maladjustment and Therapeutic Education, 9, 3, 152–158(1993a). “Exclusions: the challenge to schools.”Support for Learning, 8, 3, 99–103http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1993.tb00129.x(1993b). “What disruptive pupils say about the school curriculum and the way it is taught.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 2, 3, 404–415(1994). “Exclusions: what the children think.”Educational Psychology in Practice, 10, 1, 35–44http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736940100105& (1968). “Organic brain dysfuncion and child psychiatric disorder.”British Medical Journal, 3, 695–700http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5620.695& (1983). Ethnography: Principles in Practice. London: Tavistock& (1967). Social Relations in a Secondary School. London: Routledge and Kegan Paulhttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203001837(1975). Deviance in Classrooms. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, & ([Page 149]1994). “Entitled to what? Control and autonomy in school: a student perspective.”International Studies in the Sociology of Education, 4, 1, 57–76http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0962021940040104(1992). “Diversity at secondary level.”British Journal of Special Education, 19, 1, 32–34http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8578.1992.tb00400.x(1994). Attention Deficit Disorders and Hyperactivity in Children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage(1991). The Ethics of Social Research. London: Longman(1994). “Cultural foundations of ADHD: a sociological analysis.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 2, 173–192(1994). “Exclusions from school: current trends and issues.”Educational Research, 36, 1, 3–11http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188940360101(1996). Damaged Goods? An Interpretation of Excluded Pupils' Perceptions of Schooling. In Blythe, E. & Milner, J. (Eds). Exclusion From School. London: Routledge(1993). What do Students think about school?Slough: NFER& (1962). “Societal reactions to deviant behaviour: problems of theory and method.”Social Problems, 9, 247–256http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1962.9.3.03a00060(1993). “Using multi-level analysis to assess school effectiveness: a study of Dutch secondary schools.”Sociology of Education, 66, 2, 104–130http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112796(1993). “Pupils' perceptions of a good teacher: a developmental perspective from Trinidad and Tobago.”British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 3, 400–413http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1993.tb01067.x& (1970). Hightown GrammarManchester: Manchester University Press(1995). “Beliefs and practice in the early schools for maladjusted children.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 4, 1, 5–9(1967). Human Deviance: Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall(1974). Human Behavior: An Introduction to Psychology. New York: The Ronald Press Company& (Lloyd-Smith, M. & Davies, J. (Eds) (1995). On the Margins: The Educational Experience of ‘Problem’ Pupils. Stoke: Trentham1986). “Some disturbed pupils' perceptions of their teachers: a pschotherapist's viewpoint.”Maladjustment and Therapeutic Education, 4, 1, 29–35(1992). “Make trouble-get results.”Educational Psychology in Practice, 8, 2, 97–100http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736920080205& (1978). Rules of Disorder. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, & (1984). Changing Schools. Milton Keynes: Open University Press& (1986). A Sociology of Educating (2nd Ed). London: Holt Rinehart and Winston(1993). “The social meaning of smoking for boys in residential school for children with emotional and behavioural disorders.”Health Education Journal, 52, 2, 55–58http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200202& (1994). “BBD not EBD? Dealing with bright but disruptive pupils.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 3, 232–253(1989). Managing Behaviour Problems. London: Hodder and Stoughton(1991). “Childrens' views on teasing and fighting in junior schools.”Educational Research, 33, 2, 103–112http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188910330203& (1969). General Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin& (1990). “Pupils' perceptions of ‘effective disciplinarians’.”British Educational Research Journal, 16, 2, 191–198http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192900160207, & (1997). “Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck's personality dimensions in 8 to 13 year-olds.”British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 1, 51–54http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1997.tb01226.x& (National Curriculum Council (1989). A Curriculum for All. York: NCC1994). “Differentiation: from the perspective of resolving tensions between basic social values and assumptions about individual differences.”Curriculum Studies, 2, 3, 289–308(O'Keeffe, D. & Stoll, P. (Eds) (1995). Issues in School Attendance and Truancy. London: Pitman1994). “Annotation: bullying at school: basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program.”Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 7, 1171–1190http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1994.tb01229.x(1996). The Cost of Primary Exclusions. In Blythe, E. & Milner, J. (Eds). Exclusion From School. London: Routledge(1996). “Permanent exclusions from school: a case where society is failing its children.”Support for Learning, 11, 3, 109–112http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1996.tb00241.x& (1993). “A school-based action research project on truancy: within school factors.”Support for Learning, 8, 1, 3–6http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1993.tb00109.x, , & (1994). “An investigation into staff and pupils' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about bullying in an inner city school.”Pastoral Care in Education, 12, 3, 16–22http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02643949409470881& (1987). Interviewing in Educational Research. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul& (1997). “ADHD/hyperkinetic disorders: how should educational psychologists and other practitioners respone to the emerging pheomenon of school children diagnosed as having ADHD?”Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 2, 115–27http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1363275970020103(1988). Invisible Children. Oxford: University Press(1994). “Pupil culture, education and the metacognitive curriculum.”Curriculum Studies, 2, 1, 99–117([Page 150]1996). A Community Approach to Bullying. Stoke: Trentham(1985). Truancy and School Absenteeism. London: Hodder and Stoughton(1986). Disaffection From School. London: Methuen(1987). Towards the Effective School. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, & (1992). School Effectiveness Research. London: Cassell& (1997). Crying for Help: the No Blame Approach to Bullying. Bristol: Lucky Duck Publishing& (1995). What Can Pupils Tell Us?London: David Fulton, & (1979). Fifteen Thousand Hours. London: Open Books, , & (Scherer, M., Gersch, I. & Fry, L. (Eds). (1990). Meeting Disruptive Behaviour: Assessments, Interventions and Partnership. Basingstoke: MacMillan1983). Maladjusted Schooling. London: Falmer Press(1995). “How much does bullying hurt? The effects of bullying on the personal well-being and educational progress of secondary aged students.”Educational and Child Psychology, 12, 2, 81–88(1993). “Bullying: teachers' views and school effects.”Educational Studies, 19, 3, 307–321http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305569930190306, , & (1994). “Who gets bullied? The effect of school, gender and ethnic group.”Educational Research, 36, 2, 123–134http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188940360202, , & (1994). “Finding a student voice in school reform: student disaffection, pathologies of disruption and educational control.”International Studies in the Sociology of Education, 4, 2, 147–172http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0962021940040202(1991). “Dropping out in a working class high school: adolescent voices on the decision to leave.”British Journal of Sociology of Education, 12, 3, 277–291http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142569910120301& (1982). Disruptive Pupils in Schools and Units. Chichester: Wiley and Sons(1984). Disruptive Pupils: Systems Rejects. In Schostak, J. F. & Logan, T. (Eds). Pupil Experience. London: Croom Helm(Times Educational Supplement (TES) (1992). “Shout and be damned.” 29/5/92 p 10Times Educational Supplement (TES) (1995). “Classes are already overcrowded.” 28/4/94 p 13Times Educational Supplement (TES) (1996a). “Rise in primary exclusions.” 1/11/96 p 1Times Educational Supplement (TES) (1996b). “Exclusions rise relentlessly.” 8/11/96 p 11994). “Listening to the children: interviews with children attending a mainstream support facility.”Support for Learning, 9, 4, 179–182http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1994.tb00182.x, & (1994). “Blind faith? Empowerment and educational research.”International Studies in Sociology of Education, 4, 1, 3–24http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0962021940040101(1983). Educating Children with Behaviour Problems. Cardiff: University College(1990). “A new perspective on behaviour problems in schools: the ecosytemic approach.”Maladjustment and Therapeutic Education, 8, 1, 3–18& (1994). “The changing pupil-population of schools for pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties.”Therapeutic Care and Education, 3, 3, 218–231(1993). Experiencing Special Education. Milton Keynes: Open University Press& (1982). Children in Adversity. London: Pan& (1992). “Bullying in schools: mainstream and special needs.”Support for Learning, 7, 1, 3–7http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9604.1992.tb00445.x, & (1941). The Hawkspur Experiment. London: Allen and Unwin(1945). The Barns Experiment. London: Allen and Unwin(1977). Learning to Labour. Farnborough: Saxon House(1997) The behaviour of pupils with EBD and their perceptions of the factors and processes that are significant in relation to their own behaviour and resulting placement in special education. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of Birmingham., (1993). “Does behaviour really matter?”Therapeutic Care and Education, 2, 1, 216–221(1977). The Ethnography of the School. Block 11, Units 7-8. Milton Keynes: Open University Press(Woods, P. (Ed). (1980). Pupil Strategies. London: Croom Helm1983). Sociology and the School: An Interactionist Viewpoint. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul(1990). Happiest Days: How Pupils Cope With School. Lewes: Falmer Press(1998). The support group approach to bullying in schools. Educational Psychology in Practice, 14, 132–39http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0266736980140106(