Learning: A Behavioral, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Synthesis provides an integrated account of the psychological processes involved in learning and conditioning and their influence on human behavior. With a skillful blend of behavioral, cognitive, and evolutionary themes, the text explores various types of learning as adaptive specialization that evolved through natural selection. Robust pedagogy and relevant examples bring concepts to life in this unique and accessible approach to the field.

Adjusting to Schedules of Partial Reinforcement

Adjusting to Schedules of Partial Reinforcement

The procedure of operant conditioning involves a programmed relationship between some behavior and an outcome for performing that behavior in a certain situation and at a certain time. We refer to this relationship as a behavior-outcome contingency. The behavior can be defined broadly (lever press or key peck) or narrowly (within a specified range of forces, durations, or locations, or in a specified manner, e.g., only with the left paw). If it is within the individual’s ability to detect the relationship between the prescribed aspect of his or her behavior and the occurrence of the outcome, the individual can use hill-climbing to become more efficient at obtaining the sought-after outcome. A special class ...

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