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Chapter 10: Calculation
Different Forms of Addition and Subtraction
To appreciate the complexities of addition and subtraction we need to recognise that there are different forms of each which children experience. Carpenter and Moser (1983) identified four different types of addition and subtraction contexts: combine, change, compare and equalise (see Figure 10.1). Models and typical word problems are provided to illustrate each form.
Figure 10.1Forms of Addition and Subtraction (for 3 + 2 = 5 and 5 − 2 = 3)