Learning and Teaching in the Primary Classroom
Publication Year: 2007
Providing a framework for understanding the individual needs of pupils, this book describes how you can tailor your teaching methods to maximise learning. You will learn how to take account of your pupils' knowledge, skills and attitudes when selecting and applying principles of instruction, in order to make learning in your classroom as successful as possible. Packed with informative case studies and classroom examples, this book explores how learning is conceptualised, direct instruction, interactive teaching, teaching as scaffolding, and how to overcome obstacles to learning. This is a must-read for all practitioners and students of primary education who wish to understand how to best apply theories of instruction, and provide effective, dynamic teaching.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Primary Teaching in Contemporary Settings
- Chapter 2: New Labour: New Beginning?
- Chapter 3: Learning for Teaching
- Chapter 4: Teaching for Transmission and Understanding
- Chapter 5: Making Pupils Metacognitively Wise
- Chapter 6: Group Work in the Primary Classroom
- Chapter 7: The Social and Emotional Aspects of Teaching and other Matters
© 2007 Maurice Galton
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006938166
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Typeset by Pantek Arts Ltd, Maidstone, Kent
Printed in Great Britain by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
List of Figures and Tables[Page vi]Figures
- 2.1 KS2 national curriculum results (English) 1995–2005 16
- 2.2 KS2 national curriculum results (Mathematics) 1995–2005 17
- 2.3 Year 6 pupils' enjoyment of primary school 21
- 2.4 Open v. closed questions 26
- 3.1 A typology of knowledge acquisition 33
- 3.2 How pupils think and learn: working models 44
- 3.3 A classification of thinking skills 46
- 4.1 The concept of flow 51
- 4.2 Key steps in direct instruction 58
- 5.1 Knowledge, learning and pedagogy 75
- 5.2 Academic tasks 80
- 5.3 Knowledge, pedagogy and feedback 87
- 5.4 A possible cross-curriculum project plan 90
- 6.1 Example worksheet for dealing with behaviour problems 103
- 7.1 Example of a semi-rural primary school's discipline policy 115
- Table 2.1 Year 6 pupils' attitudes to core subjects (2001–2005) 21
- Table 2.2 The pattern of teachers' statements 26
- Table 4.1 Instructional process for facilitating student learning 54
- Table 4.2 Ten key features in teaching for understanding 67
- Table 5.1 Effect sizes associated with various types of feedback 88
- Table 6.1 Key phases of group work training 98
I would like to acknowledge the following sources for allowing me to use these extracts:
Dr. Adrienne Alton-Lee, Chief Educational Adviser of the New Zealand Ministry of Education, and the late Professor Graham Nuthall for permission to use part of a lesson transcript on cold fronts that is reproduced on pages 55–57.
Leicestershire County Council for permission to reproduce Figure 6.1 taken from their publication, Out from Behind the Desk: A practical guide to groupwork skills and, processes.
David Moseley, Director of the Learning and Skills Development Agency Project, An Evaluation of Thinking Skill Taxonomies for post-16 Learners, and colleagues at the University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, for permission to include Figure 3.3 which is based on their version in a paper given at an ESRC seminar and subsequently reproduced in a modified form in an article in the June 2005 edition of the British Educational Research Journal.
Dr K.K. Chan, Principal Assistant Secretary (Curriculum Development) Hong Kong Education and Manpower Board, for permission to incorporate part of Figure 5.4, which was taken from a draft of the Hong Kong Senior Secondary Curriculum and Assessment Study Guide on Teaching and Learning.
McGraw Hill for permission to use part of a transcript on page 61 illustrating wait time, which was taken from Chapter 8 of Mary Budd Rowe's book, Teaching Science as Continuous Inquiry.
To Matthew, who had great primary teachers, not-so-good secondary ones, but came good in the end.[Page x]
This book is a sequel to one that I wrote some years ago on teaching in the primary classroom. In that book I tried to respond to the charges regarding poor teaching and the insistence by politicians that they had rescued schools from the ravages of the 1960s' progressive trends. At the same time I noted the increased pressure on primary teachers that had resulted from the introduction of the National Curriculum and the increased emphasis on testing. A sequel, Crisis in the Primary Classroom (1995), attempted to spell out the consequences of these policy initiatives on classroom pedagogy. Little did I think at the time that New Labour, despite increased funding, would make matters worse in many respects. The increased emphasis on a performance rather than a learning culture in our schools (one recent education minister told me that performance was the only acceptable measure of learning) has led to a drastic dip in pupil attitudes, a lowering of morale among teachers, an impoverished curriculum and a restricted pedagogy. Even the limited gains in so-called ‘basics’ (contested by other independent research studies) seem to have peaked in recent years. When excellent, dedicated teachers are leaving the profession because:
‘After all my years in teaching I feel that my methods and opinions are worthless. With every new initiative we have to throw away other tried and tested methods that worked for us,’
‘I'm not looking for a career with more money; I'm looking for a career with more levels of satisfaction. I want to be challenged by things I want to be challenged by. At the moment I just feel challenged by everything and I want to be challenged by things which I feel have real value,’
while those who stay say:
‘I wouldn't enter the profession now for £1,000 per week. It's stressful and socially destroying. I just love the children: that's why I continue,’1
then there is a serious problem of teacher professionalism which needs to be addressed urgently without recourse to the meaningless jargon and catch-all phrases to be found in much of the advice that emerges from the Department for Education and Skills Standards Unit and those responsible for coordinating the National Primary Strategy. Above all, teachers wish to regain control of pedagogy; the right to teach in ways which best promote the learning of the children in their charge, rather than adopting the rigid frameworks of the Literacy and Numeracy hours. There are signs that this battle is now being waged successfully, by some schools openly and by others stealthily. One difficulty is that for teachers under the age of 30, the National Curriculum and the associated targeting and testing regimes constituted their whole experience of schooling and teaching. There are, therefore, a decreasing number of practitioners who can remember what it was like before the reforms. Hence the purpose of this book: to set out some of the pedagogic principles that promote ‘deep’ rather than ‘surface’ learning and that encourage pupils to think for themselves.
[Page xii]For most of my career in education, spanning over 30 years, I have sat in the back of classrooms observing teachers teach and pupils learn. Beginning with the study of science teaching, then a series of studies over two decades following the ORACLE (Observational and Classroom Learning Evaluation) Project, the research has concerned such aspects as grouping and group work, curriculum provision in small schools, transfer to secondary school and, more recently, the way that artists, writers, dancers and actors motivate children who appear to lack the confidence to learn under normal classroom conditions. At times the research has involved working alongside teachers in order to gain better insights into what they did in the classroom and why they did it. I am grateful to the hundreds of teachers who allowed me the privilege of watching them teach and who were kind enough to spend precious time helping me better understand the complexities of daily classroom life. To my colleagues, in both Leicester and Cambridge, I also owe a debt of gratitude, but particularly to my collaborators in much of this research; Linda Hargreaves and Tony Pell, who have always been on hand to restrain me from more fanciful interpretations of the evidence. The views expressed here have been heavily influenced by their critical observations although I am, of course, responsible for what is set out on the following pages.
Additionally, at the end of each chapter I have given a list of key references for readers who want to follow up specific issues. These are also included in the References section at the end of the book.
Last, like many other authors, I have had trouble with current conventions. I have tried to avoid always referring to teachers in the singular as ‘she’ or ‘her’ unless it concerns a particular person, but confess defeat over the choice of student, child or pupil and have used each of these descriptors on various occasions.
1 Quotations from A Life in Teaching? The Impact of Change on Primary Teachers' Working Lives by Maurice Galton and John MacBeath for the National Union of Teachers, June 2002.
References[Page 129]1984) Early Learning Skills Analysis, Chichester: Wiley.and (2004) The development of expertise: the journey from acclimatisation to proficiencyEducational Researcher, 32 (8):10–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X032008010(1991) Coming to terms: how researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge, Review of Educational Research, 61(3): 315–43., and (1992) Policy and Practice in Primary Education, Abingdon: Routledge.(1995) Versions of Primary Education, Abingdon: Routledge.(2000) Culture and Pedagogy: International Comparisons of Primary Education, Oxford: Blackwell.(2004) Still no pedagogy? Principle, pragmatism and compliance in primary education, Cambridge Journal of Education, 34 (1): 7–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764042000183106(2005) Towards Dialogic Teaching: Rethinking Classroom Talk(2nd edn, York: Dialogues.1989) Changing Primary Practice, Abingdon: Falmer., and (1966) Expressive behaviour, in Semeonoff, B. (ed.) Personality Assessment, London: Penguin.(1992) A generative methodology for classroom research, Educational Philosophy and Theory, Special Issue: Educational Research Methodology, 24 (2): 29–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-5812.1992.tb00224.xand (1998) Inclusive Instructional Design: Theoretical Principles Arising from the Understanding Learning and Teaching Project, Report to the Ministry of Education, Understanding Learning and Teaching Project 3, Wellington, NZ: Ministry of Education.and (1939) The measurement of domination and of socially integrative behaviour in teachers’ contacts with children, Child Development, 10, 73–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1125471(1989) Research in Classrooms: The Study of Teachers, Teaching and Instruction, Oxford: Pergamon.and (1979) An experimental study of effective teaching in first grade reading groups, Elementary School Journal, 79: 193–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461151, and (ARG (Assessment Reform Group) (1999) Assessment for Learning: Beyond the Black Box, Cambridge: School of Education, University of Cambridge.1997) The Jigsaw Classroom: Building Cooperation in the Classroom, Harlow: Longman.and ([Page 130]1964) An Introduction to Motivation, Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.(1968) Human memory: a proposed system and its control processes, in Spence, J. and Spence, J. (eds) Advances in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Volume 2, New York: Academic Press.and (2000) Learning to teach: intuitive skills and reasoned objectivity, in Atkinson, T. and Claxton, G. (eds) The Intuitive Practitioner: On the Value of not always Knowing what one is Doing, Buckingham: Open University Press.(2003) Changes in grouping practice over primary and secondary schools, International Journal of Educational Research, 39 (1): 9–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900071-5, and (2002) The Next Stage for Large Scale Reform in England: From Good to Great, Background Paper presented to the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 47th Economic Conference, ‘Education in the 21st Century: Meeting the Challenges of a Changing World’, 19–21 June.(1984) Junior School teachers: Their methods and practices, Educational Research26: 178–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188840260304(1986) Starting School: An Evaluation of the Experience, Final Report to the AMMA, CARE, University of East Anglia.(1998) National Literacy Strategy: A Review of the Research and Other Evidence, London: DfES.(1997) Project Management: The People Challenge, London: Institute of Personnel and Development.and (1984) From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice, Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.(1984) The Quality of Pupil Learning Experience, London: Lawrence Erlbaum., , and (1992) Managing Classroom Groups, Hemel Hempstead: Simon and Schuster Education.and (1989) A Good Start: Four-year-olds in Infant Schools, Oxford: Blackwell.and (1998) Learning Beyond the Classroom: Education for a Changing World, Abingdon: Routledge.(1991) Implications of connectionism for thinking about rules, Educational Researcher, 27 (2): 4–13.(1993) Surpassing Ourselves: An Enquiry into the Nature and Implications of Expertise, Chicago, IL: Open Court.and (1994) Expertise: The wonders of exemplary performance, in Mangieri, J. and Collins-Block, C. (eds), Creating Powerful Thinking in Teachers and Students, Ft. Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(2002) Learning about and learning from expert teachers, International Journal of Educational Research, 37 (6): 463–82.(2004) Heaven knows why they are miserable now, Guardian, 27 April, p. 2.(1995) Schooling as Preparation for Life and Work in Switzerland and Britain, Discussion Paper no. 75, London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research.and (1994) What are effective schools? Lessons from East to West, Australian Educational Researcher, 21: 19–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03219558([Page 131]1982) Evaluating the Quality of Learning: The SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcome), San Diego, CA: Academic Press.and (1998a) Assessment and classroom learning, Assessment in Education, 5 (1): 7–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0969595980050102and (1988b) Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment, London: King's College, University of London.and (2003) Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice, Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill., , , and (2005) Improving the Effectiveness of Pupil Groups in Classrooms, A Phase 2 TLRP project, Final Report to the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) available at http://creict.homerton.cam.ac.uk/spring, , and (1995) Developing Circle Time, London: Lame Duck., and (1971) Mastery Learning: Theory and Practice, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(1976) Human Characteristics and School Learning, New York: McGraw-Hill.(Bransford, J., Brown, A. and Cocking, R. (eds) (1999) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1997) The social construction of learning, in Phye, G. (ed.) Handbook of Academic Learning: Construction of Knowledge, New York: Academic Press.(2005) Primary schooling under New Labour, Oxford Review of Education, 31 (1): 29–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498042000337174(1998) Participation in cooperative learning activities by children with specific language impairment, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 41, 1193–206., and (1992) Probing the subtleties of subject-matter teaching, Educational Leadership, 49 (7): 4–8.(2004) Motivating Students to Learn(2nd edn, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.1986) Teacher behaviour and student achievement, in Wittrock, M. C. (ed.) Handbook of Research on Teachingand (3rd edn, New York: Macmillan.1997) Transforming schools into communities of thinking and learning about serious matters, American Psychologist, 52 (4): 399–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.4.399(1990) Communities of learning and thinking, or a context by any other name, in Kuhn, D. (ed.) Developmental Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Thinking Skills: Contributions in Human Development, pp. 108–26, Basel, Krager.and (1994) Guided discovery in a community of learners, in McGillyK. (ed.) Classroom Lessons: Integrating Cognitive Theory and Classroom Practice, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press in association with Bradford Books.and (1986) Guided Cooperative Learning and Individual Knowledge Acquisition, Technical Report 372, Cambridge, MA: Bolt, Beranak and Newham.and (1998) Is the national numeracy strategy research based?, British Journal of Educational Studies, 46: 362–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8527.00090, , , and (2003) The key role of educational research in the development and education of the National Numeracy Strategy, British Educational Research Journal, 29(5): 655–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000133677, , and ([Page 132]1966) Towards a Theory of Instruction, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1972) Towards a disciplined intuition, in Bruner, J. (ed.) The Relevance of Education, London: George Allen and Unwin.and (1973) Teaching Science as a Continuous Enquiry, New York: McGraw-Hill.(1998) Broader thinking about the primary school curriculum, in Take Care, Mr Blunkett, London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).(1963) A model for school learning, Teachers College Record, 64, 723–33.(1990) Assessing Science in the Primary Classroom: Observing Activities, London: Paul Chapman Publishing., , and (CFAS (2003) School Sampling Project Curriculum Survey: Summary of Primary School Findings, 2001–02, http://www.education.man.ac.uk/cfas/mcd/summaries.html. Centre for Formative Assessment Studies2004) Education Policy in Great Britain, Basingstoke: Macmillan.(2000) Applying a connectionist description of feedback timing, Educational Teaching Research and Development, 48 (3): 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02319855, and (2000) The anatomy of intuition, in Atkinson, T. and Claxton, G. (eds) The Intuitive Practitioner: On the Value of not always Knowing what one is Doing, Buckingham: Open University Press.(2003) Learning Styles in Learning to Learn: A Review, Paper Prepared for the ESRC ‘Learning to Learn’ Seminar, 17 November, London: British Psychological Society., , and (1994) Restructuring classrooms: conditions for productive groups, Review of Educational Research, 64 (1): 1–35.(1995) Producing equal status interaction in the heterogeneous classroom, American Educational Research Journal, 32, (1): 99–120.and (2003) What leaders need to know about the relationship between teaching and learning, in Learning Texts, Nottingham: National College for School Leadership (NCSL).(1967) The Antecedents of Self-esteem, San Francisco, CA: Freeman.(1991) Primary Teaching: How It Is, London: David Fulton.(1998) Primary curricula across cultures: contexts and connections, in Moyles, J. and Hargreaves, L. (eds) The Primary Curriculum: Learning from International Perspectives, Abingdon: Routledge.(1996) Cultures of learning; language classrooms in China, in Coleman, H. (ed.) Society and Language Classroom, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.and (1992) Making the Grade: A Self-worth Perspective on Motivation and School Reform, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173582(1991) Cooperative Group Work: Training Guide, London: BP Educational Service.and (1994) Cooperation in the Multi-ethnic Classroom, London: David Fulton., , and (1975) Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1990) Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, New York: Harper and Row.([Page 133]1998) Introduction, in Take Care, Mr Blunkett, London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).(1994) Literature Circles: Voice and Choice in the Student-Centred Classroom, York: Stenhouse.(2001) Vygotsky and Pedagogy, Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer.(2000) Thinking Together: A Programme of Activities for Developing Thinking Skills at Key Stage 2, Birmingham: Questions Publishing., and (1998) Developing Teachers: The Challenges of Lifelong Learning?, Abingdon: Falmer.(1994) Praise, more than just social reinforcement, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 24: 219–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5914.1994.tb00254.xand (Denham, C. and Liberman, A. (eds) (1986) Time to Learn, Report of the Beginning Teacher Education Studies, Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.Desforges, C. (ed.) (1995) An Introduction to Teaching: Psychological Perspectives, Oxford: Blackwell.2003) On learning and teaching, in Learning Texts, Nottingham: National College for School Leadership (NCSL) at http://www.ncsl.org.uk(DfEE (1997) Excellence in Schools, Cmnd 3681, London: The Stationery Office.DfEE (1999) Excellence in Cities, London: The Stationery Office.DfES (2003) Excellence and Enjoyment: A Strategy for Primary Schools, London: Department for Education and Skills.DfES (2004) A National Conversation about Personalised Learning (DfES/0919/2004), Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills or at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/personalisedlearningDfES (2005) Higher Standards, Better Schools for All: More Choice for Parents and Pupils (Cm 6677), London: Department for Education and Skills.1990) The Practice of Questioning, Abingdon: Routledge.(1999) Exploring and explaining ‘dips’ in motivation and performance in primary and secondary schooling, Research in Education, 61: 29–38., and (1979a) Classroom tasks and student abilities, in Peterson, P. and Walberg, H. (eds) Research on Teaching, Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.(1979b) Making managerial decisions in classrooms, in Duke, D. (ed.) Classroom Management, 78th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part II, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1983) Academic work, Review of Educational Research, 53: 159–99.(1986) Classroom organisation and management, in Wittrock, M. (ed.) 3rd Handbook of Research on Teaching, New York: Macmillan.(1983) Academic tasks in classrooms, Curriculum Inquiry, 14: 129–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3202177and (1974) The Study of Teaching, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.and (1990) Talking and Learning in Groups, Basingstoke: MacMillan Education. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203427514and (1986) Motivational approaches effecting learning, American Psychologist, 41, 1040–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.10.1040([Page 134]1988) A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality, Psychological Review, 95, 256–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256and (2001) Watching and Learning 2: OISE/UT Evaluation of the Implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, Nottingham: DfEE Publications and Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto., , , and (2003) Watching and Learning 3: Final Report of the External Evaluation of the Implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, Nottingham: DfEE Publications and Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto., , , and (2000) Watching and Learning 1: OISE/UT Evaluation of the Implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, Nottingham: DfEE Publications and Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto., , , , , and (1990) Impact of process and outcome feedback on the relation of goal setting to task performance, Academy of Management Journal, 33 (1): 87–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256353, , and (1987) Common Knowledge and the Development of Understanding in the Classroom, Abingdon: Routledge.and (1976) Developing Hypotheses about Classrooms for Teachers: An Account of the Work of the Ford Teaching Project, Grand Forks, ND: University of North Dakota.(1989) School and classroom discipline programs: how well do they work?, in Moles, O. (ed.) Strategies to Reduce Student Misbehaviour, Washington, DC: US Department of Education.and (1977) Strategies of learning and studying: recent research findings, British Journal of Educational Studies, 25, 225–38.(2002) Personal understanding and target understanding: mapping influences on the outcomes of learning, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72 (3): 321–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709902320634528and (1979) Identifying distinctive approaches to studying, Higher Education, 8, 365–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01680525, and (1996). The acquisition of expert performance: An introduction to some of the issues, in K. A.Ericsson (Ed.), The Road to Excellence: The Acquisition of Expert Performance in the Arts and Sciences Sports and Games, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 1–50.(2002) Educational research and the teacher, Research Papers in Education, 17 (4): 373–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152022000031388, and (1980) Instrumental Enrichment Intervention Programme for Cognitive Modifiability, Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.(1998) Teaching Thinking, London: Cassell.(1964) Some relationships among teacher influence, pupil attitudes and achievement, in Biddle, B. and Ellena, W. (eds) Contemporary Research on Teacher Effectiveness, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(1970) Analysing Teacher Behaviour, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.([Page 135]2001) The New Meaning of Educational Change(3rd edn, New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.2000) Intuition and the crisis in teacher professionalism, in Atkinson, T. and Claxton, G. (eds) The Intuitive Practitioner: On the Value of not always Knowing what one is Doing, Buckingham: Open University Press.(1978) The Scientific Basis for the Art of Teaching, New York: Teachers College Press.(2004) Understanding motivation, in Daniels, H. and Edwards, A. (eds) The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Psychology of Education, Abingdon, Routledge Falmer, pp. 89–105., , , with (1981) Teaching groups in the junior school, a neglected art, Schools Organisation, 1 (2): 175–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0260136810010215(1989) Teaching in the Primary School, London: David Fulton.(1995) Crisis in the Primary Classroom, London: David Fulton.(1998) The use of discretionary time in the primary school, Research Papers in Education, 13: 119–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152980130202and (2002) A Life in Teaching? The Impact of Change on Primary Teachers’ Working Lives, A report commissioned by the National Union of Teachers concerning the workloads in Primary Schools, University of Cambridge: Faculty of Education.and with and (1992) Group Work in the Primary Classroom, Abingdon: Routledge.and (2003) Transfer and Transitions in the Middle Years of Schooling (7–14): Continuities and Discontinuities in Learning, Research Report 443, Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills (DfES)., and (1999) Inside the Primary Classroom: 20 Years On, Abingdon: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203269329, , and (1980) Inside the Primary Classroom, Abingdon: Routledge and Kegan Paul., and (1983) Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, New York: Basic Books.(1995) Why would anyone become an expert?, American Psychologist, 50: 802–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.802(1999) Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, New York: Basic Books.(1994) Teaching for understanding in the disciplines and beyond, Teachers College Record, 96 (2): 198–217.and (1994) Beyond Testing: Towards a Theory of Educational Assessment, Abingdon: Falmer.(1987) Thoughts on expertise, in Schooler, C. and Schaie, W. (eds) Cognitive Functioning and Social Structure over the Life Course, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1990) Expertise, in Eysenk, M., Ellis, A., Hunt, E. and Johnson-Laird, P. (eds), The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell Reference.(1996) Changing the agency for learning: Acquiring expert performance, in Ericsson, K. (ed.) The Road to Excellence: The Acquisition of Expert Performance in the Arts and Sciences, Sports and GamesMahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 303–11.([Page 136]1998) Working with Emotional Intelligence, New York: Bantham.(1973) Dictionary of Education(3rd edn., New York: McGraw-Hill.2002) Looking in the Classroomand (9th edn, Boston, MD: Allyn and Bacon.1979) The Missouri mathematics effectiveness project: an experimental study of fourth grade classrooms, Journal of Educational Psychology, 71 (3): 355–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.115and (1974) T.E.T. Teacher Effectiveness Training, New York: Wyden.(2001) Cognitive development – no stages, please – we're British, British Journal of Psychology, 92: 257–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712601162068(2003) The primary side of the transfer divide: heads’ perceptions and pupil progress, in Galton, M., Gray, J. and Rudduck, J. (eds) Transfer and Transitions in the Middle Years of Schooling (7–14): Continuities and Discontinuities in Learning, Research Report 443, Nottingham: Department for Education and Skills (DfES)., , and (1999) Improving Schools: Performance and Potential, Buckingham: Open University Press., , , and (1998) Definitions and empirical foundations, in Hacker, D., DunloskyJ. and Graesser, A. (eds) Metacognition in Educational Theory and Practice, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1994) The social relational approach, in Kutnick, P. and Rogers, C. (eds) Groups in Schools, London: Cassell.(1998) Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains, American Psychologist, 53 (4): 449–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.4.449(2002) Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking(4th edn, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.1993) Understanding Organisations(4th edn, London: Penguin.2003) Interactive whole class teaching in the national literacy strategy, Cambridge Journal of Education, 33 (2): 197–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057640302043, and (1992) Cultures for teaching: a focus for change, in Hargreaves, A. and Fullan, M. (eds) Understanding Teacher Development, London: Cassell in association with Teachers College Press, Columbia University, New York.(2000) Mixed emotions: teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students, Teaching and Teacher Education, 16: 811–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X%2800%2900028-7(2001) Emotional geographies of teaching, Teachers College Record, 103 (6): 1056–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0161-4681.00142(2003) How do primary school teachers define and implement interactive teaching in the national literacy strategy in England?, Research Papers in Education, 18 (3): 217–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267152032000107301, , , , and (1999) Setting and Streaming: A Research Review, Edinburgh: Scottish Council for Research in Education (SCRE).and (1978) Conceptual issues in models of school learning, Curriculum Studies, 10 (3): 215–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027780100304and (2000) Natural rates of approval and disapproval in British infant, junior and secondary classrooms, British Journal of educational Psychology, 70: 473–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709900158236and ([Page 137]1981) A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: motivational and informational components, Developmental Psychology, 17, 300–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1680(2002) Reorganising Primary School Learning, Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1995) Tables and tasks: the effects on seating arrangements on task engagement in primary classrooms, Educational Researcher, 37 (3): 279–91.and (1996) A place for learning, in Croll, P. and Hastings, N. (eds) Effective Primary Teaching: Research Based Classroom Strategies, London: David Fulton., and (2002) The Power of Feedback for Enhancing Learning, Paper given to an ESRC sponsored seminar on Thinking Skills, April, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.(1971) The Teacher's Day, Slough: National Foundation of Educational Research (NFER).and (1968) The contribution of philosophy to the study of the curriculum, in Kerr, J. (ed.) Changing the Curriculum, Leicester: Leicester University Press.(1996) The Psychology of Vocational Choice, Waltham, MA: Blaisdell.(1984) How Children Fail, London: Penguin.(2003) Group working primary school science: discussion, consensus and guidance from experts, International Journal of Educational Research, 39 (1) 15–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900073-9and (1997) Distributed representations of structure: a theory of analogical access and mapping, Psychological Review, 104: 427–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.104.3.427and (2002) Effect of challenger experience on elementary school children's attitudes to science, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39 (10): 979–1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tea.10055and (2000) Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skillsand (7th edn, Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.1985) The internal dynamics of cooperative learning groups, in Slavin, R., Sharan, S., Kagan, S., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Webb, N. and Schmuck, R. (eds) Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn, New York: Plenum, pp. 103–24.and (1987) Learning Together and Alone: Co-operative, Competitive and Individualistic Learning, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and (1983) Interdependence and interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous and homogeneous individuals: a theoretical formulation and a metaanalysis of the research, Review of Educational Research, 53 (1): 5–54., and (1972) Models of Teachingand (2nd edn, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1997) Models of Learning – Tools for Teaching, Buckingham: Open University Press., and (1988) Cooperative Learning: Resources for Teachers, Riverside, CA: University of California Press.(1988) Sex and age differences in response to informational and controlling feedback, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14: 514–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167288143010and (1992) Facilitating elaborative learning through guided student generated questioning, Educational Psychologist, 27: 89–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2701_8([Page 138]1992) Out from Behind the Desk: A Practical Guide to Groupwork Skills and Processes, Glenfield: Leicestershire County Council., and (1977) Feedback in written instructions, Review of Educational Research, 47 (1): 211–32.(1988) Timing of feedback and verbal learning, Review of Educational Research, 58 (1): 79–97.and (2005) Children's friendships and learning in school: cognitive enhancement through social interaction?, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75 (1): 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000709904x19263and (1998) Social life in the classroom: towards a relational concept of social skills for use in the classroom, in Campbell, A. and Muncer, S. (eds) The Social Child, Hove: Psychology Press.and (2002) Pupil groupings in primary school classrooms: sites for learning and social pedagogy?, British Educational Research Journal, 28 (2): 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920120122149, and (2006) Pupil Grouping Strategies and Practices at Key Stages 2 and 3: Case Studies of 24 Schools in England, Research Report 796, Nottingham: DfES., , , , , , and (2005) The Effects of Pupil Grouping: Literature Review, Research Report 688, Nottingham: DfES., , , and with and (2004) A Systematic Review of the Daily Mathematics Lesson in Enhancing Pupil Confidence and Competence in Early Mathematics, A review conducted for the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) and Coordination Centre, University of London Institute of Education.and (1997) First day in secondary school: learning to be a ‘professional pupil’, Educational Research and Evaluation, 3(2): 119–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1380361970030202, and (1984) Effective Classroom Management, London: Croom Helm.and (1999) Learning and pedagogy in communities of practice, in Leach, J. and Moon, B. (eds) Learners and Pedagogy, Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1999) Recreating pedagogy, in Leach, J. and Moon, B. (eds) Learners and Pedagogy, Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1996) Conceptual links between cognitive acceleration through science education and motivational style: a critique of Adey and Shayer, International Journal of Science Education, 18 (1): 35–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069960180103and (1994) Cognitive approaches to group work, in Kutnick, P. and Rogers, C. (eds) Groups in Schools, London: Cassell.and (1997) Help squads for 18 worst schools, Electronic TelegraphIssue 726, 21 May.(1980) Philosophy in the Classroom, Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press., and (1990) A Theory of Goal-setting and Task Performance, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.and (1975) Schoolteacher, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2004) A Life in Secondary Teaching: Finding Time for Learning, London, NUT.and ([Page 139]2002) Self Evaluation: What's in it for Schools?Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer.and (2006) The Costs of Inclusion: A Study of Inclusion Policy and Practice in English Primary, Secondary and Special Schools, University of Cambridge: Faculty of Education for the National Union of Teachers (NUT)., , , and (2002) An investigation of children's musical collaborations: the effect of friendship and age, Psychology of Music, 30 (2): 148–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0305735602302002, and (1989) Age and sex effects in multiple dimensions of self-concept: pre-adolescence to early adulthood, Journal of Educational Psychology, 81: 417–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0622.214.171.1247(2002) Learning: the pupil's voice, Cambridge Journal of Education, 30 (2): 275–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713657145, and (1999) From Thinking Skills to Thinking Classrooms: A Review and Evaluation of Approaches for Developing Pupils’ Thinking Skills, DfEE Research Report RR115, Nottingham: Department for Education and Employment.(2000) ACTS: a methodology for teaching thinking skills, Teaching Thinking, 2 (1): 1–12.(1997) Final report on the ACTS (Activating Children's Thinking Skills) project, Phase 2, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Curriculum Examination and Assessment., , , and (2006) The impact of motivational ‘world-view’ on engagement in a cognitive acceleration programme, International Journal of Science Education, 28 (7): 781–819. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500690600621050(1993) The Child as a Thinker: The Development and Acquisition of Cognition in Childhood, Abingdon: Routledge.(2000) Words and Minds: How we use Language to Think Together, Abingdon: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203464984(1999) Children's talk and the development of reasoning in the classroom, British Educational Research Journal, 25 (1): 95–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192990250107, and (2004) Reasoning as a scientist: ways of helping children to use language to learn science, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (3): 359–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920410001689689, , and (1997) Cognitive development 7–11, in Kitson, N. and Merry, R. (eds) Teaching in the Primary School: A Learning Relationship, Abingdon: Routledge.(1992) The transition to middle level schools: making it a good experience, Middle School Journal, 24: 5–13.and (2004) Personalised learning: building a new relationship with schools, Speech by the Minister of State for School Standards, North of England Education Conference, Belfast, 8 January.(1995) The effects of strategy training on high school science students learning from science texts, European Journal of Psychology of Education, 10 (4): 401–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03172929and (2005) Thinking skill frameworks for use in education and training, British Educational Research Journal, 31 (3): 367–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920500082219, , and (1989) Just Playing? The Role and Status of Play in Early Childhood Education, Buckingham: Open University Press.(1998) Praise for intelligence can undermine children's motivation and performance, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75 (1): 33–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199and ([Page 140]National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (1999) All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education, London: DfES.1985) Teachers’ Evaluative Standards and Student Effort, New York: Longman.and (1991) Classroom Non-verbal Communication, Abingdon: Routledge.(1990) Qualities of thoughtful social studies classes: an empirical profile, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 22: 253–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022027900220304(Newmann, F. (ed.) (1992) Student Engagement and Achievement in American Secondary Schools, New York: Teachers College Press.2000) Teaching for Understanding, Abingdon: RoutledgeFalmer.(2005) The Inevitable Corruption of Indicators and Educators through High Stakes Testing, Education Policy Research Unit (EPSL-0503–101-EPRU), Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.and (1997) The Nature of Expertise in Professional Acting: A Cognitive View, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and (NUT/NCA (2002) Creativity in Education, A report of a jointly sponsored conference by the National Union of Teachers and the National Campaign for the Arts held at Tate Britain and the London Institute, Wednesday, 3 July.2000) The role of memory in the acquisition and retention of knowledge in science and social studies units, Cognition and Instruction, 18 (1): 83–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532690XCI1801_04(2004) Relating classroom teaching to student learning: a critical analysis of why research has failed to bridge the theory-practice gap, Harvard Educational Review, 74 (3): 273–306.(1993) Predicting learning from student experience of teaching: a theory of student knowledge construction in classrooms, American Educational Research Journal, 30 (4): 799–840.and (1995) Assessing classroom learning: how students use their knowledge and experience to answer classroom achievement test questions in science and social studies, American Educational Research Journal, 32 (1): 165–223.and (Ofsted (2002a) The Curriculum in Successful Primary Schools, London: Office for Standards in Education.Ofsted (2002b) The National Literacy Strategy: The First Four Years, 1998–2002, London: Office for Standards in Education.Ofsted (2002c) The National Numeracy Strategy: The First Three Years, 1999–2002, London: Office for Standards in Education.Ofsted (2004) Annual Report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Schools 2003–4, London: The Stationery Office.1984) Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities, Cognition and Instruction, 1 (2): 117–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532690xci0102_1and (1999) Designing collaborative contexts: lessons from three research programs, in O'Donnell, A. and King, A. (eds) Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and ([Page 141]1990) Promoting Metacognition and Motivation of Exceptional Children, Remedial and Special Education, 11 (6): 7–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074193259001100604and (2002) The role of metacognition knowledge in learning, teaching and assessing, Theory into Practice, 41 (4): 219–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_3(1985) The Social Word of the Primary Classroom, London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.(2000) What Pupils Say: Changing Policy and Practice in Primary Education, London: Continuum.and with , and (1997) Teacher learning: implications for new views on cognition, in Biddle, B., Good, T. and Goodson, I. (eds) The International Handbook of Teachers and Teaching, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.and (1996) Cooperative Learning and peer acceptance of pupils with learning disabilities, Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 741–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1996.9712250, , and (2000) Should pedagogical change be mandated at times?, Journal of Educational Change, 1 (2): 193–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010032426797(1996) Worlds Apart? A Review of International Surveys of Achievement Involving England, London: HMSO.and (1991) You Know the Fair Rule: Strategies for Making the Hard Job of Discipline in School Easier, Harlow: Longman.(1979) Content, time and direct instruction, in Peterson, P. and Walberg, H. (eds) Research on Teaching Concepts, Findings and Implications, Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.(1987) Direct instruction, in Dunkin, M. (ed.) Teaching and Teacher Education, Oxford: Pergamon.(1996) Teaching students to generate questions: a review of intervention studies, Review of Educational Research, 66 (2): 181–221., and (2002) Talking to understand science, in Brophy, J. (ed.) Social Constructivist Teaching: Affordances and Constraints, New York: Elsevier.(1986) Wait time: slowing down may be a way of speeding up, Journal of Teacher Education, 37 (1): 43–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248718603700110(2002) The transformative potential of consulting young people about teaching, learning and schooling, Scottish Education Review, 34 (2): 123–37.(2003) Consulting pupils about teaching and learning, in Learning Texts, Nottingham: National College for School Leadership (NCSL).(1996) School Improvement, What Can Pupils Tell Us?London: David Fulton., and (2004) How to Improve your School: Giving Pupils a Voice, London: Continuum.and (1977) Should I ask for help? The role of motivation and attitudes in adolescents’ help seeking in math class, Journal of Educational Psychology, 89: 329–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.529and (1989) Rocky roads to transfer: rethinking mechanisms of a neglected phenomenon, Educational Psychology, 24: 113–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep2402_1and ([Page 142]1995) Gender, ethnic and socio-economic differences in attainment and progress: a longitudinal analysis of student achievement over 9 years, British Educational Research Journal, 21 (4): 465–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192950210403(1994) Key Characteristics of Effective Schools: A Review of School Effectiveness Research, London: Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted)., and (1993) Differential school effectiveness: results from a re-analysis of the Inner London Education Authority Junior School Project data, British Educational Research Journal, 19 (3): 381–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192930190407, and (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1983) Ability versus effort attributional feedback: differential effects on self-efficacy and achievement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 75: 848–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-06184.108.40.2068(1980) Cooperative learning in small groups: recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes and ethnic relations, Review of Educational Research, 50 (4): 241–71.(1992) Expanding Cooperative Learning through Group Investigation, New York: Teachers College Press.and (1997) Piaget and Vygotsky: a necessary marriage for effective educational intervention, in Smith, L., Dockrell, J. and Tomlison, P. (eds), Piaget, Vygotsky and Beyond, Abingdon: Routledge.(1993) Productivity loss in performance groups: a motivational analysis, Psychological Bulletin, 113 (1): 67–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.67(1986) Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching, Educational Researcher, 15 (2): 4–14.(1987) Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform, Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1): 1–22.(1995) Using activity analysis to investigate primary classroom environments, British Educational Research Journal, 21 (1): 49–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192950210104(1981) Why no pedagogy in England?, in Simon, B. and Taylor, W. (eds) Education in the Eighties: The Central Issues, pp. 124–45. London: Batsford.(1983) When does cooperative learning increase student achievement?, Psychological Bulletin, 94 (3), 429–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.3.429(1995) Cooperative Learning: Theory, Research and Practice(2nd edn, Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.2004) Interactive whole class teaching in the national literacy and numeracy strategies, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (3): 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411920410001689706, , and (2002) Thinking skills: the question of generality, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34: 659–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220270110119905(1995) Comment on Vygotsky's criticisms of language and thought of the child and judgement and reasoning in the child, by Jean Piaget (translated byLeslieSmith), New Ideas in Psychology, 13 (3): 325–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0732-118X%2895%2900010-E(1999) What exactly is constructivism in education?, Studies in Science Education, 33: 149–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057269908560144(2003) What is an expert student?, Educational Researcher, 32 (8): 5–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X032008005(1994) Infusing Critical and Creative thinking into Content Instruction: Selections from the Elementary and Secondary Lesson Design Handbooks, Forest Grool, CA: Critical Thinking Press and Software.and ([Page 143]1997) Do we need to train teachers to administer praise? Self-worth theory says we do, Learning and Instruction, 7 (1): 49–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752%2896%2980730-4(TLRP (2006) Personalised Learning: A Commentary by the Teaching and Learning Research Programme, at http://www.tlrp.org/documents/personalised_learning_pdf2005) Education in a Post-welfare Society(2nd edn, Maidenhead: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill.1996) Teacher feedback to young children in formative assessment: a typology, British Educational Research Journal, 22 (4): 389–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192960220402and (2004) Are standards rising in English primary schools?, British Educational Research Journal, 30(4): 477–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192042000237194(2003) Celebrating of the success of distributed research with schools: the CEM Centre, Durham, British Educational Research Journal, 29 (5): 639–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000133686and (2001) Standards, achievement and educational performance: a cause for celebration?, in Phillips, R. and Furlong, J. (eds) Education, Reform and the State: 25 Years of Politics, Policy and Practice, Abingdon: Routledge.and (2005) Introduction: education and the Labour Government, Oxford Review of Education, 31 (1): 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305498042000337156(2003) Learning: A Sense-maker's Guide, London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).(2005) Classrooms as Learning Communities: What's in it for Schools?Abingdon: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203390719(2000) Improving School Behaviour, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.and (1999) Pedagogy: what do we know?, in Mortimore, P. (ed.) Understanding Pedagogy and its Impact on Learning, London: Paul Chapman Publishing.and (2001) Communicating, Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Project Network Newsletter (2): 1.(1985) Student interaction and learning in small groups: a research summary, in Slavin, R., Sharan, S., Kagan, S., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Webb, N. and Schmuck, R. (eds) Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn, New York: Plenum.(1989) Peer interaction and learning in small groups, International Journal of Educational Research, 13: 21–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0883-0355%2889%2990014-1(2003) Promoting effective helping behaviour in peer directed groups, International Journal of Educational Research, 39 (1–2): 79–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355%2803%2900074-0and (2006) Coming Full Circle? The Impact of New Labour's Education Policies on Primary School Teachers’ Work, London: Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL).and (1995) Managing the Literacy Curriculum: How Schools can become Communities of Readers and Writers, Abingdon: Routledge., and (1992) Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theory and Research, London: Sage.(2006) Individualised learning? Let's cut the conclusion, Times Educational Supplement, News & Opinion section, 7 July(1994) Student cognition in learning from teaching, in Husen, T. and Postlewaite, T. (eds) International Encyclopaedia of Educationand ([Page 144]2nd edn, Oxford: Pergamon.1998) How Children Think and Learn(2nd edn, Oxford: Blackwell.1996) Researching the Art of Teaching, Abingdon: Routledge.(1997) Restructuring Schools, Reconstructing Teachers, Buckingham: Open University Press., , and (2003) Ex-head jailed for exam forgery, Guardian, 8 March, http://www.education.guardian.co.uk/schools/story/0„90010,00.html(2000) Self-regulation: directions and challenges for future research, in Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. and Zeidner, M. (eds) Handbook of Self-regulation, London: Academic Press., and (